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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That travertine is 1. hard calcareous mineral deposited by flowing water, that is the same as the calcareous variety of sinter and comparable to the softer tufa. the term is normally used only for deposits formed outside caves, where plants and algae cause the precipitation by extracting carbon dioxide from the water and give travertine its porous structure. travertine forms most commonly on waterfalls that build up like gour dams. famous examples include those at plitvice in croatia, dunn's river falls in jamaica, and, largest of all, band-i-amir in afghanistan [9]. 2. calcium carbonate, caco3, light in color and generally concretionary and compact, deposited from solution in ground and surface waters. extremely porous or cellular varieties are known as calcareous tufa, calcareous sinter, or spring deposit. compact banded varieties, capable of taking a polish, are called onyx marble or cave onyx [10]. 3. generally compact calcium carbonate rock formed by precipitation of soluble bicarbonates when equilibrium is lost due to changes in temperature and chemical characteristics. soft, porous variety is called calcareous tufa [20]. synonyms: (french.) travertin; (german.) kalktuff, sinter, travertin; (greek.) travertinis/asvestolithikos toffos; (italian.) travertino; (russian.) travertin; (spanish.) travertino, toba; (turkish.) traverten, sutasi; (yugoslavian.) sedra, travertin, bigar, lehnjak. related to sinter and tufa.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Your search for hydrodynamique (Keyword) returned 7 results for the whole karstbase:
Les Mts. de Pardailhan, tude hydrodynamique et hydro-chimique (Montagne Noire, Hrault), 1986, Guyot, J. L.
THE PARDAILHAN MOUNTAINS: HYDRODYNAMIC AND HYDROCHEMICAL STUDY OF KARSTIC SPRINGS OF POUSSAROU AND MALIBERT - The hydrogeological study of the Monts de Pardailhan carried out in collaboration with the Regional Service of Development Water (Montpellier), has allowed the definition of the systems of flow of the principal courses of water and sources of this region to become apparent. The hydrodynamic analysis of the two main karstic springs, Poussarou and Malibert, showed, thanks to the utilisation of different methods (sorted discharge, variograms) that these sources have different systems of flow. The hydrochemical study confirmed this difference of behavioural patterns towards the outlet.

Impact des proprits hydrodynamiques du substrat karstique sur la nature du sol en milieu mditerranen, 1989, Verheye, W. H.
The impact of the hydrodynamic properties of the karst substratum over the soil characteristic in mediterranean areas - The weathering and pedogenetic evolution on limestones in mediterranean areas leads to the formation of a more or less decarbonated red soil. This evolution passes through successive stages of decarbonatation, rubification and decalcification and can be associated with a colour change, which includes lithochromic, brown and red phases. It is obviously influenced by the hydrodynamic properties of the soils and by the underground drainage characteristics of the substratum: hence soils developed over almost impermeable marly limestones remain at the lithochromic and/or brown levels, and decarbonatation remains weak; on hard and fractured limestones, pedogenesis is much more active and, even if the weathering volume on this rather pure rocks is small, the soil profile becomes almost completely devoid of free lime; under certain conditions a slight decalcification of the soil sorption complex may even be observed.

Convolution a debit variable a partir des reponses de tracages artificiels; application a un systeme karstique (Causse de Gramat, Lot, France): Convolution in time-dependent system from artificial tra, 1995, Dzikowski M, Delay F, Sauty Jp, Crampon N, De Marsily G,
ResumeLa realisation de tracages artificiels dans des conditions hydrodynamiques differentes sur le systeme karstique de I'Ouysse (Causse de Gamat, France) ainsi que de mesures physicochimiques portant entre autres sur les chlorures, nitrates et matieres en suspension ont permis d'exploiter les possibilites de l'analyse des systemes-tracages dependant du temps. Pour des tracages artificiels realises a des periodes hydrologiques differentes (basses-eaux et hauteseaux), les relations entre les reponses impulsionnelles a l'injection instantanee de traceur et les debits d'ecoulement variables associes sont mises en evidence sur un systeme a deux entrees (pertes de Themines et Theminettes) et une sortie (gouffre de Besaces). Ces relations etablissent une independance entre l'espace occupe par le traceur au cours de son transfert et les conditions hydrodynamiques dans la gamme de debits interessant chaque tracage. Des operations de convolutions d'entrees en chlorures, nitrates et matieres en suspension, basses sur l'hypothese d'un systeme a volume constant dependant du temps ont donc pu etre realisees. Les resultats sont compares au mesures experimentales au point de sortie (Besaces).AbstractArtificial tracer tests conducted under different hydrodynamic conditions on the karst system of Ouysse (Causse de Gramat, France) and chemical measurements have permitted the use of the time-dependent tracer test analysis. For artificial tracer experiments in different hydrologic periods (water rise and high flow), the relationships between the responses to an instantaneous injection are improved in a system defined by two inputs (losses of Themines and Theminettes). They show that the space occupied by the mass of tracer during its transfer can be considered as independent of the discharge according to the range of flow rate in which the tracer experiments have been conducted. Therefore, convolutions on chlorides, nitrates and suspended sediments are simulated under the hypothesis of a constant-volume and time-dependent system. The computed results are compared with the experimental data at the output (cave of Besaces)

Modelling of the functioning of karst aquifers with a reservoir model: Application to Fontaine de Vaucluse (South of France), 2007, Fleury Perrine Plagnes Valé, Rie Bakalowicz Michel
This work deals with a rainfall-discharge model applied to a well known karst aquifer. A new approach is developed in order to minimize the fitting parameters: here, some of the model parameters do not result from a simple fitting, as it was the case with earlier models, i.e., some of them were assessed from the hydrograph analysis. The conceptual model of the functioning is based on a production function based on a simple calculation of effective rainfall and a transfer function consisting of two reservoirs. A slow discharge reservoir transfers the low flow and a rapid discharge reservoir feeds the high flow. The model has three fitted parameters plus one for its initialisation. Three parameters are deduced from the hydrograph analysis over the entire time series. For example, the recession coefficient of the slow discharge reservoir is determined from the hydrodynamic analysis of the recession [Mangin, A., 1975. Contribution à l?étude hydrodynamique des aquifères karstiques. 3ème partie. Constitution et fonctionnement des aquifères karstiques. Annales de Spéléologie, 30 (1), 210?124]. This model was tested over a ten years period on the Fontaine de Vaucluse French karst system. The first hydrological year is used for fitting the model; the nine other cycles validate the modelling. The good quality of the model is proved by the Nash criterion of 92.3% on the validation period. Moreover, the simulation results were validated by a statistical analysis of measured and simulated time series. The model successfully simulates both the high and low flow at the same time. Also it estimates the water volumes available in the different parts of the aquifer and it proposes a management tool capable of predicting the evolution of the discharge in different climate conditions.

Interactions hydrodynamiques surface/souterrain en milieu karstique [Surface water/Groundwater hydrodynamic interactions in karst watersheds], PhD Thesis, 2008, Baillycomte, Vincent

Ce travail de these s’inscrit dans la problematique generale de la caracterisation de l’alea inondation. Plus precisement, cette etude cherche a caracteriser l’influence des eaux souterraines sur la genese et la propagation des crues en surface dans les cas d’un bassin versant a forte composante karstique. Le site experimental du bassin versant du Coulazou, riviere temporaire qui traverse le massif karstique du Causse d’Aumelas a l’Ouest de Montpellier a ete retenu pour etudier de maniere approfondie les interactions entre les ecoulements de surface et les ecoulements souterrains en situation de crue.

L’etude hydrodynamique de ce systeme karst/riviere s’appuie sur un dispositif experimental adapte a l’observation des phenomenes hydrologiques (pluie, ruissellement) et hydrogeologiques (piezometrie en forage et dans les drains karstiques, suivi hydrodynamique des exutoires du systeme) tres rapides et tres intenses. La dynamique de ces ecoulements est liee au contexte climatique Mediterraneen mais aussi aux structures de drainage en surface et en souterrain qui permettent un transfert et un transit tres rapide des eaux au sein du systeme karst/riviere.

Une description hydrodynamique classique est completee par une approche fonctionnelle des echanges karst/riviere dans le but de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement hydrodynamique d’un tel systeme et de mettre en avant des indicateurs utilisables dans une demarche de modelisation des echanges surface/souterrain. Un premier modele est presente dans la derniere partie de ce document.

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This work aims at assessing the flooding hazard. More precisely, the study focuses on the influence of groundwater on the genesis and propagation of surface flows in the case of a highly karstified watershed. The experimental site of the Coulazou River, a temporary River which crosses the karstified formation of the Causse d’Aumelas (western Montpellier) has been selected to study hydrodynamic interactions between surface flows and groundwater flows during flood.

The hydrodynamic study of this karst/River system is based on a suitable experimental monitoring of both fast and intense hydrological (rain, runoff) and hydrogeological (water level in wells and karst drains, discharge measurements at the main outlets of the system) phenomenon. The specific hydrological response of this watershed is due to the Mediterranean climate but also to surface and underground drainage structures which allow very fast water flows within the karst/river system.

A common hydrodynamic description is followed by a functional approach of karst/river exchanges in order (i) to better understand the hydrodynamic behaviour of such a system and (ii) to highlight some indicators that can be used in a modelling approach. A first conceptual model of surface water/groundwater exchanges in karst terranes is presented in the latter part of the manuscript.
 


The primokarst, former stages of karstification, or how solution caves can born, 2014, Rodet, J.

The historical approach of the karst always gave preferential treatment to the study of the superficial phenomena or underground cavities explored by human. However as demonstrated by hydrogeologists, the main karst development keep out of reach because of the too small sizing of drains or due to its filling. Consequently appears the question about the inception drain, the way used by the water from the sink hole to reach its resurgence. Some authors consider this primary link as obvious when the practice demonstrates clearly that the hydrodynamic continuity results of a very long, complex and selective evolution, essentially geochemical. This is the field of the drain inception stages, that we can spell “prekarst” or “primokarst”. Those stages include the successive fields of isalterite and alloterite. This last one opens by compaction a free space and allows a concentrated hydrodynamic flow. These processes, at the origin of the endokarst initiation, can develop on the side of synchronous mechanical dynamics if in the same drain or under a regolith coverage, something divides the bedrock and the quick flow. Without any doubt, this is the purview of the cryptokarst and of the cave walls under filling. We can observe it in the progradation front of the introduction karst or in the retrogradation front of the restitution karst.


Caractérisation et modélisation hydrodynamique des karsts par réseaux de neurones. Application à l’hydrosystème du Lez , 2014, Virgile, Taver

Improving knowledge of karst hydrodynamics represents a global challenge for water resources because karst aquifers provide approximately 25% of the world population in fresh water. Nevertheless, complexity, anisotropy, heterogeneity, non-linearity and possible non-stationarity of these aquifers make them underexploited objects due to the difficulty to characterize their morphology and hydrodynamics. In this context, the systemic paradigm proposes others methods by studying these hydrosystems through input-output (rainfall-runoff) relations.

The approach proposed in this thesis is to use information from field measurement and from systemic analyses to constrain neural network models. The goal is to make these models interpretable in terms of hydrodynamic processes by making model functioning to be similar to natural system in order to obtain a good representation and extract knowledge from model parameters.

This work covers the association of information available on the hydrosystem with correlation and spectral analyses to develop a temporal multiresolution decomposition of variables and to constrain neural network models. A new method for variable selection, adapted to represent long term hydrodynamics of the system, has been proposed. These constrained models show very good results and allow, through their parameters, to study the temporal contribution of inputs variables to the output.

Modeling nonlinear and non-stationary hydrosystems with neural network has been improved by a novel implementation of data assimilation. More precisely, when non-stationarity is attributed to the catchment, data assimilation is used to modify the model parameters. When the inputs are non-stationary, data assimilation can be used to modify the inputs.

The modification of inputs opens considerable scope to: i) fill gaps or homogenizing time series, ii) estimate effective rainfall.

Finally, these various analyses and modeling methods, mainly developed on the karst hydrosystem Lez, can improve the knowledge of the rainfall-runoff relationship at different time scales. These methodological tools thus offer perspectives of better management of the aquifer in terms of floods and resources. The advantage of these analyses and modeling tools is that they can be applicable to other systems.


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