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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pool deposit is crystalline material deposited in an isolated pool in a cave [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for java (Keyword) returned 15 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 15
Die Karstphanomene im Goenoeng Sewoe auf Java, 1910,
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Danes J. V.

Diplopoda from Papuan Caves (Zoological Results of the British Speleological Expedition to Papua-New Guinea, 1975, 4)., 1978,
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Hoffman Richard L.
Eight species of polydesmoid millipeds are described from the caves of the extreme northwestern corner of Papua New Guinea. Four new genera are named: in Paradoxosomatidae, Selminosoma, type S. chapmani; Astromontosoma, type A. jeekeli; in Doratodesmidae, Scolopopyge, type S. pholeter; Selminarchus, type S. hispidus. Two additional new species are referred to established genera Eustrongylosoma exiguum and Nothrosoma beroni, the latter, however, (known only from females) is probably referable to a new genus. Selminosoma chapmani appears both from its structure and biology to be a true troglobite, the first such species known in the Paradoxosomatidae. The two doratodesmid species extend the known range of this family eastward across Wallace's Line from west Java.

The Caves of Gunung Sewu, Java, 1983,
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Waltham A. C. , Smart P. L. , Friederich H. , Eavis A. J. , Atkinson T. C.

The Caves of Gunung Sewu, Java, 1984,
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Willis R. G, Boothroyd C. , Briggs N.

Anglo-Australian Speleological Expedition to Java, 1984, 1985,
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Stoddard Sheena (ed. )

Abstract: Water Tube Levelling, 1985,
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Smith, N. I.

In August 1984, six members of the Western Australia Speleological Group joined six members of the Kingswood Caving Group (U.K.) in Java, and with the assistance of the Federation of Indonesian Speleological Activities explored and mapped approximately 20km of cave passage in a period of three weeks. Many large river passages were found and a fair mixture of vertical and horizontal systems. The highlight of the expedition was the discovery of Luwang Jaran (Horse Pot) which was surveyed for 11km with many leads still going. This is now the longest cave in Indonesia. Six other caves over 1km long were found. The potential for further exploration in Java is enormous, despite bureaucratic difficulties. A return expedition is planned for 1983.


Abstract: Anglo-Australian Expedition to the Gunnung Sewu Karst, Java, Indonesia, 1985,
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Tyson, Wayne

In August 1984, six members of the Western Australia Speleological Group joined six members of the Kingswood Caving Group (U.K.) in Java, and with the assistance of the Federation of Indonesian Speleological Activities explored and mapped approximately 20km of cave passage in a period of three weeks. Many large river passages were found and a fair mixture of vertical and horizontal systems. The highlight of the expedition was the discovery of Luwang Jaran (Horse Pot) which was surveyed for 11km with many leads still going. This is now the longest cave in Indonesia. Six other caves over 1km long were found. The potential for further exploration in Java is enormous, despite bureaucratic difficulties. A return expedition is planned for 1983.


Fractal analysis of the Oyo River, cave systems, and topography of the Gunungsewu karst area, central Java, Indonesia, 2000,
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Kusumayudha Sari B. , Zen M. T. , Notosiswoyo Sudarto, Gautama Rudy Sayoga,

Relationships between morphology, genetics and geography in the cave fruit bat Eonycteris spelaea (Dobson, 1871) from Indonesia, 2003,
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Maharadatunkamsi, Hisheh S. , Kitchener D. J. , Schmitt L. H. ,
Morphological and genetic analyses of Eonycteris spelaea from 15 islands along the Banda Arc, from Sumatra to Timor and including Kalimantan and Sulawesi, revealed considerable divergence between islands and geographical patterning. On the basis of both morphology and genetics, the populations on the large islands of Greater Sunda (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Sulawesi) are generally distinct from one another and from those on the islands in Nusa Tenggara (Lombok to Timor), which form a more cohesive cluster. These differences may be the result of the Nusa Tenggara populations having been colonized more recently than those on the Greater Sunda, and probably from a single source. All biological measures of the relationships between island populations are positively associated with the extent of the sea-crossing between them, indicating the sea is an important barrier to movement. Multivariate analyses show the presence of a marked trend for body size to increase from west to east. However, individuals from Kalimantan are not consistent with this trend, being smaller than predicted, and on the two outer Banda Are islands of Sumba and Timor animals are a little larger than predicted from the longitudinal trend. These differences could be due to the relative isolation of these populations or differing environmental conditions. There is also a negative relationship between body size and island area, but this is confounded by the longitudinal trend. No significant longitudinal trends in the genetic data were detected and the trend in body size may be an adaptive response to an environmental cline that is known to occur in this region. (C) 2003 The Linnean Society of London

Dolomites in SE Asia -- varied origins and implications for hydrocarbon exploration, 2004,
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Carnell Ajh, Wilson Mej,
Carbonates in SE Asia range in age from Palaeozoic to Recent, but are most important as reservoirs in the Neogene where they comprise a major target for hydrocarbon exploration (e.g. Batu Raja Formation, South Sumatra, Sunda and Northwest Java basins). Carbonates of pre-Tertiary, Palaeogene and Neogene age all show a strong diagenetic overprint in which dolomite occurs as both cementing and replacive phases associated with variable reservoir quality. This paper reviews published data on the occurrence and types of dolomites in SE Asian carbonates, and considers the models that have been used to explain the distribution and origin of dolomite within these rocks. Pre-Tertiary carbonates form part of the economic basement, and are little studied and poorly understood. Although some, such as in the Manusela Formation of Seram, may form possible hydrocarbon reservoirs, most are not considered to form economic prospects. They are best known from the platform carbonates of the Ratburi and Saraburi groups. in Thailand, and the oolitic grainstones of the Manusela Formation of Seram. The Ratburi Group shows extensive dolomitization with dolomite developed as an early replacive phase and as a late-stage cement. Palaeogene carbonates are widely developed in the region and are most commonly developed as extensive foraminifera-dominated carbonate shelfal systems around the margins of Sundaland (e.g. Tampur Formation, North Sumatra Basin and Tonasa Formation, Sulawesi) and the northern margins of Australia and the Birds Head microcontinent (e.g. Faumai Formation, Salawati Basin). Locally, carbonates of this age may form hydrocarbon reservoirs. Dolomite is variably recorded in these carbonates and the Tampur Formation, for example, contains extensive xenotopic dolomite. Neogene carbonates (e.g. Peutu Formation, North Sumatra) are commonly areally restricted, reef-dominated and developed in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic systems. They most typically show a strong diagenetic overprint with leaching, recrystallization, cementation and dolomitization all widespread. Hydrocarbon reservoirs are highly productive and common in carbonates of this age. Dolomite is variably distributed and its occurrence has been related to facies, karstification, proximity to carbonate margins and faults. The distribution and origin of the dolomite has been attributed to mixing-zone dolomitization (commonly in association with karstic processes), sulphate reduction via organic matter oxidation, and dewatering from the marine mudstones that commonly envelop the carbonate build-up. Dolomite has a variable association with reservoir quality in the region, and when developed as a replacive phase tends to be associated with improved porosity and permeability characteristics. This is particularly the case where it is developed as an early fabric-retentive phase. Cementing dolomite is detrimental to reservoir quality, although the extent of this degradation generally reflects the abundance and distribution of this dolomite. Dolomitization is also inferred to have influenced the distribution of non-hydrocarbon gases. This is best documented in North Sumatra where carbon dioxide occurs in quantities ranging from 0 to 85%. There are a number of possible mechanisms for generating this CO2 (e.g. mantle degassing), although the most likely source is considered to be the widely dolomitized Eocene Tampur Formation that forms effective basement for much of the basin. High heat flows are suggested to have resulted in the thermogenic decomposition of dolomite with CO2 produced as a by-product

Sewu Cone Karst, Java, 2004,
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Waltham T.

DYNAMIC INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANDFORM EVOLUTION, HUMAN HABITATION, AND BIODIVERSITY IN GUNUNG SEWUKARST, JAVA-INDONESIA, 2008,
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Eko Haryono, Jarwo Susetyo Edy Yuwono , Lies Rahayu Wijayanti Faida
Gunung Sewu Karst is situated in the block faulted of Southern Java Zone, Indonesia. The area has been uplifted since the Late Pliocene. Three major uplift phases were reported have been taking place resulting in the exposure of Miocene carbonate rocks. Prevailing tropical monsoon climate has made possible the carbonate formations have evolved through karstification process. Three phases of the uplifting thereafter have resulted in three karst landform evolution. Karst landform evolution in Gunungsewu Karst inevitably determined pre-historic human habitation. During the first stage when surface river was active, human settlement occupy open space along river courses. When the caves were exposed in the second stage, human settlement moved to the caves and distributed along dry valleys or near doline ponds. Cave habitations ended when major depression dried out providing extensive agricultural land. In the modern era, the situation was inverted in which the human habitation determind geomorphologic processes. Soil erosion was accelerated due to deforestation and agricultural land extensification. Native species were replaced by exotic species commodities Big mammals mentioned above were extinct.

Diffuse Flow Separation Within Karst Underground River at Ngreneng Cave Yogyakarta - Indonesia, 2009,
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Tjahyo Nugroho Adji, Heru Hendrayana, Sudarmadji, Suratman Woro
Diffuse flow is a dependable flow to recharge karst underground river within the dry season. This research is conducted at Ngreneng Cave, which is famous as the leakage tributary of Bribin River, the most important underground river in Gunungsewu karst area, Central Java. The objective of this research is to separate the karst flow components at Ngreneng Cave, in order to acknowledge the percentage of diffuse flow during the period of measurement. A water level data logger is installed during one year period to understand the variation of water level within dry and wet season. Furthermore, to define Stage Discharge Rating Curve, several discharge measurement is conducted within minimum, average and maximum discharge condition. Afterwards, the diffuse flow separation from its total flow is conducted by using automated base flow separation by digital filtering. The digital filtering values is acquired from the analysis of recession constant value in the occurrence of flood events in a year observation and related to the value of the base flow maximum indices (BFI) of karst aquifer. The result shows that during one year observation, Ngreneng Cave experiences 68 times of flooding, with digital filtering value of 0.992. In general, the monthly estimation of the diffuse flow percentage is very close to 80%, whereas it decreases to 41-59% during flood events.

Wet season hydrochemistry of Bribin Cave in Gunung Sewu Karst, Indonesia, 2012,
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Tjahyo Nugroho Adji

This research was conducted on the Bribin River, the most important underground river in the Gunung Sewu Karst, Gunung Kidul, Java, Indonesia. The main purpose of this study was to define the wet-season hydrochemistry of this river. This research also focuses on identifying the relationship between hydrochemical parameters to provide better aquifer characterization.Water-level monitoring and discharge measurements were conducted over a 1-year period to define the discharge hydrograph. Furthermore, baseflow-separation analysis is conducted to determine the diffuse-flow percentage throughout the year. Water sampling for hydrogeochemical analysis is taken every month in the wet season and every 2 hours for two selected flood events. To describe the hydrogeochemical processes, a bivariate plot analysis of certain hydrochemical parameters is conducted. The results show that the diffuse-flow percentage significantly controls the river hydrochemistry. The domination of diffuse flow occurs during non-flooding and flood recession periods, which are typified by a high value of calcium and bicarbonate and low CO2 gas content in water. Conversely, the hydrochemistry of flood events is characterized by the domination of conduit flow and CO2 gas with low calcium and bicarbonate content. According to the wet-season hydrochemistry, it seems that the small- and medium-sized fractures in the Bribin aquifer still provide storage for the diffuse and fissure flows, although the conduit fracture is already developed.


Tower karst and cone karst, 2013,
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Zhu X. , Zhu D. , Zhang Y. , Lynch E. M.

Cone karst and tower karst are spectacular types of tropical/subtropical karst formed under conditions of intense karstification, and occurring primarily in China, Vietnam, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Java. The cone-tower karst system is classified into two basic types: fengcong-fenglin karst developed in hard, fissure-porosity rocks, and cockpit-mogotes karst in soft, high primary porosity carbonates. Key factors in the development of cone-tower karst include tropical or subtropical climate with abundant precipitation, tectonic uplift and base-level lowering, relatively pure and thick carbonate lithology, gentle anticline/syncline structures, allogenic input and through rivers. Differentiation into the cone (fengcong/cockpit) or tower (fenglin/mogotes) subtypes is strongly influenced by surface flow and the thickness of the vadose zone. Basic features of cone-tower karst, formation, and global distribution are discussed, with special emphasis on fengcongfenglin karst and the role of point infiltration, linear infiltration, and surface flow. The simultaneous (as opposed to sequential) evolution of fengcong karst and fenglin karst is explained by systematically analyzing the karst development, as well as the formation rate and age of fengcong-fenglin karst


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