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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That suunto clinometer (registered TM) is a small, handheld pendulum clinometer commonly used in cave survey [25].?

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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for hydrothermal karst (Keyword) returned 47 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 47
On the possible hydrothermal origin of the Dziura Cave (Tatra Mts.). [in Polish], 1978, Bacmoszaszwili Maria, Rudnicki Jan

Hydrathermal karst in Alpine folded belt of southern part of USSR, 1980, Dublyanskiy, Victornikalayevich

The role of hydrothermal karst processes in the emplacement of sulfide ores, 1982, Sassgustkiewicz Maria, D?u?y?ski Stanis?aw

Origin of the hydrothermal karstic phenomena in the Buda-Hills (Hungary), 1984, Kovacs Judit, Mller Pal

Effect of mining activity on thermal karst springs (Transdanubian Range, Hungary), 1984, Mller Pal, Sarvary Istvan

Regularities of the formation and modelling of hydrothermal karst, 1990, Dubljansky Ju. V.

DIAGENESIS AND MINERALIZATION PROCESSES IN DEVONIAN CARBONATE ROCKS OF THE SIDING-GUDAN LEAD-ZINC MINERAL SUBDISTRICT, GUANGXI, SOUTHWEST CHINA, 1991, Schneider W. , Geng A. Q. , Liu X. Z. ,
The lead-zinc ore deposits of the Siding-Gudan mineral subdistrict Guangxi are part of the large Nanling district of South China, and hosted in Devonian carbonate rocks. The ore bodies occur significantly along main faults and fault zones, and concentrate up to 300 meters above the Cambrian/Devonian unconformity. Connected with hydrothermal karst, size and volume of the ore bodies increase in proximity to this unconformity. Moving from the unaffected host rocks to the center of the ore bodies, four zones can be discriminated by the mineral assemblage (pyrite, sphalerite, galena) as well as by the degree of ordering, Ca/Mg, and Fe/Mn ratios of different dolomites. Homogenization temperatures range from 80-100-degrees-C (Presqu'ile dolomite) to 230-260-degrees-C (massive sphalerite). The sulfides reveal delta-S-34 = -20 to parts per thousand, and fluid inclusions display a salinity of 5-12 wt % equivalent NaCl. The diagenetic and hydrothermal history is similar to that of classic Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) sulfide mineral deposits as, for example, Pine Point in Canada. Mineralization and remobilization of the sulfides took place during a wide time span from late Paleozoic through Mesozoic. Both processes are considered as an interaction of saline basinal brines ascended from the adjoining dewatering trough, and magmatic-hydrothermal fluids of several magmatic-tectonic events

La grotte de la Movile (Dobroudja, Roumanie) : analyses _minralogiques, 1993, Diaconu G. , Morar M.
The authors present the results of X-ray analyses which, in the Movile cave, give evidence of the presence of a mineralogical association made up of calcite, aragonite, ankerite and quartz. They also take into consideration the conditions of a specific genesis for this cave which has been particularly affected by sulphurous thermomineral waters.

Speleogenetic history of the Hungarian hydrothermal karst, 1995, Dublyansky Yv,

The evolution of karst and caves in the Konûprusy region Bohemian Karst, Czech Republic), Part II: Hydrothermal paleokarst, 1998, Bosak, Pavel

The origin of hydrothermal karst cavities was connected with the Variscan hydrothermal process. The cavities were formed and filled by crystalline calcite. The process was accompanied by the intensive dolomitisation. Younger phase of hydrothermal karstification was not connected with vein-filling, but with the deep circulation of groundwater, probably associated with neovolcanic activity in the Bohemian Massif. This is supported by pollen grains and decomposed volcanic ash in speleothems which were formed after the major phases of speleogenesis. It is supposed that caves in the Konûprusy Devonian were formed in confined aquifer under phreatic and batyphreatic conditions. Thermal conditions appeared when paleogeothermic gradient was increased due to intensive neovolcanic activity. Hydrothermal karstification partly changed the morphology of caves. The maximum temperatures were stated to 60-700 C from large calcite crystals precipitated under phreatic and deeply phreatic conditions. The piezometric level was situated above limestones in Upper Cretaceous platform siliciclastics as indicated by numerous subvertical phreatic tubes („depressions") filled with sunkened Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments after the water buyoancy support decreased. Popcorn-like silicified Konûprusy Rosettes can be result of decrease of thermal water level and mixing with infiltrating meteoric waters. Outer zones of large calcite crystals with precipitation temperatures of about 400 C can indicate the gradual cooling of the whole system.


Organic matter in the Upper Silesian (Mississippi Valley-type) Zn-Pb deposits, Poland, 1999, Sassgustkiewicz M. , Kwiecinska B. ,
Organic matter contained in large amounts in the Upper Silesian Zn-Pb ore deposits has been identified as dopplerite-calcium humate. This humic, amorphous substance was precipitated from humic acids by calcium ion loading. The precipitation of dopplerite was contemporaneous with sulfide deposition at the time of initial and mature karst processes. The hydrothermal karst dissolution supplied calcium ions but the source of humic acids is still conjectural. The geochemical data indicate that the most probable source for the organic matter deposited in the Zn-Pb ores are overlying Triassic Keuper shales containing dispersed humic organic substance

The Vazante zinc mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil; constraints in willemitic mineralization and fluid evolution, 1999, Lena Virginia Soares Monteiro, Jorge Silva Bettencourt, Baruch Spiro, Rodnei Graca, And Tolentino Flavio De Oliveira
The Vazante Mine is located in the Vazante District, the largest zinc district in Brazil. The Vazante deposit consists dominantly of an unusual willemitic ore. Small sulfide bodies are tectonically imbricated with the willemitic ore, within the Vazante shear zone. Structural styles of deformation and petrographic and isotopic evidence indicate that willemitic mineralization and deformation occurred synchronously during the Neo-Proterozoic. Various generations of hydrothermal veins and hydraulic breccias may pre-date, accompany and overprint the mineralization. Ore-formation temperatures are deduced from stable isotope geothermometry and mineral chemistry of both sulfide bodies and willemitic ore. Temperatures during the main stage of mineralization range from 206 degrees C to 294 degrees C (willemitic ore) and 317 degrees C (sulfides), and reflect the prevailing metamorphic conditions within the shear zone. The fluid from which the gangue minerals of the sulfide bodies precipitated (at 250 degrees C) had an oxygen isotopic average value of delta 18 O = +19.4 per mil. This value appears to reflect the interaction of metamorphic fluid with the carbonate rocks of the Vazante formation. At 250 degrees C, the fluid in equilibrium with the vein mineral phases and willemitic ore assemblage exhibits a uniform oxygen isotopic composition, with an average value of delta 18 O = +11.5 per mil. The positive linear covariance of delta 18 O and delta 13 C ratios of the carbonates is most likely due to the mixing of metamorphic and meteoric fluids. The delta 34 S values of sulfides indicate a direct crustal origin for the sulfur. It is suggested that the sulfur is largely derived from pre-existing sulfide bodies and has been transported by metamorphic fluids. The willemitic ore may have originated from the precipitation of metal in sulfur-poor fluids under oxidized conditions, within the Vazante shear zone.

Hydrotermalni puvod jeskyni v Ceskem krasu: nove paradigma, 1999, Suchy V. , Zeman A.

The caves developed in Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks of the Bohemian Karst are interpreted as a result of a hydrothermal dissolution. The main evidence includes 1) a close spatial link of the caves to hydrothermal calcite veins, 2) a variety of distinctive dissolution forms indicative of non-gravitational hydrodynamics, and 3) presence of specific, exotic precipitates within the caves. Moreover, most of the features typical of the caves of the Bohemian Karst can be readily compared to those of the Zbrasov Caves of Moravia that have been known for long as a typical example of hydrothermal caves. The origin of at least some hydrothermal caves in the Bohemian Karst and elsewhere in the Czech Republic could have been tied to the circulation of warm fluids along active tectonic lineaments. A line of indirect evidence indicates that in the Bohemian Massif, transient pulses of fluid activity that were responsible for the origin of hydrothermal caves may have occurred since Tertiary period.


Karst processes along a major seismotectonic zone: an example from the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, 1999, Suchy V. , Zeman A.

Fluid movements along major north-south-trendingseismotectonic zones were responsible for the development of hydrothermal caves in limestones of the Bohemiankarst and elsewhere in the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. Many caves and caverns are closelylinked to hydrothermal calcite veins and reveal characteristiccupola-form cavities and exotic internal precipitates.A possible role of sulphuric acid speleogenesis in the origin of the caves is also discussed


Hydrothermal speleogenesis in the Hungarian karst, 2000, Dublyansky Y. V.
Hydrothermal karst caves in Hungary were formed in a variety of speleogenetic settings. The oldest small solutional cavities (vugs) were formed in the deep-seated low-gradient zone at temperatures in excess of 90 oC. The temperatures decreased with time, as inferred from fluid inclusion studies of cave calcite. The caves were formed by normal carbonate corrosion. Large two-dimensional mazes of the Buda Hills were formed in the shallow low-temperature (but still hydrothermal) setting. The leading speleogenetic processes were normal carbonate corrosion (including mixing/cooling corrosion) and sulfuric acid corrosion. Temperatures at this stage were lower: ca. 50 oC and less. Above the thermal water table, in the subaerial zone, some specific and powerful speleogenetic processes occurred; condensation corrosion (by CO2-bearing waters) and replacement corrosion involving sulfuric acid reactions. Three-dimensional bush-like caves composed of connected spherical niches were formed as the result of this subaerial karstification.

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