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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That otkryty karst is (russian.) see naked karst.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for iberian peninsula (Keyword) returned 17 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 17
On hypogean Roncocreagris (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisiidae) from Portugal, with descriptions of three new species, , Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Zaragoza Juan A. , Gonalves F. , Orom P.

Three new hypogean species of the Iberian genus Roncocreagris Mahnert, 1974 are described from mainland Portugal: R. borgesi sp. nov. and R. gepesi sp. nov. from caves in the Sicó massif, and R. occidentalis sp. nov. from caves in the Montejunto and Cesaredas karst plateau. This brings to nine the number of known hypogean species of the mostly Iberian genus Roncocreagris: five from Portugal and four from Spain. Ecological comments and new localities for some of the previously known species are also included.


Lithobius nuragicus n.sp., a new Lithobius from a Sardinian cave (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha)., 1996, Zapparoli Marzio
A new species of Lithobius from a Sardinian cave (Cagliari, Santadi, loc. Su Benatzu, Grotta "Pirosu", 576 Sa/Ca, m 270) is described. Lithobius nuragicus n. sp. belongs to the subgenus Lithobius s. str. and is related to Lithobius variegatus Leach, 1814, occurring in the British Isles, Brittany, Channel Isles, Iberian Peninsula, Maghreb, Sicily and Southern Italy. This new species is differentiated from L. variegatus by the number of prosternal teeth (3+3), the number and arrangement of ocelli (1+3; little, depigmented, not contiguous to each other, in the center of a depigmented area, posterosuperior ocellus larger than the other ocelli), the size of the organ of Tmsvry (larger), the number of antennal articles (79-86), the number of dorso-lateral and dorso-median setae and the shape and size of the claw of the female gonopods (4-5; 10-11; short, with a small lateral denticle on the internal side).

Weichselian palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment in Europe: background for palaeogroundwater formation, 2001, Vaikmae R. , Edmunds W. M. , Manzano M. ,
A review is given of palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental evidence across Europe for the Weichselian period relevant to interpreting the emplacement and circulation of groundwaters. In addition, this provides the background against which the evidence of past climates and environments contained in groundwaters in coastal areas of Europe, from the Baltic to the Atlantic Ocean may be compared. For much of the Weichselian, although significantly colder than at present, conditions were favourable for the recharge of groundwater, as shown, for example, by periods of speleothem growth. During the last glacial maximum (LGM) recharge is likely to have ceased over much of permafrost-covered Europe, although shallow groundwater recharge from meltwater (generated by the geothermal gradients) could have taken place beneath the ice where pressure relief through tunnel valleys may have occurred. Modern recharge could have started as early as 13 14C ka BP, but probably interrupted by the Younger Dryas between 11 and 10 14C ka BP. In the Baltic areas, ice-dammed lakes inhibited the start of the modern hydrogeological regimes until c. 10.3 14C ka BP. Tundra conditions prevailed over most of ice-free southern Europe at the time of the LGM. At this time the area south of the Portuguese-Spanish border retained a generally warm and relatively humid climate due to the maintenance of warmer sea-surface temperatures derived from Atlantic Ocean circulation. For most of coastal Europe, however, the most significant impact on groundwater circulation is likely to have been the lowering of sea levels that drained large areas of the shelf, such as the North Sea and the English Channel, and also had a significant impact on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula where the maximum lowering of up to 130 m would have been experienced. This, together with the general changes in climate, would also have reorganized the atmospheric chemistry over sites in Europe that is likely to be recorded in the groundwater's chemical and isotopic signatures

Urban speleology applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies: underground topographic surveying of the ancient Arca Dgua galleries catchworks (Porto, NW Portugal), 2010, Chamin H. I. , Afonso M. J. , Robalo P. M. , Rodrigues P. , Cortez C. , Monteiro Santos F. A. , Plancha J. P. , Fonseca P. E. , Gomes A. , Devyvareta N. F. , Marques J. M. , Lopes M. E. , Fontes G. , Pires A. , Rocha F.
The Porto settlement (Northwest Portugal, Iberian Peninsula) was originally built in the twelfth century and has been developed on granitic hill slopes of the Douro riverside, being one of the oldest cities in Europe. In the urban area of Porto, the second most important city of the Portuguese mainland, there is a population of about 216,000 inhabitants. This study highlights the importance of urban speleological mapping applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies. All the water that flows from the so-called Paranhos or Arca Dgua springs is captured by catchwork galleries and their utilization date back around 1120 AD. Paranhos spring galleries catchworks (c. 3,3 km extension and a -21m below ground level) was one of the main water supplies to Porto City for more than six centuries and, nowadays, these waters are still appropriate for irrigation uses. Topographical, geological, geophysical and hydrogeological data were collected and interpreted, allowing the definition of a hydrogeotechnical zoning. All these features were mapped and overlaid using GIS mapping techniques. This multidisciplinary approach offers a good potential for reliable urban speleological and geo-engineering studies of Arca Dgua site.

Palaeoenvironmental forcing during the MiddleUpper Palaeolithic transition in central-western Portugal, 2010, Aubry Thierry, Dimuccio Luca A. , Almeida Miguel, Neves Maria J. , Angelucci Diego E. , Cunha Lcio

Geoarchaeological analysis of the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic record preserved in cave, rock-shelter and open-air sites in the northern sector of the Meso-Cenozoic of the Western Iberian Peninsula margin (Portugal) reveals several disconformities (erosive unconformities), hiatuses and surface stabilization phases. A recurrent disconformity, dated to ca. 29,500–32,000 cal yr BP, in the time range of Heinrich event 3, must correspond to a main erosive event related to the impacts of climate change on the landscape, including a reduction in vegetation cover and altered precipitation patterns, with the consequent accelerated down-cutting by stream systems, slope reactivation and endokarstic reorganisation, causing the erosion of sediments and soils accumulated in cave, rock-shelter and open-air sites. These processes create a preservation bias that may explain why Early Upper Palaeolithic finds in primary deposition context remains exceptional in the carbonate areas of central-western Portugal, and possibly elsewhere in the other places of Iberia. The impact of such site formation processes must therefore be duly considered in interpretations of the current patchy and scarce archaeological record of the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western Iberia.


Urban speleology applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies: underground topographic surveying of the ancient Arca Dgua galleries catchworks (Porto, NW Portugal), 2010, Chamin H. I. , Afonso M. J. , Robalo P. M. , Rodrigues P. , Cortez C. , Monteiro Santos F. A. , Plancha J. P. , Fonseca P. E. , Gomes A. , Devyvareta N. F. , Marques J. M. , Lopes M. E. , Fontes G. , Pires A. , Rocha F.

The Porto settlement (Northwest Portugal, Iberian Peninsula) was originally built in the twelfth century and has been developed on granitic hill slopes of the Douro riverside, being one of the oldest cities in Europe. In the urban area of Porto, the second most important city of the Portuguese mainland, there is a population of about 216,000 inhabitants. This study highlights the importance of urban speleological mapping applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies. All the water that flows from the so-called Paranhos or Arca D’Água springs is captured by catchwork galleries and their utilization date back around 1120 AD. Paranhos spring galleries catchworks (c. 3,3 km extension and a -21m below ground level) was one of the main water supplies to Porto City for more than six centuries and, nowadays, these waters are still appropriate for irrigation uses. Topographical, geological, geophysical and hydrogeological data were collected and interpreted, allowing the definition of a hydrogeotechnical zoning. All these features were mapped and overlaid using GIS mapping techniques. This multidisciplinary approach offers a good potential for reliable urban speleological and geo-engineering studies of Arca D’Água site.


Diversity and community assembly patterns of epigean vs. troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula, 2012, Cardoso, Pedro

Cave-obligate organisms usually have smaller ranges and their assemblages have higher beta diversity than their epigean counterparts. Phylogenetic and functional diversity is usually low in cave communities, leading to taxonomic and functional disharmony, with entire groups missing from the subterranean realm. The objective of this work is to compare range, beta diversity, phylogenetic and functional diversity, taxonomic and functional disharmony of epigean versus troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula.
The median extent of occurrence was found to be 33 times higher for epigean than for cave species. Beta diversity was significantly higher for troglobiont assemblages. Cave assemblages present lower phylogenetic and functional diversities than expected by chance. Taxonomic disharmony was noticeable, with many speciose families, namely Gnaphosidae, Salticidae and Lycosidae, absent in caves. Functional disharmony was equally high, with ambush hunters and sensing web weavers being absent in caves.
The small range and high beta diversity of troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula is typical of many cave-obligate organisms, caused by the fragmentation and isolation of cave systems and the low vagility and high habitat specialization of species. Caves were colonized mainly by pre-adapted lineages, with high proportions of eutroglophile species. Some families no longer occur in surface habitats, possibly since the last glaciations, and currently are restricted to caves in the region. Few hunting strategies and web types are efficient in caves and these dominate among the troglobiont species.
As troglobiont communities are of low alpha diversity, with low functional redundancy, have narrow ranges, present high levels of population fragmentation and are taxonomically unique, they should present higher proportions of imperilled species than epigean spiders in the Iberian Peninsula. Some species are probably endangered and require urgent conservation measures.


Biodiversity and conservation of subterranean fauna fromPortuguese karst. Ph.D. Thesis, 2012, Ana Sofia Reboleira

This research is a contribution to the study of subterranean biodiversity in karst areas of Portugal, towards its conservation.

The relative inaccessibility of the subterranean environment is a challenge for the study of its fauna, often accessible only in caves but more widely distributed. The subterranean animals are among the most rare, threatened and worldwide underprotected, often by the simple fact of being unknown.

Karst areas of Portugal occupy a considerable part of the territory and harbor more than 2000 caves. The complex biogeographical history of the Iberian Peninsula allowed the survival of several relict arthropod refugees in the subterranean environment.

Subterranean invertebrates have been ignored, as for as the protection of karst systems are concerned in Portugal, largely because knowledge was scarce and disorganized. Reviewing all the bibliographic sources about subterranean fauna from Portugal and listing troglobiont and stygobiont species and locations, was essential to understand the state of knowledge of species richness and the biogeography and conservation status for the studied areas.

In order to understand subterranean biodiversity patterns in karst areas from Portugal, one year of intense fieldwork was performed in more than 40 caves from 14 karst units. Several new species for science were discovered and 7 taxa comprising 2 new genera and 5 new species were described.

Bearing in mind that spatial distribution of subterranean species is crucial to ecological research and conservation, the distribution of hypogean species, from Portuguese karst areas, was mapped using geographic information systems. Also, its subterranean richness was compared with other areas of the world and missing species were estimated on a regional scale. The subterranean biodiversity patterns were analyzed, and several factors were tested to explain richness patterns. Evapotranspiration and the consequent high productivity on the surface may be determinant in the species richness in the different karst units of Portugal, but the depth of the caves and the unique geological features of every massif seemed to play a more important role.

In order to evaluate the tolerance of organisms to groundwater contamination, the acute toxicity of two substances were tested on stygobiont crustaceans with different degrees of troglomorphism. Our study showed that the high levels of endemism contribute to remarkably different toxicological responses within the same genus.

The major problems related to conservation of subterranean habitats were associated to direct destruction and their contamination. These ecosystems lack of specific protection, implying an adequate management of surface habitats and the establishment of priority areas. Integrating all the previous information, this study establishes a ranking of sites for conservation of subterranean fauna in karst areas of Portugal.This research is a contribution to the study of subterranean biodiversity in karst areas of Portugal, towards its conservation.

The relative inaccessibility of the subterranean environment is a challenge for the study of its fauna, often accessible only in caves but more widely distributed. The subterranean animals are among the most rare, threatened and worldwide underprotected, often by the simple fact of being unknown.

Karst areas of Portugal occupy a considerable part of the territory and harbor more than 2000 caves. The complex biogeographical history of the Iberian Peninsula allowed the survival of several relict arthropod refugees in the subterranean environment.

Subterranean invertebrates have been ignored, as for as the protection of karst systems are concerned in Portugal, largely because knowledge was scarce and disorganized. Reviewing all the bibliographic sources about subterranean fauna from Portugal and listing troglobiont and stygobiont species and locations, was essential to understand the state of knowledge of species richness and the biogeography and conservation status for the studied areas.

In order to understand subterranean biodiversity patterns in karst areas from Portugal, one year of intense fieldwork was performed in more than 40 caves from 14 karst units. Several new species for science were discovered and 7 taxa comprising 2 new genera and 5 new species were described.

Bearing in mind that spatial distribution of subterranean species is crucial to ecological research and conservation, the distribution of hypogean species, from Portuguese karst areas, was mapped using geographic information systems. Also, its subterranean richness was compared with other areas of the world and missing species were estimated on a regional scale. The subterranean biodiversity patterns were analyzed, and several factors were tested to explain richness patterns. Evapotranspiration and the consequent high productivity on the surface may be determinant in the species richness in the different karst units of Portugal, but the depth of the caves and the unique geological features of every massif seemed to play a more important role.

In order to evaluate the tolerance of organisms to groundwater contamination, the acute toxicity of two substances were tested on stygobiont crustaceans with different degrees of troglomorphism. Our study showed that the high levels of endemism contribute to remarkably different toxicological responses within the same genus.

The major problems related to conservation of subterranean habitats were associated to direct destruction and their contamination. These ecosystems lack of specific protection, implying an adequate management of surface habitats and the establishment of priority areas. Integrating all the previous information, this study establishes a ranking of sites for conservation of subterranean fauna in karst areas of Portugal.


Biodiversity and conservation of subterranean fauna of Portuguese karst. Ph.D. thesis, 2012, Ana Sofia P. S. Reboleira

This research is a contribution to the study of subterranean biodiversity in karst areas of Portugal, towards its conservation.

The relative inaccessibility of the subterranean environment is a challenge for the study of its fauna, often accessible only in caves but more widely distributed. The subterranean animals are among the most rare, threatened and worldwide underprotected, often by the simple fact of being unknown.

Karst areas of Portugal occupy a considerable part of the territory and harbor more than 2000 caves. The complex biogeographical history of the Iberian Peninsula allowed the survival of several relict arthropod refugees in the subterranean environment.

Subterranean invertebrates have been ignored, as for as the protection of karst systems are concerned in Portugal, largely because knowledge was scarce and disorganized. Reviewing all the bibliographic sources about subterranean fauna from Portugal and listing troglobiont and stygobiont species and locations, was essential to understand the state of knowledge of species richness and the biogeography and conservation status for the studied areas.

In order to understand subterranean biodiversity patterns in karst areas from Portugal, one year of intense fieldwork was performed in more than 40 caves from 14 karst units. Several new species for science were discovered and 7 taxa comprising 2 new genera and 5 new species were described.

Bearing in mind that spatial distribution of subterranean species is crucial to ecological research and conservation, the distribution of hypogean species, from Portuguese karst areas, was mapped using geographic information systems. Also, its subterranean richness was compared with other areas of the world and missing species were estimated on a regional scale. The subterranean biodiversity patterns were analyzed, and several factors were tested to explain richness patterns. Evapotranspiration and the consequent high productivity on the surface may be determinant in the species richness in the different karst units of Portugal, but the depth of the caves and the unique geological features of every massif seemed to play a more important role.

In order to evaluate the tolerance of organisms to groundwater contamination, the acute toxicity of two substances were tested on stygobiont crustaceans with different degrees of troglomorphism. Our study showed that the high levels of endemism contribute to remarkably different toxicological responses within the same genus.

The major problems related to conservation of subterranean habitats were associated to direct destruction and their contamination. These ecosystems lack of specific protection, implying an adequate management of surface habitats and the establishment of priority areas. Integrating all the previous information, this study establishes a ranking of sites for conservation of subterranean fauna in karst areas of Portugal.This research is a contribution to the study of subterranean biodiversity in karst areas of Portugal, towards its conservation.

The relative inaccessibility of the subterranean environment is a challenge for the study of its fauna, often accessible only in caves but more widely distributed. The subterranean animals are among the most rare, threatened and worldwide underprotected, often by the simple fact of being unknown.

Karst areas of Portugal occupy a considerable part of the territory and harbor more than 2000 caves. The complex biogeographical history of the Iberian Peninsula allowed the survival of several relict arthropod refugees in the subterranean environment.

Subterranean invertebrates have been ignored, as for as the protection of karst systems are concerned in Portugal, largely because knowledge was scarce and disorganized. Reviewing all the bibliographic sources about subterranean fauna from Portugal and listing troglobiont and stygobiont species and locations, was essential to understand the state of knowledge of species richness and the biogeography and conservation status for the studied areas.

In order to understand subterranean biodiversity patterns in karst areas from Portugal, one year of intense fieldwork was performed in more than 40 caves from 14 karst units. Several new species for science were discovered and 7 taxa comprising 2 new genera and 5 new species were described.

Bearing in mind that spatial distribution of subterranean species is crucial to ecological research and conservation, the distribution of hypogean species, from Portuguese karst areas, was mapped using geographic information systems. Also, its subterranean richness was compared with other areas of the world and missing species were estimated on a regional scale. The subterranean biodiversity patterns were analyzed, and several factors were tested to explain richness patterns. Evapotranspiration and the consequent high productivity on the surface may be determinant in the species richness in the different karst units of Portugal, but the depth of the caves and the unique geological features of every massif seemed to play a more important role.

In order to evaluate the tolerance of organisms to groundwater contamination, the acute toxicity of two substances were tested on stygobiont crustaceans with different degrees of troglomorphism. Our study showed that the high levels of endemism contribute to remarkably different toxicological responses within the same genus.

The major problems related to conservation of subterranean habitats were associated to direct destruction and their contamination. These ecosystems lack of specific protection, implying an adequate management of surface habitats and the establishment of priority areas. Integrating all the previous information, this study establishes a ranking of sites for conservation of subterranean fauna in karst areas of Portugal.


Lusoblothrus, a new syarinid pseudoscorpion genus (Arachnida) from Portugal, occupying an isolated position within the Holarctic fauna, 2012, Reboleira Ana Sofia , Zaragoza Juan A. , Gonalves F. , Orom P.

The new pseudoscorpion genus Lusoblothrus of the family Syarinidae is described from a cave in the Algarve region, southern Portugal, to accommodate L. aenigmaticus sp. nov., whose morphological affinities within the Holarctic syarinid fauna are not clear and resembles the Gondwanan genera. This discovery emphasizes the relevance of the Algarve region as a hotspot for relictual hypogean fauna within the Iberian Peninsula.


The genus Boreviulisoma Brolemann, 1928an Iberian-N African outlier of a mainly tropical tribe of millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae), 2013, Reboleira A. S. P. S. , Enghoff H.

The genus Boreviulisoma Brolemann, 1928, is revised. The synonymy of Liliputia Attems, 1952, under Boreviulisoma is confirmed, but L. badia Attems, 1951, from Spain, is resurrected, as Boreviulisoma badium, from synonymy under B. li-ouvilleiBrolemann, 1928 (the type species of Boreviulisoma) from Morocco. Boreviulisoma barrocalense n. sp. is de-scribed from the subterranean environment of the Algarve, the southernmost province of Portugal. The distribution of the three known species ofBoreviulisoma is mapped, main characters of the genus and its species are reviewed and a key to species of the genus is included. The isolated occurrence of Boreviulisoma badium and B. barrocalense n. sp. in the south-ern Iberian Peninsula, together with B. liouvillei and Eviulisoma abadi Mauriès, 1985, in Morocco, as northern outposts of the chiefly Afrotropical-Neotropical tribe Eviulisomatini, is discussed.


Subterranean species of Acipes Attems, 1937 (Diplopoda, Julida, Blaniulidae), 2013, Enghoff H. , Reboleira A. S. P. S.

Two new blind, cave-dwelling species of the genus Acipes Attems, 1937, are described from the Algarve, southern Portugal: A. machadoi n. sp. and A. bifilum n. sp. Acipes andalusius Enghoff & Mauriès, 1999, is reported from the mesovoid shallow substratum in Alicante (Spain), 250 km from the type locality in Andalusia.


Rana iberica (Boulenger, 1879) goes underground: subterranean habitat usage and new insights on natural history, 2013, Gonalo M. Rosa, Andreia Penado

Reports of amphibians exploiting subterranean habitats are common, with salamanders being the most frequent and studied inhabitants. Anurans can occasionally be observed in caves and other subterranean habitats, but in contrast to salamanders, breeding had never been reported in a cave or similar subterranean habitat in Western Europe. Based on observations during visits to a drainage gallery in Serra da Estrela, Portugal, from May 2010 to December 2012, here we document: (i) first report of Rana iberica reproduction in cave-like habitat, representing the fourth report of an anuran for the Palearctic ecozone; (ii) oophagic habits of the tadpoles of Ranaiberica; and (iii) Salamandra salamandra predation on Rana iberica larvae. These observations, particularly of Rana iberica, highlight our lack of knowledge of subterranean ecosystems in the Iberian Peninsula.


A new cave-dwelling species of Scutogona from Portugal (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Chamaesomatidae), 2013, Enghoff Henrik, Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S.

A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed.


Sireuma, a new genus of subterranean millipedes from the Iberian Peninsula (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Opisthocheiridae), 2014, Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Enghoff H.

A new genus Sireuma is described to accommodate a new species, S. nobile, from a cave in Portugal. The unique features of the male gonopods and the absence of a postvulvar organ support the creation of a new genus. The new species is illustrated with scanning electron micrographs and diagrammatic drawings. Differences vis-à-vis its relatives are discussed, and information on the environment in which the new species was found is also provided.

 

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