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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That water invasion is the sudden invasion of water into a well or borehole [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for italia (Keyword) returned 66 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 66
Laboratory and field evidence for a vadose origin of foibe (domepits)., 1965,
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Reams Max W.
Foiba (plural, foibe) is a term derived from the northeastern Italian karst region. The word is here suggested for use in preference to other terms referring to vertical cavities in soluble rocks. Foiba is defined as a cavity in relatively soluble rock which is natural, solutional, tends toward a cylindrical shape, and possesses walls which normally approach verticality. In laboratory experiments, limestone blocks were treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, and cavities resembling foibe were produced. Vertical walls developed only when a less soluble layer capped the limestone block or when the acid source was stationary, allowing acid to drip to the area directly below. Water analyses from foibe in central Kentucky and Missouri indicate that the water has had less residence time in the zone of aeration than other waters percolating through the rocks and entering the caves. In central Kentucky, foibe seem to be developed by migrating underground waterfalls held up by less soluble layers or by water moving directly down joints below less soluble layers. In Missouri, foibe are formed by joint enlargement below chert layers. Those foibe in the ceilings of caves are complicated by the enlargement of the lower part of the joints by cave streams during fluctuating water table conditions. In limestone caves of Kansas, foibe are formed in a similar manner as in Missouri. The foibe of the gypsum caves of Kansas are formed mainly on the sides of steep collapse sinkholes and lack joint control although they form beneath less soluble layers in the gypsum. Dripping water is necessary for the development of vertical walls by solution. Less soluble layers seem to be the unique feature which allows water to drip and pour into foibe. The floors of foibe are formed by less soluble layers or near the water table. If foibe intersect previously formed cave passages, no floors may develop.

Spiders from the Philippines. I. A new cavernicolous Althepus of Mindanao Island (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae)., 1973,
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Brignoli Paolo Marcello
Althepus noonadanae n.sp. is described (female; male unknown; loc. typ.: Latuan Cave, Curuan district, Mindanao, Philippines); it can be distinguished from the other known species by the morphology of the chelicerae and of the female genitalia. It is not related to any of the very few described species. A key for the female Althepus is given.

Spiders from the Philippines. I. A new cavernicolous Althepus of Mindanao Island (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae)., 1973,
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Brignoli Paolo Marcello
Althepus noonadanae n.sp. is described (female; male unknown; loc. typ.: Latuan Cave, Curuan district, Mindanao, Philippines); it can be distinguished from the other known species by the morphology of the chelicerae and of the female genitalia. It is not related to any of the very few described species. A key for the female Althepus is given.

A cavernicolous Japygidae Diplura from Corsica, Dipljapyx beroni n.sp., 1974,
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Pages Jean
Dipljapyx beroni n.sp. has been collected from two caves in Corsica. From its antennae with 31 articles, chaetotaxia of urites and subcoxal organs well-characterized, it appears to be an endemic Corsican species, situated between D. humberti Grassi found in the western Alps, and D. italicus Silv. peculiar to the Italian Peninsula. It is closely related to the first of those two species. There is no morphologic feature indicating it as a troglophilic species.

A new species of Parajapygidae from the Caribbean shores of Cuba collected by Pr. L. Botosaneanu during the second cuban-romanian biospeleological expedition to Cuba 1973., 1975,
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Pages Jean.
P. (P.) botosaneanui n.sp. has been collected in the interstitial habitat of the Caribbean shores on the eastern coast of Cuba. This note is divided into 6 parts: 1) the description by L. Botusaneanu of the stations where this species has been collected and data on the possibility for the specimens of this taxa to swim and to creep between the grains of sand; 2) the description and the affinities of the n. sp., which is closely related to bonetianus Silv. from Mexico; 3) the study of the male genitalia made possible the definition of 4 instars (male 1 to male 4) which seem common to all the Parajapyx; 4) the study of the 9 genitalia, which possess always the same number of phanera, whatever the size may be, does not permit the identification of instars; 5) the study of the armature of the internal margin of the cerci shows for the first time among the Parajapygidae a striking dimorphismus both between the sexless and sexed instars and between male and female, these latter retaining, when "adult", an ornamentation identical to that of juvenil males: 6) the study of evolution and progressive complication of the chetotaxy from the sexless instars to the elder ones.

A study on Rhachomyces species (Ascomycetes, Laboulbeniales), parasitic on Italian Duvalius (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechini)., 1978,
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Rossi Walter
The systematic position, variability and distribution of the two species of Rhachomvces parasitic on Italian Duvalius are defined on the basis of several new findings. Rhachomyces stipitatus Thaxter was found in Liguria, central Italv, Sicilv and Sardinia; its synonyrny with R. capucinus Thaxter is confirmed and the ssp. pallidus Maire is considered of no systematic relevance. R. maublancii, whose position is regularized by a Latin validating diagnosis, was only found on the Alps and previous records in other countries are questioned.

Les karsts de gypse italiens ( propos du Symposium inter-national sur les karsts des vaporites), 1986,
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Choppy, J.
ITALIAN GYPSUM KARSTS - Synthesis of field observations and bibliographic data on shallow and deep gypsum karsts in Italy; these karsts are located in Trias (Emily) and in Messinian (continental Italy, especially near Bologna, and Sicily). The author describes clints of Sicily, the features of erosion and filling in underground caves.

Rospo Mare (Adriatique), un palokarst ptrolier du domaine mditerranen, 1993,
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Dubois P. , Sorriaux P. , Soudet H. J.
The oil paleokarst of Rospo Mare (Adriatic Sea) The oil field of Rospo Mare is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km of the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at the depth of 1300m and consists of a paleokarst of Oligocene to Miocene age, which developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered with 1200m of mio-pliocene sequences. The oil column is about 140m high. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical, cored drill holes which allowed the analysis of the various solutional features and the sedimentary infilling (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sinkholes. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a paleokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in nearby quarries. Detailed knowledge of that morphology through geophysics helped to optimise the development of the field through horizontal drilling. The paleokarst of Rospo Mare is an integral part of the pre-miocene paleokarst assemblages of the periphery of the Mediterranean, which were formed in tropical conditions.

The cricket fauna of Chiapanecan caves (Mexico): systematics, phylogeny and the evolution of troglobitic life (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae, Luzarinae), 1993,
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Desuttergrandcolas Laure
The present study deals with the cavernicolous Grylloidea of Chiapas. It details the composition of this fauna, which belongs exclusively to the Phalangopsid group Amphiacustae, and considers its troglobitic evolution in the methodological framework of Comparative Biology. This method consists in analysing the evolution of biological features in reference to phylogeny, using character state optimization. The material studied comes mostly from Italian biospeological expeditions, but also from the authors work in Mexico, from North American biospeological expeditions achieved in Central America and the West Indies, and from the collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the Museum National d'Histoire naturelle de Paris and the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. I first present a systematic and phylogenetic analysis of Amphiacustae. Six new genera are defined and the genus Amphiacusta Saussure, 1874 is clearly delimited; twenty-three of the twenty six species considered in the paper are new and described. A key for genera and species groups is given. Phylogenetic relationships among genera are established using cladistics (implicit enumeration of Hennig 86 program). The evolution of troglobitic Amphiacustae is then analyzed. Available data on the biology of Amphiacust genera are presented and compared with what is known on other Phalangopsidae. Three biological attributes are moreover defined (troglobitic versus non troglobitic; cavernicolous versus non cavernicolous; leaf litter foraging versus leaf litter not foraging). The mapping of the attributes upon our cladogram has shown that Amphiacustae evolved twice toward cave life and that their ancestral habitat could be characterized by cavernicolous habits and leaf litter foraging. The results are discussed in reference to theories on troglobitic taxa evolution, and to the exaptation concept of Gould & Vrba (1982). This leads to three main conclusions: 1/ Amphiacust adaptation to caves could be the result of a tentative to exploit karstic resources in Central America; 2/ An epigean dispersion by cave living species can be hypothesized; 3/ For Grylloidea, having cavernicolous habits at ground level appears to be exaptative to troglobitic life.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRACTURES AND KARSTIFICATION - THE OIL-BEARING PALEOKARST OF ROSPO MARE (ITALY), 1994,
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Soudet H. J. , Sorriaux P. , Rolando J. P. ,
The Rospo Mare oil field is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km off the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at a depth of 1300 m and consists of a paleokarst oi Oligocene to Miocene age which developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered by 1200 m of Mio-Pliocene sequences. The oil column is about 140 m 8 high. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical, cored drill holes which allowed us to analyse the various solution features and the sedimentary infilling (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including in particular paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sink holes. Detailed geophysical knowledge of that morphology helped to optimize the development of the field through horizontal drilling. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a palaeokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in quarries located nearby. The Rospo Mare paleokarst is an integral part of the ante Miocene paleokarst assemblages of the periphery of the Mediterranean which were formed in tropical conditions. Only the fractures enhanced by meteoric water during the formation of the karat are important for reservoir connectivity. During the formation of the karst there were several phases of dissolution and infilling which modified the geometry of the open fissures and only these fractures play an important role in the reservoir drainage. Vertically we can distinguish three very different zones from top to bottom: at the top the epikarst (0-35 m) in a zone of extension. All the fractures have been enlarged by dissolution but the amount of infilling by clay is substantial. The clays are derived either from alteration of the karat fabric or by deposition during the Miocene transgression; the percolation zone (15-45 m) is characterized by its network of large fractures vertically enlarged by dissolution which corresponds to the relict absorption zones in the paleokarst. These fractures, which usually have a pluridecametric spacing, connect the epi-karst with the former sub-horizontal river system. This zone has been intersected by the horizontal wells during the field development. In this zone there are local, horizontal barriers oi impermeable clay which can block vertical transmissibility. In these low permeability zones the vertical fractures have not been enlarged due to dissolution hence the horizontal barrier; the zone of underground rivers (35-70 m) is characterized by numerous horizontal galleries which housed the subterranean ground water circulation. When these fissures are plurimetric in extent this can lead to gallery collapse with the associated fill by rock fall breccia. This can partly block the river system but always leaves a higher zone of free circulation with high permeabilities of several hundreds of Darcys. These galleries form along the natural fracture system relative to the paleohydraulic gradient which in some cases has been preserved. The zone below permanent ground water level with no circulation of fluids is characterized by dissolution limited to non-connected vugs. Very locally these fissures can be enlarged by tectonic fractures which are non-connected and unimportant for reservoir drainage. Laterally, only the uppermost zone can be resolved by seismic imaging linked with horizontal well data (the wells are located at the top of the percolation zone). The Rospo Mare reservoir shows three distinct horizontal zones: a relict paleokarst plateau with a high index of open connected fractures, (area around the A and B platforms); a zone bordering the plateau (to the north-east of the plateau zone) very karstified but intensely infilled by cap rock shales (Miocene - Oligocene age); a zone of intensely disturbed and irregular karst paleotopography which has been totally infilled by shales. The performance of the production wells is dependent on their position with respect to the three zones noted above and their distance from local irregularities in the karst paleotopography (dolines, paleovalleys)

HOLOCENE MARINE CEMENT COATINGS ON BEACH-ROCKS OF THE ABU-DHABI COASTLINE (UAE) - ANALOGS FOR CEMENT FABRICS IN ANCIENT LIMESTONES, 1994,
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Kendall C. G. S. , Sadd J. L. , Alsharhan A. ,
Marine carbonate cements, which are superficially like travertines from meteoric caves, are coating and binding some intertidal sedimentary rock surfaces occurring in coastal Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates, (UAE). Near Jebel Dhana these surficial cements can be up to 3 cm thick and envelope beach rock surfaces and fossils. They are also present both as thin coats and a fracture-fill cement in the intertidal hard grounds associated with the Khor Al Bazam algal flats. The thickness, microscopic characteristics, and morphology of the marine cement coatings from Jebel Dhana indicates incremental deposition of aragonite in conjunction with traces of sulfate minerals. Most of these cement coatings are micritic, but the layers which encrust the hard grounds from the algae flat of the Khor al Bazam have a more radial and fibrous micro-structure and are composed solely of aragonite. The stable isotopic composition of coatings from Jebel Dhana (delta(18)O = .35, delta(13)C = .00) falls within the compositional range for modem marine non skeletal aragonite and suggests that the marine travertine-like cements precipitate from the agitated slightly hypersaline Arabian Gulf sea water during repeated cycles of exposure, evaporation and immersion. Similar cement coatings and microfabrics are present in the tepee structured and brecciated sediments of the Guadalupe Mountains (Permian) and the Italian Alps (Triassic), in Holocene algal head cements from the Great Salt Lace, and in similar Tertiary algal heads in the Green River Formation of the western US. The petrographic similarity of these ancient ''flow stone'' like cements with Recent hypersaline marine cement coatings suggests that high rates of carbonate cementation and hypersaline conditions contribute to tepee formation and cavity fill

Rgulation romaine et drainage moderne du Fucino, lac karstique de lAbruzze (Italie centrale), 1995,
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Burri E. , Leveau P. , Nicod J.
The closed basin (polje-like) of Lake Fucino (+660 m) in Abruzzo is of tectonic origin with very considerable plio-pleistocene filling. The underground drainage by the south-west ponors is insufficient. Thereby the lake is subject to continual oscilla-tions, particularly in keeping with the cli-matic fluctuations studied for the holocene period and historic times. The drainage was carried out in 1st century A.D. under Emperor Claudius, by the dig-ging of a 5640m tunnel, and continued by Traianus and Adrianus, for the stabili-zation of the lake level, and land reclama-tion. By the 5/6th century, for lack of repair, this canal had ceased to function and the lake returned to its original dimension. In mid 19th century, a Company founded by a rich Roman ban-ker, A. Torionia, had a new canal built utilising the original Roman one. This led to the complete draining out of the lake by a canal system, and the full land reclama-tion renewed after the agrarian reform (1951) by a public society, the E.R.S.A.

ELECTROMAGNETIC AND SEISMOACOUSTIC SIGNALS REVEALED IN KARST CAVES (CENTRAL ITALY), 1995,
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Bella F, Biagi Pf, Caputo M, Dellamonica G, Ermini A, Plastino W, Sgrigna V, Zilpimiani D,
Since 1988-89 equipment for detecting electric, magnetic and seismoacoustic signals has been running inside the Amare cave. The Amare cave is placed on the southern slope of the Gran Sasso chain, that is one of the largest karst areas of the Italian Apennines. In 1992, a similar equipment was installed inside the Cervo cave. This cave is located in another karst area of the Central Apennines, at about 50 km southwestwards of the Amare cave. In both these measurements sites, the signals are recorded every ten minutes in a digital form; the equipment is able to record signals, the frequency of which ranges from some hundred Hz to some hundred kHz. The data collected up to now seem to identify two different states that we call ''quiet'' and ''perturbed'' state. In the quiet state only electric and magnetic signals with the highest frequencies appear. These signals are connected with radio broadcastings and with the general lightnings activity of the Earth. A perturbed state is characterized by the sudden appearance of seismoacoustic signals coupled with electric and magnetic ones. This phenomenology is connected with local processes. Rainfall, atmospheric-pressure variations and some thermal effects are responsible for these local processes. A possible model is proposed to justify the observed phenomenology: micromovements of the limestone blocks that constitute the roof of the caves are invoked for the production of seismoacoustic signals. The electrification generated by these movements is invoked for the production of electric and magnetic signals

The gypsum karst of Italy., 1996,
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Forti Paolo, Sauro Ugo
Gypsum karst has been studied in Italy since the last decades of the l9th Century. In 1917 the geographer Olinto Marinelli published "Fenomeni carsici delle regioni gessose d'Italia", a fundamental synthesis of the early research. He distinguished 56 different morpho-karstic gypsum units and/or areas, which are all different in size and character, and described them, paying special attention to their surface morphology and hydrology. Marinelli listed all the main gypsum units and only a few secondary outcrops were overlooked. After Marinelli's synthesis, except for some discussion of archaeological caves, only a few papers about gypsum karst and environment were published until the nineteen-fifties. In the nineteen-sixties and seventies much exploratory work and documentation was carried out in the Emilia Romagna area, principally devoted to the gypsum caves, and undertaken by the local speleological clubs and university researchers. The chapters that describe gypsum karst surface landforms in this publication contain many references to examples of gypsum karst in Italy, and these supplement the descriptions provided below.

Endokarst processes in the Alburni massif (Campania, southern Italy): evolution of ponors and hydrogeological implications, 1997,
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Santangelo N. , Santo A. ,
The Alburni carbonatic massif located within the southern Apennines chain, represents one of the most important Italian karstic areas. Within an area of about 280 square kilometres more than 200 caves are known and many important basal springs are present. This paper concerns ponor systems which are among the best developed endokarst morphologies in the area. In particular it deals with their morphological evolution and with their role in the underground hydrological circulation of the massif. The ponors can be defined as ''contact ponors'' since their entrances are always located at the contact between permeable carbonatic rocks and impermeable flysch formations. Two categories of ponors are present, active and inactive ones, latter due to erosion and lowering of the boundary between impermeable and permeable deposits. The ponors are located on the Alburni highland at a mean altitude of 1100 metres and they transfer water collected by catchment basin laying on flysch deposits down to the main basal springs, the altitudes of which range from 250 to 70 metres a.s.l. The structural setting of the massif strongly influences both the main directions along which the caves develop and the underground hydric circulation flows. Surface and underground morphostructural data have been compared, showing a general agreement, with frequency peaks at the N50 degrees and N140 degrees directions, though the underground data also outline the existence of a more ancient N90 degrees trend. As shown by speleological survey and tracing tests, the underground drainage is strongly influenced by the presence of karstic channels, and its preferential flow direction points towards the southern sector of the massif, according to the general dipping of the strata

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