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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That transverse permeability is see permeability, transverse.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for interfaces (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
Investigation of flow in water-saturated rock fractures using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), 1999,
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Dijk P. , Berkowitz B. , Bendel P.

The application of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) to the direct three-dimensional measurement of flow in rough-walled water-saturated rock fractures is presented for the first time. The study demonstrates the abilities of NMRI to noninvasively measure rock-water interfaces and water flow velocities in these fractures and investigates the effects of wall morphology on flow patterns inside a typical rock fracture. Two- and three-dimensional flow-encoded spin-echo pulse sequences were applied. The stability and reproducibility of the water flow patterns were confirmed by analyzing two-dimensional velocity images. A variety of geometrical and hydraulic features were determined from three-dimensional velocity images, including the rock-water interfaces, the fracture aperture distribution, and the critical aperture path; velocity profiles and volumetric flow rates; flow and stagnant regions; and the critical velocity path. In particular, the effects of a sharp step discontinuity of the fracture walls and the applicability of the cubic law were examined. As a result of the complex three-dimensional geometry, velocity profiles are generally parabolic but often highly asymmetric, with respect to the fracture walls. These asymmetric velocity profiles are clustered together, with significant correlations; they are not just local random phenomena. However, theoretical considerations indicate that the effects of the measured asymmetry on volumetric flow rates and hydraulic conductivities are insignificant, in that the overall flow inside rough fractures still obeys the cubic law. The features discussed in this study emphasize the strong heterogeneity and the highly three-dimensional nature of the flow patterns in natural rock fractures and consequently the need for three-dimensional flow analysis.


Geomicrobiology of caves: A review, 2001,
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Northup D. E. , Lavoie K. H. ,
In this article, we provide a review of geomicrobiological interactions in caves, which are nutrient-limited environments containing a variety of redox interfaces. Interactions of cave microorganisms and mineral environments lead to the dissolution of, or precipitation on, host rock and speleothems (secondary mineral formations). Metabolic processes of sulfur-, iron-, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria can generate considerable acidity, dissolving cave walls and formations. Examples of possible microbially influenced corrosion include corrosion residues (e.g., Lechuguilla and Spider caves, New Mexico, USA), moonmilk from a number of caves (e.g., Spider Cave, New Mexico, and caves in the Italian Alps), and sulfuric acid speleogenesis and cave enlargement (e.g., Movile Cave, Romania, and Cueva de Villa Luz, Mexico). Precipitation processes in caves, as in surface environments, occur through active or passive processes. In caves, microbially induced mineralization is documented in the formation of carbonates, moonmilk, silicates, clays, iron and manganese oxides, sulfur, and saltpeter at scales ranging from the microscopic to landscape biokarst. Suggestions for future research are given to encourage a move from descriptive, qualitative studies to more experimental studies

The Development of a Karst Feature Database for Southeastern Minnesota, 2002,
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Gao, Y. , Alexander Jr. , E. C. , Tipping, R. G.
A karst feature database of southeastern Minnesota has been developed that allows sinkhole and other karst feature distributions to be displayed and analyzed across existing county boundaries in a geographic information system (GIS) environment. The central Database Management System (DBMS) is a relational GIS-based system interacting with three modules: GIS, statistical, and hydrogeologic modules. Data tables are stored in a Microsoft Access 2000 DBMS and linked to corresponding ArcView shape files. The current Karst Feature Database of Southeastern Minnesota was put on a Windows NT server accessible to researchers and planners through networked interfaces. Initial spatial analyses and visualizations of karst feature distributions in Southeastern Minnesota were conducted using data extracted from the karst feature database. A series of nearest-neighbor analyses indicates that sinkholes in southeastern Minnesota are not evenly distributed (i.e., they tend to be clustered). ArcInfo, ArcView and IRIS ExplorerTM were used to generate a series of 2D and 3D maps depicting karst feature distributions in southeastern Minnesota using data exported from the GIS-based karst feature database. The resulting maps allow regional trends to be visualized and extend county-scale trends to larger state-wide scales.

Conceptual models for karstic aquifers, 2003,
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White, W. B.

Karstic carbonate aquifers are extremely heterogeneous with a distribution of permeability that spans many orders of magnitude. They often contain open conduit flow paths with hydraulic characteristics more like surface streams than ground water. Karstic carbonate aquifers have highly efficient interfaces with surface water through swallets and springs. Characterizing parameters include: area of ground-water basin, area of allogenic recharge basins, conduit carrying capacity, matrix hydraulic conductivity, fracture hydraulic conductivity, conduit system response time, and conduit/fracture coupling coefficients. The geologic setting provides boundary conditions that allow the generalized conceptual model to be applied to specific aquifers.


Palaeolithic painting matter: natural or heat-treated pigment?, 2004,
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Chalmin E, Vignaud C, Menu M,
Analyses of archaeological materials attempt to rediscover the know-how of Prehistoric men by determining the nature of the matter, its preparation mode, and its geographic origin. The preparation mode of painting matter of Palaeolithic rock art consisted not only in mixing and grinding but also in heat-treatment. Palaeolithic painters used two main colors: red (iron oxide, hematite) and black (charcoal or manganese oxide). The different phases of manganese oxides can be distinguished using their elemental composition, their structure and the oxidation state of the Mn ion (II, III, IV). Their transformation during heat-treatment has been studied on mineralogical reference samples by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) either coupled or not with a heating stage (in situ). These studies have enabled us to understand the transformation mechanisms of manganese oxides and also to gain insights into the preparation procedures of painting materials during the Palaeolithic period. The painting samples studied in this paper come from the cave of Lascaux (Dordogne, France). These studies allow us to distinguish between natural or heat-treated manganese oxides

Applications of GIS and database technologies to manage a karst feature database, 2006,
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Gao Y. , Tipping R. G. , Alexander Jr. E. C.
This paper describes the management of a Karst Feature Database (KFD) in Minnesota. Two sets of applications in both GIS and Database Management System (DBMS) have been developed for the KFD of Minnesota. These applications were used to manage and to enhance the usability of the KFD. Structured Query Language (SQL) was used to manipulate transactions of the database and to facilitate the functionality of the user interfaces. The Database Administrator (DBA) authorized users with different access permissions to enhance the security of the database. Database consistency and recovery are accomplished by creating data logs and maintaining backups on a regular basis. The working database provides guidelines and management tools for future studies of karst features in Minnesota. The methodology of designing this DBMS is applicable to develop GIS-based databases to analyze and manage geomorphic and hydrologic datasets at both regional and local scales. The short-term goal of this research is to develop a regional KFD for the Upper Mississippi Valley Karst and the long-term goal is to expand this database to manage and study karst features at national and global scales.

In defense of a fluctuating-interface, particle-accretion origin of folia, 2012,
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Davis Donald G.

Two recent papers have proposed radically different modes of origin for cave folia. Audra et al. (2009) propose subaqueous origin of carbonate folia via hypogenic CO2 bubble trapping, with concurrent condensation-corrosion and evaporative precipitation within individual folia gas pockets. Queen (2009) proposes that at least some folia are analogous to suboceanic tufa-tower “flanges” and may result from subaqueous freshwater mixing into a briny environment. The purpose of this paper is to show that neither of these mechanisms can be the fundamental process responsible for folia morphology in cave deposits, and that accretion from adherent particles at fluctuating interfaces is the only mechanism that has been shown to apply to folia of all compositions and in all cave environments where they are known to occur.


Hypogene Speleogenesis, 2013,
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Klimchouk, A. B.

Recognition of the wide occurrence, significance, and specific characteristics of hypogene speleogenesis during last twodecades signifies a major paradigm shift in karst science, previously overwhelmingly dominated by epigene concepts and models. Hypogene karst is one of the fundamental categories of karst, at least of equal importance with more familiar epigenic karst. Hypogene and epigenic karst systems are regularly associated with different types, patterns, and segments off low systems, which are characterized by distinct hydrokinetic, chemical, and thermal conditions. Hypogene speleogenesis is the formation of solution-enlarged permeability structures by water that recharges thecavernous zone from below, independent of recharge from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. It develops mainly in leaky confined conditions, although it may continue through unconfined ones. Hydraulic communication along cross-formational flow paths, across lithological boundaries, different porosity systems, and flow regimes allows deeper ground waters in regional or intermediate flow systems to interact with shallower and more local systems, permittinga variety of dissolution mechanisms to operate. A specific hydrogeologic mechanism acting in hypogenic transverse speleogenesis (restricted input/output) suppresses the positive flow-dissolution feedback and speleogenetic competition seen in the epigenic development. Hypogenic caves occur in different soluble rocks in a wide range of geological and tectonic settings, basinal throughorogenic. Overall patterns of cave systems are strongly guided by the spatial distribution of the initial (prespeleogenetic) permeability features and hydrostratigraphic barriers and interfaces within the soluble and adjacent units, by the mode of water input to, and output from, cave-forming zones and by the overall recharge–discharge configuration in the multiple aquifer system. Because of their transverse nature, hypogene caves have a clustered distribution in plan view, althoughinitial clusters may merge laterally across considerable areas. Hypogene caves display remarkable similarity in their pattern sand mesomorphology, strongly suggesting that the type of flow system is the primary control. The rapidly evolving understanding of hypogene speleogenesis has broad implications for many applied fields such asprospecting and characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, groundwater management, geological engineering, and mineral resources industries


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