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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That calcite is 1. the commoner, more stable, mineral form of calcium carbonate, caco3. it is the dominant component of all limestones and, due to its dissolution and reprecipitation by natural waters at normal temperatures, it is also the dominant mineral of chemical cave deposits including stalactites and stalagmites. it is white or colorless when pure but may be stained, most commonly to yellows and browns, by included impurities such as iron oxides. its uninterrupted growth in a pool may allow development of good crystals, shaped as elongate scalenohedral pyramids of trigonal habit. growth in stalactites and stalagmites is either in masses of fine parallel or radiating needles, or in a mosaic of larger rhombic crystals, easily identified by their well developed cleavage surfaces. calcite is also the dominant vein mineral in limestones [9]. 2. a mineral composed of calcium carbonate (caco3) like aragonite but differing in crystal form; the principal constituent of limestone and other speleothems [10].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for implementation (Keyword) returned 24 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 24
Sport and Scout Caving - The Present Dilemma, 1987, Crabb, Evalt

This paper traces the evolution of organised caving as a post World War 2 phenomenon, and the changes in practice and attitude that have occurred. These practices are contrasted against stated behavioural codes. Parallel to this, the development of caving as a scouting activity is discussed, with reference to the general principles and practices of scouting. The author has been working toward evolving policies and practices within scouting which are consistent with the needs of conservation and the underlying philosophies of scouting. Implementation of these attitudes in one area is fully detailed, with some comment on the success and acceptability of the program. This training program is contrasted against the foreshadowed N.S.W. Branch Policy on Rock-Related Activities. The sequential discussion highlights some weaknesses within clubs and A.S.F., particularly in our methods of communication. There are no firm proposals, but possible directions for future discussions are indicated. It is the intention of this paper to give a historical perspective to some of the present perceived conflicts; in reality, the only conflict is between our oft-expressed aim of conservation of caves (i.e. safeguard the karst heritage of Australia), and our visible activity - use of caves for recreational activity. Both the intensity of expression of our concern, and lessening of self-constraint on recreational activity have greatly magnified with time; we are fast approaching a 'crossroads' scenario where our credibility is at great risk.


Hydrogeology of the reservoirs planned in Lower Zamanti Basin and karst related problems, 1993, Bayari C. Serdar, Gureri Brahim
This study aims to define the karst related problems that may arise during the implementation of three weir and two dam projects planned in the Lower Zamanti Basin. Based on the regional hydrogeological investi-gations, the problems that may arise during the construction phase were outlined and relevant investigation techniques were proposed. This study showed that no water leakage problem is expected in the reservoir areas of Çamlıca II , Çamlıca III, Tatlar weirs and Göktaş dam, while the possibility of leakage thorugh the reservoir of the Topraktaş dam should be investigated by means of geophysical surveys and exploratory boreholes. The same suggestions are also valid for the energy tunnels of Çamlıca II, Tatlar weirs and Göktaş dam where dewatering of karst groundwater would be an important problem.

Use of hydrologic, hydrochemical and isotopic data in identification of groundwater flow patterns in Lower Zamantı Basin (Eastern Taurids-Turkey), 1993, Bayari Celal Serdar, Gurer Ibrahim
In karst basins where hydraulic structures ARE designed to utilize the existing water potential, determination of the distinct groundwater flow patterns and the inter-relations among them bears great importance from the view point of the geotechnical safety of the structure. The combined use of hydrologic, hydrochemical and isotopic data enables us to identify different groundwater flow patterns prevailing in karst basins. Once the inter-relation among the groundwater flow patterns is established, the decision regarding the implementation of projects will be easier. Hydrologic investigations including analyses of the "stream yield" and "groundwater balance", produce invaluable information that can be used to locate the important karstic effluents along the basin. The study of the hydrochemistry of major karstic effluents reveals reliable information on the "depth" of underground circulation and the "recharge conditions" dominating within the karst system. Evaluation of environmental isotopic data introduces important details pertaining to the "mean recharge area elevations" and "turn-over times" of the karst waters and inter-relation among each other. Sometimes very closely located karstic outflows may have quite different circulation/recharge characteristics. This paper attempts to demonstrate the combined use of hydrologic, hydrochemical and isotopic techniques for the determination of the "deep-regional" and "shallow" groundwater circulation patterns existing in the Lower Zamanti Basin.

Discovery and History of Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, 1999, Tufts, R. , Tenen, G.
Efforts to give Kartchner Caverns protective park status required over 13 years to complete following the caves discovery by Gary Tenen and Randy Tufts in 1974. These efforts involved the discoverers, selected cavers, the Kartchner family, the Nature Conservancy, and the Arizona State governmentespecially Arizona State Parks. Throughout that period, the cave and the efforts to conserve it were kept secret from the wider caving community and the public. Once in State Parks hands, extensive baseline testing was conducted before development began to help ensure that the cave environment is preserved. Cave environmental and show-cave experts have been involved in development planning and implementation. Surface facilities and a major part of the cave are set to open to the public in late 1999. The continuing support of cavers, the public, and Arizona government will be necessary to ensure that Kartchner Caverns is preserved in excellent condition.

Symposium Poster: Low-cost implementation of a speech compression system, 2000, Gibson A. D.

Working with knowledge at the science/policy interface: a unique example from developing the Tongass Land Management Plan, 2000, Shawiii Charles G. , Everest Fred H. , Swanston Douglas N. ,
An innovative, knowledge-based partnership between research scientists and resource managers in the U.S. Forest Service provided the foundation upon which the Forest Plan was developed that will guide management on the Tongass National Forest for the next 10-15 years. Criteria developed by the scientists to evaluate if management decisions were consistent with the available information base were applied to major components of the emerging final management strategy for the Forest. While the scientists remained value neutral on the contents of the Forest Plan and the management directions provided in it, their evaluation indicated that the decisions it contained for riparian and fish sustainability, wildlife viability, karst and cave protection, slope stability, timber resources, social/economic effects, and monitoring achieved a high degree of consistency with the available scientific information. The Forest Plan, revised to conform with existing scientific knowledge, represents a management strategy designed to sustain the diversity and productivity of the ecosystem while producing goods and services commensurate with the agency’s multiple-use mandate. Execution of this research/management partnership highlighted the role of scientific knowledge in forestry decision-making and provided a new mechanism to input such information into the decision making process. The partnership continues as the scientists are addressing high priority information needs generated by the planning effort in order to have additional information available for plan implementation and revision through adaptive management over the next 3-5 years

Characteristics of karst ecosystems of Vietnam and their vulnerability to human impact, 2001, Tuyet D. ,
Karst in Vietnam covers an area of about 60,000 km(2), i.e. 18 % of the surface of the country. The country has an annual average temperature of 24 degreesC, an annual average rainfall of 2300 nun and a relative humidity of about 90%. Karst in Vietnam is typified by peak cluster-depression landscapes ranging in elevation from 200 to over 2000 m. Tower and coastal karst landscapes also exit. Because of naturally favourable conditions, karst ecosystems are diverse and very rich. Higher plants(cormophytes) are abundant. They are represented by approximately 2000 species, 908 genera, 224 families, 86 orders and 7 phyla. They form a thick vegetation cover of evergreen tropical rainforest. Knowledge about lower plants is limited. The fauna is rich and diverse. Phyla such as Protozoa, Vermes, Mollusca and Arthropoda are yet ill known. Preliminary results show that the phylum Chordata is represented by 541 species from 80 families, 40 orders and 5 classes. There exist many precious and rare mammals, in particular some endemic species such as Trachypithecus poliocephalus, T. delacouri, Rhinopithecus avanculus, Rhinolophus rouxi, Seotoma dineties and Silurus cuephuongensis. The class Insecta has about 2000 species. The fast population growth, particularly in the mountainous areas of the country, triggers an increasing demand for land and therefore threatens the ecosystem. To obtain land for farming, people have cut, burned and destroyed natural forest cover; resulting in occurrence of hazards such as soil-loss, water-loss, flash floods, mud-rock flows, rock-falls, severe drought, water logging and changes of karstic aquifers etc. Poaching precious animals and illegal logging are increasing. In contrast to other natural systems, karst ecosystems cannot be reestablished once damaged. Living karst landscapes will become rocky desert ones without life. Conservation of karstic environmental systems in general and karstic ecosystems in particular should not be the sole vocation of scientists but also a duty and responsibility of authorities and people from all levels. A good example of a multidisciplinary approach to karst-related problems is the implementation of the Vietnamese-Belgian Karst Project (VBEKAP): 'Rural development in the mountain karst area of NW Vietnam by sustainable water and land management and social learning: its conditions and facilitation'. The aim of this project is to improve living conditions of local people and sustained protection and management of the karst environment and ecosystem

The occurrence of sinkholes and subsidence depressions in the far west Rand and Gauteng Province, South Africa, and their engineering implications, 2001, De Bruyn Ia, Bell Fg,
Dewatering associated with mining in the gold-bearing reefs of the Far West Rand, which underlie dolomite and unconsolidated deposits, led to the formation of sinkholes and subsidence depressions. Hence, certain areas became unsafe for occupation and were evacuated. Although sinkholes were initially noticed in the 1950s, the seriousness of the situation was highlighted in December 1962 when a sinkhole engulfed a three-story crusher plant at West Driefontein Mine. Consequently, it became a matter of urgency that the areas at risk of subsidence and the occurrence of sinkholes were delineated. Sink-holes formed concurrently with the lowering of the water table in areas which formerly had been relatively free of sinkholes. In addition, subsidence occurred as a consequence of consolidation taking place in the unconsolidated deposits as the water table was lowered. In the latter case, the degree of subsidence which occurred reflected the thickness and original density of the unconsolidated deposits which were consolidated. These deposits vary laterally in thickness and thereby gave rise to differential subsidence. Subsidence also occurred due to the closure of dewatered voids at the rock-soil interface. The risk of sinkhole and subsidence occurrence is increased by urban development, since interrupted natural surface drainage, increased runoff, and leakage from water-bearing utilities can result in the concentrated ingress of water into the ground. Where the surficial deposits are less permeable, the risk of instability is reduced. In the area underlain by dolomite, which extends around Johannesburg and Pretoria, these problem have been more notable in recent years because of housing development, both low-cost and up-market, and the growth of informal settlements. Residential densities may be very high, especially for low-cost housing, the development of which frequently has proceeded without recognition of the risk posed by karst-related ground instability. The appearance of significant numbers of small sinkholes has been associated with dolomite at shallow depth, that is, occurring at less than 15 m beneath the ground surface. The vulnerability of an area overlying dolomite bedrock at shallow depth is largely dependent on the spacing, width and continuity of grikes. When dolomite is located at depths greater than 15 m, the sinkholes which appear at the surface usually are larger in diameter. The risk of sinkhole occurrence in areas of shallow dolomite in general, may be greater, although the hazard itself is less severe. A classification system for the evaluation of dolomitic land based on the risk of formation of certain sized sinkholes has enabled such land to be zoned for appropriate development. Ongoing monitoring and maintenance of water bearing services, and the implementation of precautionary measures relating to drainage and infiltration of surface water are regarded as essential in developed areas underlain by dolomite. Special types of foundation construction for structures are frequently necessary

Implementation and Application of GIS at Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, 2002, Mcneil, B. E. , Jasper, J. D. , Luchsinger, D. A. , Rainsmier, M. V.
Recent advances in accessibility and functionality of geographic information systems (GIS) have allowed Timpanogos Cave National Monument (TICA), Utah, to implement and apply this valuable management and interpretive tool. This implementation is highlighted by successful collaborations and the development of a 2-m resolution Digital Terrain Model. Applications of GIS at TICA are useful for the interpretation, resource management, and maintenance areas of park management. Specific applications with importance to the management decisions of TICA include interpretive mapping, 3-D visualization, cave resource management, and surface rockfall hazard.

Changes in groundwater quality in a conduit-flow-dominated karst aquifer, following BMP implementation, 2002, Currens J,

The Protection of Karst Aquifers: the Example of the Bistrica Karst Spring (SW Slovenia), 2003, Kovač, Ič, Gregor

Karst springs are important drinking water sources both in Slovenia and elsewhere in the world. Due to their specific structure, karst aquifers are in most cases highly vulnerable to pollution. Through the example of the Bistrica karst spring, the author highlights the problems of karst groundwater protection and presents the main shortcomings and weaknesses of the relevant legislation in force and of established practices in the field of the protection of karst aquifers in Slovenia. Despite relatively favourable conditions for water protection (scarce population, less intensive agricultural activities etc.) as compared with karst areas elsewhere in the world, many important karst springs in Slovenia are improperly protected. Water protection regimes are often established inappropriately and control over the implementation of protective measures is inefficient.


Radon in caves, 2005, Cigna A, A.
The physical characteristics of radon are reported as well as its sources, the transport in rock and its behaviour in caves. Then, the instruments, both active and passive, used for the measurement of radon concentration are discussed by taking into account their respective advantages and disadvantages for the use in the cave environment. Since in many countries radon is the object of regulations that were adopted for radiation protection purposes, this aspect is examined and the recommendations issued by international organisations and enforced in different countries are reported. Materials, methods and other remarks on the limits implementation are also listed with the aim of providing the managers of show caves with some instruments to comply with the domestic requirements with the most convenient solution.

An integrated linear/non-linear flow model for the conduit-fissure-pore media in the karst triple void aquifer system, 2005, Cheng Jm, Chen Cx,
Most karstic aquifer media may be characterized as the triple-void media with highly-varied hydraulic properties, including matrix pore, fissure and conduit, in which liner flow may co-exist with non-linear flow. In this paper, an attempt is made to couple linear flow with non-linear flow in a single unified flow governing equations by introducing the concept of equivalent hydraulic conductivity (EHC) and deriving a general Darcy's law for various flow. The expression of EHC in the karst conduit and fissure are also derived. The procedures of numerical implementation are demonstrated via an ideal model and a case study of karst aquifer system in the Beishan Ore Formation area, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China

Karst database implementation in Minnesota: analysis of sinkhole distribution, 2005, Gao Y, Alexander Ec, Barnes Rj,

The strategic position of upper Pivka and the intermittent lakes after implementation of the rapallo treaty, 2005, Č, Uč, Ek M.

Its strategic position has given Upper Pivka (Zgornja Pivka) an important role in history on several occasions. The last of these occurred after the implementation of the Rapallo Treaty at the end of the First World War, when the area was annexed to Italy and turned into borderland. Across the border the ‘Kontrabant’ developed. Through the Pivka Basin (Pivška kotlina) ran the second line of the Alpine Wall, which was a mighty defence system build to protect Italy’s eastern border with Yugoslavia. The natural north-east passage, a good view of the valley, and good conditions for supplying military units were the main reasons for building fortifications on the Primož hill. The command centre for the nearby bunkers was also located there. For military purposes, water reservoirs, roads, bridges, a powder magazine, and an airfield were built; the bed of the Pivka river was regulated, and the parts most exposed to strong winds (“burja”) were forested. Lakes Petelinjsko jezero and Palško jezero were used as training fields by the army. The two military fields had already been in service in Austro-Hungarian times. The Yugoslav People’s Army also used the lakes for its manoeuvres and did much more damage to them than the Italian army had done previously. The bottom of Palško jezero was reconstructed in 1990, and the owners were compensated. On Petelinjsko jezero, however, bomb craters, gunnests, and a trench can still be seen.


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