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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That vug is a small cavity in rock usually lined with crystals. adjective, vuggy [10]. see also geode.?

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Paleokarst - a Systematic and Regional Review, 1989,

Description
Prepared by some of the world's leading experts in the field, this book is the first summarizing work on the origin, importance and exploitation of paleokarst. It offers an extensive regional survey, mainly concerning the Northern Hemisphere, as well as a thorough analysis of the problems of research into paleokarst phenomena, with particular emphasis on theoretical contributions and practical exploitation. By concentrating on phenomena which have appeared in the course of geological history, the book represents a substantial development in the general theory of paleokarst and demonstrates the advantages of a comprehensive approach to the problem. Considerable emphasis is put on the economic importance of paleokarst phenomena, from the point of view of exploiting significant deposits of mineral raw materials, as well as from a civil engineering and hydrological point of view. Since the publication deals with a boundary scientific discipline, it is intended for specialists from various branches of science: geologists, paleontologists, economic geologists, geographers, mining engineers and hydrogeologists.

Contents
List of Contributors. Foreword.

Part I. Introduction.
Introduction (P. Bosák et al.). Paleokarst as a problem (J. Głazek, P. Bosák, D.C. Ford). Terminology (P. Bosák, D.C. Ford, J. Głazek).

Part II. Regional Review.
Paleokarst of Belgium (Y. Quinif). Paleokarst of Britain (T.D. Ford). Paleokarst of Norway (S.-E. Lauritzen). Paleokarst of Poland (J. Głazek). Paleokarst of Czechoslovakia (P. Bosák, I. Horáček, V. Panoš). Paleokarst of Hungary (G. Bárdossy, L. Kordos). Hydrothermal paleokarst of Hungary (P. Müller). Paleokarst of Italy. Selected examples from Cambrian to Miocene (M. Boni, B. D'Argenio). Paleokarst-related ore deposits of the Maghreb, North Africa (Y. Fuchs, B. Touahri). Paleokarst of Yugoslavia (D. Gavrilović). Paleokarst of Bulgaria (I. Stanev, S. Trashliev). Paleokarst of Romania (M. Bleahu). Paleokarst of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (R.A. Tsykin). Paleokarst of China (Zhang Shouyue). Paleokarst of Canada (D.C. Ford). Paleokarst of the United States (M.V. Palmer, A.N. Palmer).

Part III. Mineral Deposits Connected With Karst.
An introduction to karst-related mineral deposits (P. Bosák). Pb-Zn ores (S. Dżułyński, M. Sass-Gustkiewicz). Bauxites (G. Bárdossy). Iron ore deposits in paleokarst (G. Bárdossy, Y. Fuchs, J. Głazek). Clays and sands in paleokarst (P. Bosák). The oceanic karst: modern bauxite and phosphate ore deposits on the high carbonate islands (so-called ``Uplifted Atolls'') of the Pacific Ocean (F.G. Bourrouilh-le Jan). Paleokarst-related uranium deposits (Y. Fuchs).

Part IV. Hydrogeology and Engineering Hazards in Paleokarst Areas.
Paleokarst as an important hydrogeological factor (J. Zötl). Hydrogeological problems of opencast and underground mining of mineral deposits encountered during their exploration, development and exploitation stages (P. Bosák). Hydrogeological problems of the Cracow-Silesia Zn-Pb ore deposits (Z. Wilk). Hydrogeological problems of Hungarian bauxite and coal deposits (T. Böcker, B. Vizy). Paleokarst in civil engineering (A. Eraso). Interaction between engineering and environment in the presence of paleokarst: some case histories (J. Głazek).

Part V. Paleokarst as a Scientific Subject.
Special characteristics of paleokarst studies (I. Horáček, P. Bosák). Tectonic conditions for karst origin and preservation (J. Głazek). Problems of the origin and fossilization of karst forms (P. Bosák). Biostratigraphic investigations in paleokarst (I. Horáček, L. Kordos).

Part VI. Conclusions. Part VII. References. Part VIII. Indexes.
Author Index. Geographical Index. Subject Index.

Bibliographic & ordering Information
Hardbound, ISBN: 0-444-98874-2, 726 pages, publication date: 1989
Imprint: ELSEVIER


PALUSTRINE CARBONATES AND THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES - TOWARDS AN EXPOSURE INDEX FOR THE FRESH-WATER ENVIRONMENT, 1992, Platt N. H. , Wright V. P. ,
Palustrine carbonates are shallow fresh-water deposits showing evidence of subaqueous deposition and subaerial exposure. These facies are common in the geological record. The intensity of modification is highly variable depending on the climate and the length of emergence. Palustrine limestones have previously been interpreted as marginal lacustrine deposits from fluctuating, low-salinity carbonate lakes, but several problems remain with existing facies models: 1) palustrine carbonates possess a lacustrine biota but commonly display fabrics similar to those of calcretes and peritidal carbonates; 2) the co-occurrence of calcrete horizons and karst-like cavities is somewhat unusual and appears to indicate contemporaneous carbonate precipitation and dissolution in the vadose zone; 3) the dominance of gray colors indicates water-saturation, apparently inconsistent with the evidence for strong desiccation overprint; 4) profundal lake deposits are generally absent from palustrine sequences, and sublittoral facies commonly make up only a small proportion of total thicknesses; 5) no good modem analogue has been identified for the palustrine environment. Analogy with the Florida Everglades suggests a re-interpretation of palustrine limestones, not as pedogenically modified lake margin facies but as the deposits of extensive, very shallow carbonate marshes. The distribution of environments in the Everglades is determined by the local hydrology, reflecting the control of seasonal water-level fluctuations and topography. Climate and topography were the main controls on deposition of ancient palustrine carbonates. As in peritidal sequences, aggradational cycles are capped by a range of lithologies (evaporites, desiccation and microkarst breccias, calcretes, lignite or coal horizons etc.), permitting interpretation of the climate. Careful analysis of lateral facies variations may permit reconstruction of subtle topography. Consideration of the Florida Everglades as a modem analogue for the palustrine environment has suggested the development of an exposure index for fresh-water carbonates

Palustrine carbonates and the Florida Everglades; towards an exposure index for the fresh-water environment?, 1992, Platt Nigel H. , Wright V. Paul,

GROUNDWATER GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE CARBONATE KARST AQUIFER, SOUTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY, USA, 1993, Hess J. W. , White W. B. ,
Analyses of 441 water samples from 15 sample sites, mainly springs and sinking creeks in the southcentral Kentucky karst, were used to determine hardness, P(CO2), and state of saturation with respect to calcite and dolomite. Most of the waters are undersaturated with respect to calcite and more undersaturated with respect to dolomite, in agreement with recent kinetic models. Time series data revealed chemical fluctuations on both weekly and seasonal time scales. Much of the short-term variation and some of the seasonal variation in the hardness and saturation index parameters can be accounted for by dilution effects from storm and seasonal runoff. Seasonal cycles in CO2 partial pressure arise from a dependence of soil CO2 on temperature and the growing season. Waters from different locations in the aquifer system are chemically distinct and fit into the concept of a hydrochemical facies

SURFACE OZONE EXPOSURES MEASURED IN FINLAND, 1994, Laurila T. , Lattila H. ,
The occurrence of ozone concentrations and exposure indices related to the adverse effects of ozone upon vegetation are reported for four Finnish background stations. In Finland, ozone concentrations are often near the background tropospheric values of cn. 30 ppb. Very high concentrations are not observed. The maximum 1-h average in this data set was 79 ppb. The exposure parameter, which accumulates growing season 1-h average concentrations above a 40 ppb base-line in daylight hours, gave clearly different exposure sums for the stations. These values varied between 4000 and 8500 ppb-h in the southern archipelago, 3000-6500 ppb-h in the southern coastal region, 2000-4000 ppb-h in central parts of the country, and 400-1000 ppb-h in the northern parts of the country. The date of the start of the vegetative season is important in high northern latitudes, because the spring maximum of ozone concentrations is relatively intense compared to the summer maximum. In northern Scandinavia, ozone exposures are particularly sensitive to the date of the start of the growing season. The long daylight period in northern Scandinavia is less important in this respect, since during the growing season ozone concentrations are usually below 40 ppb during the morning and evening hours. A good correlation was found between growing season average concentrations of the sum of gaseous HNO3 and particulate NO3-, and on ozone exposure index which accumulates concentrations above a 40 ppb base-line, confirming the anthropogenic origin of the elevated ozone exposures

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRACTURES AND KARSTIFICATION - THE OIL-BEARING PALEOKARST OF ROSPO MARE (ITALY), 1994, Soudet H. J. , Sorriaux P. , Rolando J. P. ,
The Rospo Mare oil field is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km off the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at a depth of 1300 m and consists of a paleokarst oi Oligocene to Miocene age which developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered by 1200 m of Mio-Pliocene sequences. The oil column is about 140 m 8 high. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical, cored drill holes which allowed us to analyse the various solution features and the sedimentary infilling (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including in particular paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sink holes. Detailed geophysical knowledge of that morphology helped to optimize the development of the field through horizontal drilling. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a palaeokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in quarries located nearby. The Rospo Mare paleokarst is an integral part of the ante Miocene paleokarst assemblages of the periphery of the Mediterranean which were formed in tropical conditions. Only the fractures enhanced by meteoric water during the formation of the karat are important for reservoir connectivity. During the formation of the karst there were several phases of dissolution and infilling which modified the geometry of the open fissures and only these fractures play an important role in the reservoir drainage. Vertically we can distinguish three very different zones from top to bottom: at the top the epikarst (0-35 m) in a zone of extension. All the fractures have been enlarged by dissolution but the amount of infilling by clay is substantial. The clays are derived either from alteration of the karat fabric or by deposition during the Miocene transgression; the percolation zone (15-45 m) is characterized by its network of large fractures vertically enlarged by dissolution which corresponds to the relict absorption zones in the paleokarst. These fractures, which usually have a pluridecametric spacing, connect the epi-karst with the former sub-horizontal river system. This zone has been intersected by the horizontal wells during the field development. In this zone there are local, horizontal barriers oi impermeable clay which can block vertical transmissibility. In these low permeability zones the vertical fractures have not been enlarged due to dissolution hence the horizontal barrier; the zone of underground rivers (35-70 m) is characterized by numerous horizontal galleries which housed the subterranean ground water circulation. When these fissures are plurimetric in extent this can lead to gallery collapse with the associated fill by rock fall breccia. This can partly block the river system but always leaves a higher zone of free circulation with high permeabilities of several hundreds of Darcys. These galleries form along the natural fracture system relative to the paleohydraulic gradient which in some cases has been preserved. The zone below permanent ground water level with no circulation of fluids is characterized by dissolution limited to non-connected vugs. Very locally these fissures can be enlarged by tectonic fractures which are non-connected and unimportant for reservoir drainage. Laterally, only the uppermost zone can be resolved by seismic imaging linked with horizontal well data (the wells are located at the top of the percolation zone). The Rospo Mare reservoir shows three distinct horizontal zones: a relict paleokarst plateau with a high index of open connected fractures, (area around the A and B platforms); a zone bordering the plateau (to the north-east of the plateau zone) very karstified but intensely infilled by cap rock shales (Miocene - Oligocene age); a zone of intensely disturbed and irregular karst paleotopography which has been totally infilled by shales. The performance of the production wells is dependent on their position with respect to the three zones noted above and their distance from local irregularities in the karst paleotopography (dolines, paleovalleys)

Paleoclimate implications of mass spectrometric dating of a British flowstone, 1995, Baker A, Smart Pl, Edwards Rl,
The timing of growth phases in a cave flowstone from Yorkshire, England, has been precisely dated by thermal ionization mass spectrometric 238 U- 234 U- 230 Th dating. Six growth periods of both short duration and fast growth rate are separated by nondepositional hiatuses. The ages of these phases were determined to be 128.8 or -2.7, 103.1 or -1.8, 84.7 or -1.2, 57.9 or -1.5, 49.6 or -1.3, and 36.9 or -0.8 ka. There is a remarkably good correlation between the periods of active speleothem growth and the timing of solar insolation maxima, derived from orbital parameters, which has not previously been reported. Speleothem growth theory and evidence from other terrestrial paleoclimate records suggest that episodic, rapid growth phases at the insolation maxima are most likely to be caused by changes in either precipitation intensity or volume, which caused switching in the routing of water flow in the unsaturated zone above the cave. Such a result provides new evidence of the importance of variations in solar insolation for terrestrial paleoclimate and offers the potential for derivation of a paleowetness index from speleothem growth

The last glacial/interglacial record of rodent remains from the Gigny karst sequence in the French Jura used for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological reconstructions, 1995, Chaline J, Brunetlecomte P, Campy M,
A multidisciplinary approach has produced an exceptional chronological log of climatic patterns for the Upper Pleistocene sequence of Gigny Cave (Jura, France) covering the Pre-Eemian, Eemian Interglacial, Middle Glacial and Upper Pleniglacial, as well as a part of the Holocene. Multivariate analysis (correspondence and component analysis) of rodent associations from the sequence is used here to characterize the different climatic stages in terms of relative temperature, plant cover and moisture. Faunal analysis establishes: (1) positive and negative correlations among the variations of the different species; (2) the significance of axis 1 (component analysis) which, in terms of temperature, opposes cold environments with contrasted continental biotopes; (3a) the significance of axis 2 (component analysis), which reflects vegetation patterns ranging from open to closed habitats; (3b) the significance of axis 3 (component analysis), which expresses trends in moisture; (4) various correlations between faunal and climatic parameters (temperature, plant cover and moisture); (5) evaluation of faunal diversity (Shannon index ranging from 0.74 to 2.27) showing that diversity increases with temperature and the complexity of vegetation, but is not sensitive to moisture. Lastly, the comparison of multivariate methods with the weighted semi-quantitative Hokr method shows the complementarity of the two approaches, the first methods quantifying climatic parameters while the second seems to provide more precise evaluations of the main seasons of rainfall

Geochemical evolution of a karst stream in Devils Icebox Cave, Missouri, USA, 1997, Wicks Carol M. , Engeln Joseph F. ,
A 3.7 km flowpath along the main stream channel in Devils Icebox Cave, Boone County, Missouri, was sampled on 23 January, 23 March and 18 September 1994. In January 1994, the water was oversaturated with respect to both calcite and dolomite, and only minor compositional changes were observed along the flowpath. In March 1994, the water was oversaturated with respect to calcite but undersaturated with respect to dolomite. Using a mass-balance approach, the composition of the stream water at downstream locations was predicted by dissolution of dolomite (a maximum of 0.16 mmol s-1) and by a minor amount of calcite precipitation (a maximum of 0.03 mmol s-1). In September 1994, there were increases in the Mg, Ca, and total inorganic carbon (TIC) mass fluxes that were due to the dissolution of dolomite (SIdolomiteSI is saturation index) and calcite (SIcalcite2 of the water should decrease downstream; however, we found an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 along the stream. The source of this additional CO2 is thought to be microbial degradation of bat guano. The decomposition of bat guano appeared to change the composition of the stream water during the period the bats are in the cave, and this change was reflected in the composition of the stream water collected in September 1994. Based on the length of the flowpath and on the average velocity of the water along the flowpath, the travel time of water in this karst stream is less than 4 days. The reactions that control the chemistry of the karst water must be those with equally short characteristic times: the dissolution of dolomite and calcite, CO2 exchange, and microbial degradation of organic matter

A high-resolution proxy record of rainfall and ENSO since AD 1550 from layering in stalagmites from Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar, 1999, Brook Ga, Rafter Ma, Railsback Lb, Sheen Sw, Lundberg J,
Two stalagmites from Anjohibe Cave have annual layers made up of inclusion-rich calcite over inclusion-free calcite or of darker aragonite over clear aragonite. Geochemical evidence indicates that the basal units are deposited slowly in the wet season and the upper units more rapidly in the dry season. For the period with rainfall and temperature data (ad 1951-1992), layer thickness correlates well with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), as well as rainfall, water surplus, and actual evapotranspiration (AET) at nearby Majunga. Com parison of the layer record for one stalagmite with 1866-1994 SOI data indicates that layer thickness correlates best with the frequency and intensity of warm, low-phase SO (El Nino) events, not with average SOI conditions. In addition, the 415-year layer thickness time-series from that speleothem agrees remarkably well with historical records of El Nino frequency, with Galapagos (Ecuador) coral records of sea-surface temperature in the eastern Pacific, and with accumulation rates on the Quelccaya Ice Cap of Peru, which are lower at times of high El Nino frequency

Post-Miocene subtropical karst evolution, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida, 2000, Denizman C, Randazzo Af,
Morphometric characteristics of [~]25 000 karstic depressions suggest that the last phase of the post-Miocene karstic evolution within the lower Suwannee River basin of Florida has been controlled by the lower sea-level stands of the Pleistocene and the formation of the Suwannee River. During the Pleistocene, as interglacial seas retreated, marine terraces formed by sequential sea-level lowstands and the time period of subaerial exposure diminished toward the sea. Consequently, geomorphologically younger karst landforms formed as the elevation of marine terraces decreased. The evolutionary geomorphological development of this heavily karstified region produced more frequent and/or larger and more complex depressions at higher elevations. A geographic information system analysis of morphometric and spatial distribution parameters of the karstic depressions within the lower Suwannee River basin reveals that the Florida karst is represented by broad, shallow depressions with an average density of 6.07/km2 and an average pitting index of 14.5. Morphometric and spatial distribution parameters of karstic depressions show a great variation within the lower Suwannee River area and thus preclude a simple morphoclimatic classification of karst landforms. The Tertiary carbonate rocks of the subtropical Florida karst have relatively less joint frequency and significant primary porosity, and do not produce the extreme karst landforms observed in the massive limestones of the tropics

Inferring source waters from measurements of carbonate spring response to storms, 2002, Desmarais K, Rojstaczer S,
We infer information about the nature of groundwater flow within a karst aquifer from the physical and chemical response of a spring to storm events. The spring discharges from the Maynardville Limestone in Bear Creek Valley, Tennessee. Initially, spring discharge peaks approximately 1-2 h from the midpoint of summer storms. The initial peak is likely due to surface loading, which pressurizes the aquifer and results in water moving out of storage. All of the storms monitored exhibited recessions that follow a master recession curve very closely, indicating that storm response is fairly consistent and repeatable, independent of the time between storms and the configuration of the rain event itself. Electrical conductivity initially increases for 0.5-2.9 days (longer for smaller storms), the result of moving older water out of storage. This is followed by a 2.1-2.5 day decrease in conductivity, resulting from an increasing portion of low conductivity recharge water entering the spring. Stable carbon isotope data and the calcite saturation index of the spring water also support this conceptual model. Spring flow is likely controlled by displaced water from the aquifer rather than by direct recharge through the soil zone. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Last glacial-Holocene paleoceanography of the Black Sea and Marmara Sea: stable isotopic, foraminiferal and coccolith evidence, 2002, Aksu Ae, Hiscott Rn, Kaminski Ma, Mudie Pj, Gillespie H, Abrajano T, Yasar D,
Multi-proxy data and radiocarbon dates from several key cores from the Black Sea and Marmara Sea document a complex paleoceanographic history for the last ~30[punctuation space]000 yr. The Marmara Sea was isolated from both the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea during glacial periods when global sea-level lowering subaerially exposed the shallow sills at the Straits of Bosphorus and Dardanelles (i.e. lake stage), and reconnected through both straits during interglacial periods, when rise of global sea level breached the shallow sills (i.e. gateway stage). Micropaleontological data show that during the `lake stage' the surface-water masses in both the Marmara Sea and Black Sea became notably brackish; however, during the `gateway stages' there was a low-salinity surface layer and normal marine water mass beneath. Two sapropel layers are identified in the Marmara Sea cores: sapropels M2 and M1 were deposited between ~29.5 and 23.5 ka, and ~10.5 and 6.0 ka, respectively. Micropaleontological and stable isotopic data show that the surface-water salinities were reduced considerably during the deposition of both sapropel layers M2 and M1, and calculation using planktonic foraminiferal transfer functions shows that sea-surface temperatures were notably lower during these intervals. The presence of fauna and flora with Black Sea affinities and the absence of Mediterranean fauna and flora in sapropels M1 and M2 strongly suggest that communication existed with the Black Sea during these times. A benthic foraminiferal oxygen index shows that the onset of suboxic conditions in the Marmara Sea rapidly followed the establishment of fully marine conditions at ~11-10.5 ka, and are attributed to Black Sea outflow into the Marmara Sea since 10.5 ka. These suboxic conditions have persisted to the present. The data discussed in this paper are completely at odds with the `Flood Hypothesis' of Ryan et al. (1997), and Ryan and Pitman (1999)

GIS-based generation of a karst landscape soil map (Blaubeuren Swabian Alb Germany), 2002, Koberle G. , Koberle P. M. ,
The karst landscape of the Swabian Alb in southwestern Germany is characterised by a year-round humid climate with an annual precipitation of up to 1200 mm and an average temperature of VC. Infiltration ranges are 50-55%, resulting in an annual water flow into the karst aquifer up to 660 millions litres per km(2). In view of the great expanse of the karst landscape of the Swabian Alb, measuring some 200 x 40 km, this is a water reservoir of immense significance. Due to the laws of karst water movement the infiltrating water is very vulnerable to contamination. The only geogenic protection is afforded by the periglacial, loess-containing layers and evolved constituent soils covering the karst landscape. This means that geomorphology and the distribution of soils in this region is of great significance to the protection of karst water. At present only 2 of the approx. 60 topographic map sheets with a scale of 1 :25,000 that cover the Swabian Alb are available as pedological maps. Another 8 pedological map sheets are under preparation. Since the compilation of pedological maps is extremely costly both in terms of time and money, it appears improbable that a complete pedological map of the entire Swabian Alb will be available in the near future. A digital pedological map was prepared from the 1:50,000 topographic map of Blaubeuren on the basis of geomorphological knowledge as well as a morphometric analysis. For this purpose the morphometric parameters slope, profile curvature, plan curvature and topographic wetness index were calculated from a specially generated DGM (Digital Elevation Model). A maximum likelihood analysis was performed on the morphometric parameters on the basis of approx. 700 soil profiles used as training areas. The pedological maps included in the Annex were verified both in the field and on the computer. They provide an inexpensive basis for further ecosystem analyses

Exploration of water resource and multiple model for water resource development in karst areas with the preferred plane theory, 2003, Luo G. Y. , Yan C. H. , Li X. Z. , Jiang J. P. , Ma J. ,
According to the theory of preferred plane, preferred planes (faults) always control the distribution of bedrock fissure water and hold abundant groundwater. Thus, the exploration of fissure or karst water can be converted into searching for the watery preferred plane (WPP). In the paper, the characteristic of watery preferred planes is analyzed and a series of superior indices has been set up. It is introduced that WPPs are determined by the methods of geological analysis, superior index and complex geophysical analysis. Meanwhile, new multiple model for water resource development in the water-scarce areas of karst mountainous regions are advanced

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