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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for isotopes of carbon (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
Stable Isotope Analysis of Human Remains: A Tool for Cave Archaeology, 1997, Trimble, C. C. , Macko, S. A.
Stable isotope analysis of human remains is a research tool that can provide paleodiet information for archaeological sites, such as caves, where traditional evidence may be missing or out of context. Unlike other lines of evidence, the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in human bone reflect the chemistry of the diet and therefore provide a direct measure of the foods consumed. As an example, the data from isotopic analyses of bone from the Mer site (44LE280), a cave in Lee County, Virginia, are presented. Although this site lacks faunal and floral remains to provide basic information about the availability and potential utilization of food resources, the stable isotope data from other sites throughout Virginia and North Carolina provide a basis for comparison. The d13C and d15N values for the cave burials suggest a diet composed of primarily C4 plant proteins and some terrestrial animal proteins.

Evaluation of the effect of oven roasting at 340 gradC, bleach, 30% H2O2, and distilled/deionized water on the delta13C value of speleothem carbonate, 2006, Elkins J. T. , Railsback L. B.
Organic compounds derived from plants are found in many cave formations, which are collectively speleothem CaCO3 have distinct ratios of the stable isotopes of carbon (12C and 13C) that are expressed as ?13C values. Values of ?13C in the organic compounds are lower than ?13C values of speleothem calcium carbonate and could affect the ?13C values of speleothems with high organic conventionally used to destroy organic matter in carbonates prior to geochemical analysis were evaluated in this study. The treatments were oven roasting at 340 C, soaking in bleach, soaking in 30% H2O2, and soaking in distilled deionized water. There is no statistically significant difference between results from untreated and treated samples. These results suggest that the treatments do not affect the ?13C value of speleothems calcium carbonate. The treatments might be helpful in removing organic matter in speleothems that have high concentrations of organic matter. However, most speleothems have low organic carbon concentrations that do not affect the ?13C value of the speleothem, even if left untreated. Ultimately these treatments only need to be applied to speleothems with unusually high concentrations of organic matter.

Reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental changes around the Miocene-Pliocene boundary along a West-East transect across the Mediterranean, 2006, Pierre Catherine, Caruso Antonio, Blancvalleron Marie Madeleine, Rouchy Jean Marie, Orzsagsperber Fabienne,
In order to reconstruct the environmental changes at the end of the Messinian salinity crisis, a multidisciplinary study has been carried out with a high sampling resolution of the late Messinian-early Zanclean (Zone MPl 1) sediments along a West-East Mediterranean transect. The studied examples comprise sections from southern Spain (Vera/Almanzora), Balearic Basin (ODP Site 975), Tyrrhenian Basin (ODP Site 974), Sicily (Eraclea Minoa), Zakynthos (Kalamaki), Corfu (Aghios Stefanos), Crete (Aghios Vlasis). Previously analyzed sections from the Levantine Basin (Cyprus and ODP Sites 968 and 969) are used for comparison. The sections have been correlated using planktonic foraminiferal assemblages, sedimentological and stable isotope variations, and compared to the astronomical cyclicity defined in the Miocene-Pliocene boundary stratotype of Eraclea Minoa, Sicily. Variations of CaCO3 content, stable isotopes of carbonates ([delta]18O, [delta]13C), and foraminiferal assemblages indicate similar environmental transition at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary in all of the investigated sections.The latest Messinian deposits are barren of fossils or characterized by only reworked planktonic foraminifers, except for the sporadic presence of Ammonia tepida, brackish or lacustrine ostracods and brackish mollusks typical of the 'Lago-Mare' facies. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of carbonates usually exhibit large variations with dominantly low [delta] values indicating freshwater dilution. The earliest Pliocene (MPl 1, cycle 1) shows a rapid and progressive increase of the [delta]18O values, which indicates the restoration of marine conditions after the Lago-Mare event. Normal marine environments were definitely established and stabilized at the top of cycle 1.These data confirm that the inflow of marine waters occurred contemporaneously within the whole Mediterranean at the base of Pliocene, although stable marine conditions occurred only about 20[no-break space]kyrs later

A New foodweb based on microbes in calcitic caves: The Cansiliella (Beetles) case in Northern Italy, 2011, Paoletti Maurizio G. , Beggio Mattia, Dreon Angelo Leandro, Pamio Alberto, Gomiero Tiziano, Brilli Mauro, Dorigo Luca, Concheri Giuseppe, Squartini Andrea, Engel Annette Summers

The troglobitic beetle, Cansiliella servadeii percolating water on moonmilk, a speleothem formation in Grotta della Foos, Italy. Results from analyses of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen suggest that acquires and assimilates dissolved allochthonous organic carbon, inorganic nitrogen, and possibly phosphorus and other nutrients from the microbial fauna associated with moonmilk.


Isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation and karstic springs of the north-west slope of the Crimean Mountains, 2011, Dublyansky Y. V. , Klimchouk . B. , Amelichev G. N. , Tokarev S. V. , Sptl C.

Atmospheric precipitation was sampled for isotopic analyses according to GNIP protocol at two stations in Crimea,  Ukraine: Simferopol (24 months) and Chatyrdag (15 months). In addition, several karstic springs and one well tapping deep karstic  aquifer were sampled. The δD vs. δ 18 O relationship is only slightly differs from global Meteoric Water Line. Variable degrees of  correlation with the air temperature and the precipitation amount suggest that the isotopic composition of precipitation is affected  by several processes (e.g., air temperature and supply of moisture from different sources). Interestingly, drastically different make-ups of precipitation were observed simultaneously at two stations located only 23 km apart.  Waters in seven karstic springs discharging at Dolgorukovsky massif (2), Chatirdag (1), Baidarsky basin (3), and Mangup-kale  (1) have isotopic compositions that follow local meteoric water line but are lighter than weighted annual mean values for their  respective catchment areas. Isotopic composition of the underground stream in Krasnaya (Red) cave is nearly constant and thus,  decoupled from changes in both the isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation in the recharge area and the flow regime  (flood or base flow). This suggests a strong buffering and homogenizing role of the soil cover and the epikarst zone, as well as  the predominant role of winter recharge on these karst massifs. Still lighter isotopic composition of deep karstic water tapped by  a borehole is tentatively explained by old, pre-Holocene age of this water.


Isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation and karstic springs of the north-west slope of the Crimean Mountains, 2012, Dublyansky Y. V. , Klimchouk . B. , Amelichev G. N. , Tokarev S. V. , Sptl C

 

Atmospheric precipitation was sampled for isotopic analyses according to GNIP protocol at two stations in Crimea,
Ukraine: Simferopol (24 months) and Chatyrdag (15 months). In addition, several karstic springs and one well tapping deep karstic aquifer were sampled. The δD vs. δ18O relationship is only slightly differs from global Meteoric Water Line. Variable degrees of correlation with the air temperature and the precipitation amount suggest that the isotopic composition of precipitation is affected by several processes (e.g., air temperature and supply of moisture from different sources). Interestingly, drastically different makeups of precipitation were observed simultaneously at two stations located only 23 km apart. Waters in seven karstic springs discharging at Dolgorukovsky massif (2), Chatirdag (1), Baidarsky basin (3), and Mangup-kale (1) have isotopic compositions that follow local meteoric water line but are lighter than weighted annual mean values for their respective catchment areas. Isotopic composition of the underground stream in Krasnaya (Red) cave is nearly constant and thus, decoupled from changes in both the isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation in the recharge area and the flow regime (flood or base flow). This suggests a strong buffering and homogenizing role of the soil cover and the epikarst zone, as well as the predominant role of winter recharge on these karst massifs. Still lighter isotopic composition of deep karstic water tapped by a borehole is tentatively explained by old, pre-Holocene age of this water.

Isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation and karstic springs of the north-west slope of the Crimean Mountains, 2012, Dublyansky Y. V. , Klimchouk . B. , Amelichev G. N. , Tokarev S. V. , Spotl, C.

Atmospheric precipitation was sampled for isotopic analyses according to GNIP protocol at two stations in Crimea, Ukraine: Simferopol (24 months) and Chatyrdag (15 months). In addition, several karstic springs and one well tapping deep karstic aquifer were sampled. The δD vs. δ18O relationship is only slightly differs from global Meteoric Water Line. Variable degrees of correlation with the air temperature and the precipitation amount suggest that the isotopic composition of precipitation is affected by several processes (e.g., air temperature and supply of moisture from different sources). Interestingly, drastically different makeups of precipitation were observed simultaneously at two stations located only 23 km apart. Waters in seven karstic springs discharging at Dolgorukovsky massif (2), Chatirdag (1), Baidarsky basin (3), and Mangup-kale (1) have isotopic compositions that follow local meteoric water line but are lighter than weighted annual mean values for their respective catchment areas. Isotopic composition of the underground stream in Krasnaya (Red) cave is nearly constant and thus, decoupled from changes in both the isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation in the recharge area and the flow regime (flood or base flow). This suggests a strong buffering and homogenizing role of the soil cover and the epikarst zone, as well as the predominant role of winter recharge on these karst massifs. Still lighter isotopic composition of deep karstic water tapped by a borehole is tentatively explained by old, pre-Holocene age of this water


Isotopes of Carbon in a Karst Aquifer of the Cumberland Plateau of Kentucky, USA, 2013, Florea Lee J.

In this study, the concentration and isotopic composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are measured in the karst groundwater of the Otter Creek watershed of the Cumberland Plateau of Kentucky, USA. Comparisons among these data and with the geochemistry of carbonate and gypsum equilibrium reactions reveal that DOC concentration is inversely related to discharge, multiple reaction pathways provide DIC with isotopic enrichment that may be directly related to mineral saturation, and oxidation of reduced sulfur is possible for dissolution. DOC is derived from C3 vegetation with an average δ13C DOC of ‒27‰. DIC in groundwater is derived from both pedogenic CO2  and HCO3 - from dissolved carbonate. At input sites to the karst aquifers DIC concentrations are expectedly low, less than 1 mmol/L, in waters that are undersaturated with respect to calcite. At the output of these karst aquifers DIC concentrations reach 3 mmol/L in waters that are at or above calcite saturation. Values of δ13C DIC range between ‒6.3 and ‒12.4‰ with CO2 degassing and calcite precipitation at some sites obfuscating a simple relationship between δ13C DIC, discharge, and mineral saturation. In addition, concentrations of DIC in sulfur seeps within the watershed range between 2–7 mmol/L with δ13C DIC values in some samples skewed more toward the anticipated value of carbonate bedrock than would be expected from reactions with carbonic acid alone. This suggests that the oxidation of reduced sulfur from shallow oilfield brines liberates bedrock DIC through reactions with sulfuric acid.


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