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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That hydrosphere is that part of the earth that contains liquid or solid water [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for istria (Keyword) returned 14 results for the whole karstbase:
This paper discusses the results of a geological, hydrogeological, and hydrological analysis of the catchment boundaries and area of the Sv. Ivan karst spring. The underground watershed has been determined by geological and hydrogeological methods. The control used was the hydrologic water budget analysis appropriate for karst basins with limited data (Turc, 1954). The Sv. Ivan spring includes one main spring and several intermittent springs. The water in the main spring penetrates the flysch layers which limit the spring's discharge; therefore, the discharge of the main spring is fairly uniform. The ratio between minimum and maximum yearly discharges ranges from 1:3.3 to 1:12.8. Only a part of the water flows through the main spring while the other springs in the zone are overflows. The catchment area of Sv. Ivan spring zone is defined as 65 km2

Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia, 1997, Prohic E. , Hausberger G. , Davis J. C. ,
Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin - Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin - Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs-137 from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Did the Argonauts of Greek myth go underground in the Slovene karst?, 1998, Shaw Trevor R. , Macqueen James G.

Lazius's maps of Carniola, the first of which was printed in 1545, have a note at Vrhnika, where the Ljubljanica rises from its subterranean course, saying that the Argonauts of the Greek golden fleece myth went underground there on their way from the Black Sea to the Adriatic. The original Greek sources describe only a surface route, either following a branch of the Sava running west to the sea, or requiring their ship to be carried overland for this part of the journey. Elsewhere, though, it was said that fish pass from one sea to the other by underground channels. The subterranean variant of the Argonaut story has not been traced before Lazius, though he may have got the idea from another mapmaker, Hirschvogel, who had lived in Ljubljana. Münster's map of 1550 implies the existence of an underground river between Vrhnika and the Mirna river in Istria, but it does not associate it with the Argonaut story. The idea seems to have arisen just when maps were showing that hills formed a barrier between the east-flowing Sava and the rivers of the Adriatic basin, and when the existence of caves and underground rivers was becoming more widely known.

Gemorphogenetics of the Classical Karst - Kras, 1998, Gams, Ivan

Between Eocene and Pliocene, erosion of flysch strata on the top of Cretaceous limestone anticlinorium in the central and western part of the Kras plateau and the Kozina-Podgrad anticline uncovered and widened - and simultanously lowered - the karst plain in the conditions of dammed karst. The largest portion of Kras plateau is covered with karst plain, its oldest part. In Pliocene, the karst plain was fractured and subsided towards the NW regardless of older folded structure; during this process, several zones of elevations were formed through slower subsiding or uplifting. Due to faster lowering of the Vipava syncline, water streams stopped running over the Kras plateau before the flysch, damming the waters from the Kras plateau to the south was removed due to the subsiding in the northern Gulf of Trieste. Thus, no fossil blind valleys or poljes are found on the Kras plateau. However, there is considerable density of dolines and the surface is stony, giving the karst its original name. Both phenomena are typical of deforrested, densely populated and cultivated Submediterranean Dinaric karst plains.

Combustion Oil pollution of Pazinska Jama - a major Ecological incident in the Karst., 1999, Kuhta M.
The pollution of Pazincica river occurred in August 1997 as a consequence of uncontrolled leakage of vast quantities of oil from a ruptured pipe that connects the oil reservoir and the oil combustion facility of the factory KTI "Pazinka". The oil together with waste waters from the factory first discharged into the watercourse Saltarija and then flowed into the downstream part of Pazincica River. The spilled combustion oil was a threat to the groundwater of the wider region of Istria so extensive and intensive measures were undertaken for its removal. Within these prevention measures two speleological investigations of the Pazincica ponor (Pazinska jama- Foiba di Pisino) were undertaken. It was determined that due to favourable hydrological conditions (the discharge of Pazincica river was 50 l/s) and the fast reaction time of the intervention, only small quantities of oil managed to enter the ponor. On the other hand approximately 168 m3 of combustion oil was detached from the surface watercourse. Unfortunately the speleological examination of the ponor determined a high degree of underground pollution caused by discharge of waste waters from the city of Pazin and its industries into the Pazincica River. Also traces of past unregistered combustion oil pollution were found within the cavern.

The small vertebrate fauna (Rodents, Insectivores, and Reptiles) of Šandalja 1A (Istria, Croatia), 2001, Aguilar Jeanpierre, Crochet Jeanyves, Michaux Jacques, Mihevc Andrej, Paunovič, Maja

Is described under the name of Šandalja 1A, a Lower to Middle Pleistocene fauna of small vertebrates including rodents, insectivores and reptiles. Extracted from a bone breccia found in 1999 in the Šandalja quarry near Pula, its accurate localization with respect to the previously known bone breccia of Šandalja 1 is not known. Nevertheless this dating - a Biharian age - is congruent with the younger age now advocated for the fauna of large mammals of Šandalja 1 and its associated chopper.

Alberto Fortis and the Istrian karst, Croatia, in 1770 and 1771, 2001, Shaw Trevor R. , Adam Nadja

An unpublished letter written by Alberto Fortis in 1771 describes his visit to the Mramorica cave near Brtonigla (Istria) in 1770, and a journey over the karst from Pula to Rovinj in 1771. He argues that caves are formed by collapse initiated by underground streams washing away soil from bedding planes, with subsequent collapse of higher levels until an opening appears at the surface. Dolines result from rain and frost action causing the entrance walls to collapse into the cave.

Bishop Hervey at Trieste and in Slovenia, 1771, 2001, Shaw, Trevor R.

Two letters written in 1771 by Frederick Augustus Hervey are printed in full. They report that he saw caves at Postojna, Planina, Škocjan and Pazin about May 1771, before he joined Fortis in Istria and continued with him to Dalmatia and their better-known cave explorations there. From other sources it is shown that Hervey also visited the caves at Vilenica, Socerb and Brtonigla in the same journey. He mentions also two identified caves close to the Timavo springs.

Evolution of the Adriatic carbonate platform: Palaeogeography, main events and depositional dynamics, 2005, Vlahovic I. , Tisljar J. , Velic I. , Maticec D. ,
The Adriatic Carbonate Platform (AdCP) is one of the largest Mesozoic carbonate platforms of the Perimediterranean region. Its deposits comprise a major part of the entire carbonate succession of the Croatian Karst (External or Outer) Dinarides, which is very thick (in places more than 8000 m), and ranges in age from the Middle Permian (or even Upper Carboniferous) to the Eocene. However, only deposits ranging from the top of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) to the top of the Cretaceous can be attributed to the AdCP (defined as an isolated palaeogeographical entity). Although the entire carbonate succession of the Karst Dinarides was deposited within carbonate platform environments, there were different types of carbonate platforms located in different palaeogeographical settings. Carboniferous to Middle Triassic mixed siliciclastic-carbonate deposits were accumulated along the Gondwanian margin, on a spacious epeiric carbonate platform. After tectonic activity, culminating by regional Middle Triassic volcanism recorded throughout Adria (the African promontory), a huge isolated carbonate Southern Tethyan Megaplatform (abbreviated as STM) was formed, with the area of the future AdCP located in its inner part. Tectonic disintegration of the Megaplatform during the middle to late Early Jurassic resulted in the establishment of several carbonate platforms (including the Adriatic, Apenninic and Apulian) separated by newly drowned deeper marine areas (including the Adriatic Basin as a connection between the Ionian and Belluno basins, Lagonero, Basin, and the area of the Slovenian and Bosnian troughs). The AdCP was characterised by predominantly shallow-marine deposition, although short or long periods of emergence were numerous, as a consequence of the interaction of synsedimentary tectonics and eustatic changes. Also, several events of temporary platform drowning were recorded, especially in the Late Cretaceous, when synsedimentary tectonics became stronger, leading up to the final disintegration of the AdCP. The thickness of deposits formed during the 125 My of the AdCP's existence is variable (between 3500 and 5000 m). The end of AdCP deposition was marked by regional emergence between the Cretaceous and the Palaeogene. Deposition during the Palaeogene was mainly controlled by intense synsedimentary tectonic deformation of the former platform area-some carbonates (mostly Eocene in age) were deposited on irregular ramp type carbonate platforms surrounding newly formed flysch basins, and the final uplift of the Dinarides reached its maximum in the Oligocene/Miocene. The Adriatic Carbonate Platform represents a part (although a relatively large and well-preserved one) of the broader shallow-water carbonate platform that extended from NE Italy to Turkey (although its continuity is somewhat debatable in the area near Albanian/Greece boundary). This large carbonate body, which was deformed mostly in the Cenozoic (including a significant reduction of its width), needs a specific name, and the Central Mediterranean Carbonate Platform is proposed (abbreviated to CMCP), although the local names (such as AdCP for its NW part) should be kept to enable easier communication, and to facilitate description of local differences in platform evolution,

Grottes et karsts dEurope centrale dans les Encyclopdies franaises du XVIIIe sicle, 2006, Gauchon Christophe
Central European caves and karsts in French Encyclopaedias of xviiith century - The xviiith century, and especially the second half, was a time of great progress in natural history and, more particularly, in the knowledge of caves, and this interest for caves appeared in several Encyclopaedias published in that time. At the very end of xviith century, several dictionaries of History or Geography [Baudrand, Moreri] were printed in France. Their aim was to give a wide panorama of the whole human knowledge. After 1750, D. Diderot and J. dAlembert began the publishing of the great Encyclopaedia, or reasoned dictionary of sciences, arts and technology [1751-1765]. More than just a dictionary, this major opus of the Enlightenments purposed to criticize all the old knowledges, with the intention of rebuilding by the reason a new understanding of the world. As it was considered disrespectful towards church, Jesuits published another Encyclopaedia, the Dictionnaire de Trvoux . Then, at the end of xviiith century, Panckoucke published the huge Methodical Encyclopaedia , with three volumes for modern Geography and five for physical Geography . So, dozens and dozens of caves all over the world were described in these dictionaries and Encyclopaedias, and here well try to expose what is about central Europe. The articles about regional geography (Istria, Alps) were often reduced to historical relations or to very poor lists of geographical names. Before the publishing of the last Encyclopaedia of the century, travellers relations seemed unknown by the authors of the dictionaries. The methodical Encyclopaedia showed a clear progress with, for instance, two articles about Croatia: the article river Cettina described several phenomena of karstic hydrology; or the article Biocova dealt with the ice-caves of the Mont-Mossor. It seems that Dictionaries and encyclopaedias had better information about caves of France or Germany where fossilized bones had been discovered. Some caves of the Mediterranean countries were also well known, because of the mythological or biblical traditions; numerous references to Timavo spring were based only on ancient roman geographers. But what about the caves of central Europe? The cave of Retelstein in Styria and the cave of Ribar (Hungary) were described in the great Encyclopaedia, and the article Cave gave a long list in which we find a short mention of the caves of Postojna and Podpec (Slovenia). But the longest articles were about Cirknitz Lake: all the dictionaries gave a large place to this famous place for hunting, fishing and ploughing , as repeated Moreri or Baudrand who looked at this phenomenon as a wonder. In the great Encyclopaedia, the description was much more accurate and tried to explain the working of the lake in the surroundings: the sink holes and the resurgences were well identified. These accurate descriptions of Cirknitz Lake stand in strong contrast with the short mentions of Postojna, which is still supposed to be two milles long As to Recca of San Canzian, this place never appeared in French dictionaries and Encyclopaedias of the xviiith century: Skocjan seemed completely unknown But these various spots were described without any connection among them. If the authors of the Encyclopaedias wanted to break definitively with all the superstitions from old ages, they were not yet able to understand the meaning of what we call karstic landscapes . On this point, the age of Enlightenments appears as a time of transition. Now, articles about Carniole (former name for main part of Slovenia) show an interesting evolution of the authors points of view. Masson de Morvilliers in the Methodical Encyclopaedia (modern Geography) explained that this country contains many noteworthy caves . And in the volume v of physical Geography [1828], the article about Zirknitz Lake ended with this interesting remark: The whole range of surrounding mountains is composed with porous limestone in which rain and snow-melting waters enter () The whole country, from north borders of Carniola to the shores of Adriatic Sea, and from the caves of Planina to the Timavo Springs, is full with streams suddenly issued from the ground and pointing out a subterranean current, which is logically to link with the working of Zirknitz Lake. So, with the help of these Encyclopaedias, we may have a good survey of the erudite geography of Karst in xviiith century and we can understand the basis on which the knowledge would get positive progress during the xixth one.

Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene forbulge unconformity associated with foreland basin evolution (Kras, Matarsko Podolje and Istria; SW Slovenia and NW Croatia), 2007, Otonič, Ar B.

A regional unconformity separates the Cretaceous passive margin shallow-marine carbonate sequence of Adriatic Carbonate Platform from the Upper Cretaceous and/or Paleogene shallow-marine sequences of synorogenic carbonate platform in southwestern Slovenia and Istria (a part of southwestern Slovenia and northwestern Croatia). The unconformity is expressed by irregular paleokarstic surface, locally marked by bauxite deposits. Distinctive subsurface paleokarstic features occur below the surface (e.g. filled phreatic caves, spongework horizons…). The age of the limestones that immediately underlie the unconformity and the extent of the chronostratigraphic gap in southwestern Slovenia and Istria systematically increase from northeast towards southwest, while the age of the overlying limestones decreases in this direction. Similarly, the deposits of synorogenic carbonate platform, pelagic marls and flysch (i.e. underfilled trinity), deposits typical of underfilled peripheral foreland basin, are also diachronous over the area and had been advancing from northeast towards southwest from Campanian to Eocene. Systematic trends of isochrones of the carbonate rocks that immediately under- and overlie the paleokarstic surface, and consequently, of the extent of the chronostratigraphic gap can be explained mainly by the evolution and topography of peripheral foreland bulge (the forebulge). The advancing flexural foreland profile was the result of vertical loading of the foreland lithospheric plate (Adria microplate) by the evolving orogenic wedge. Because of syn- and post-orogenic tectonic processes, and time discrepancy between adjacent foreland basin deposits and tectonic (“orogenic”) phases it is difficult to define the exact tectonic phase responsible for the evolution of the foreland complex. According to position and migration of the subaerially exposed forebulge, distribution of the foreland related macrofacies and orientation of tectonic structures, especially of Dinaric nappes, and Dinaric mountain chain I suggest that the foreland basin complex in western Slovenia and Istria was formed during mesoalpine (“Dinaric”) tectonic phase due to oblique collision between Austroalpine terrane/Tisia microplate and Adria microplate when probably also a segmentation of the foreland plate (Adria microplate) occurred.

Shore grykes along the western Istrian coast, 2011, Furlani S. , Chersicla D. , Bressan G. , Biolchi S. , Cucchi F.

coast We provided new data on topography, morphology and physical/chemical parameters (pH, T, NO2-, Ca2+, PO43-, NaCl ) collected in several shore grykes along the Northwestern Istrian coast, between Savudrija and Zambratija. Six transects, each containing four to five pools, have been surveyed. Three morphological zones have been identified along the selected profiles. Morphological features of the shore grykes along the western Istrian coast are, in fact, closely related to the local tide. High-level pools are affected by karstic processes, and the surface is usually smooth. At their bottom, terrigenous deposits, mainly terra rossa, occur. Seaward, bioerosion prevails and at the bottom of the grykes, sand and rounded pebbles have been found. Chemical/physical parameters suggest that grykes located at lower altitudes are affected by seawater factors, while pools located at increasing altitudes are affected mainly by rainfall and consequentially freshwater or saltwater remaining from rainfalls or storm events. Shore gryke genesis is strongly controlled by geological weakness, along which they develop. Their origin is in fact due to local tectonics, while their development is related to the active vertical tectonic subsidence of the study area. Pools located at higher altitudes are mainly affected by solution karst processes, but due to the tectonic downdrop of the area, when the grykes come in contact with sea, they are gradually shaped by marine processes.

Late Holocene widening of karst voids by marine processes in partially submerged coastal caves (Northeastern Adriatic Sea)., 2012, Furlani Stefano, Cucchi Franco, Biolchi Sara


The coastal scenery of the Northeastern Adriatic sea is widely interested by caves and related coastal features, which are developed in correspondence of geological weaknesses of sea cliffs. We present the preliminary surveying of five partially submerged coastal caves cut in limestone cliffs, relating the dissolutionally widened vadose karst voids and the present- day forms. The analysis pointed out two well-defined morphological zones inside the caves. The boundary between the zones roughly coincides with the mean sea level. The submerged zone is mainly affected by abrasion processes on the bottom and the lateral walls, while the emerged zone is interested by karst processes and collapse of blocks from the roof. Their effects produce a bell-shaped cross-section, in which the submerged part of the caves is significantly larger than the emerged one. Considering the tectonic behaviour of the area inferred from literature the caves were flooded about 6 ka BP, when marine processes started to shape their submerged part. Our results allowed, in particular, to evaluate processes shaping the partially submerged coastal caves in the Northeastern Adriatic Sea after the marine transgression. Considering the very preliminary surveyed data, we suggest that the early phases of cave evolution was mainly dissolutionally-controlled and produced the widening of pre-existing joints or faults, as demonstrated by the occurrence of karst features in the upper part of the caves. Recent evolution is instead marine-controlled and the widening is mainly due to the overlapping of marine processes effects on karst voids, since they are closely related to the Late Holocene sea level rise

LIFE AND WATER ON KARST. Monitoring of transboundary water resources of Northern Istria, 2015,

The monograph presents the natural features of Northern Istria, the karst and karst phenomena, karst hydrogeology, ecology and microbiology, and highlights in particular the vulnerability of the karst to various human activities. The main focus of attention is on karst water sources. In assessing their characteristics we used available knowledge of karst water on both sides of the border and supplemented it with new research on the transboundary area in question, which was based on field measurements and sampling, and chemical, microbiological and biological analysis of water. The collected findings form the basis for planning more effective monitoring of the quality of karst water sources, their protection and consequently the improvement of their quality.

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