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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That tyuyamunite is a cave mineral - ca(uo2)2(vo4)2.nh2o [11].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for jenolan caves (Keyword) returned 15 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 15
A Chemical Investigation of some Groundwater of the Northern Limestone at Jenolan Caves, 1977, James Julia M. , Handel M. L.

A brief description of the geology and drainage of the Northern limestone at Jenolan Caves is introduced. Approaches to karst geochemistry are given. The reasons are given for the choice of complete chemical analyses followed by calculations of the thermochemical parameters (saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite, SIc and SId, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide PCO2) for the Jenolan groundwaters. The methods of chemical analysis and thermochemical calculations are reported. The results of the groundwater survey are presented both as the raw chemical data and the derived thermochemical data. The raw data give more useful information than the calculated parameters. The results obtained by this survey are consistent with observations and the previous knowledge of the underground drainage of the Northern limestone. The water chemistry reflected the rock type and the residence time of the water in bedrock and gravels. It is concluded that the Jenolan underground River and Central River have different types of source and that Central River is not a braid of the Jenolan Underground River.


Aspects of the Musical History of Jenolan Caves, 1986, Targett, Warren

The acoustic quality of caves has always led people to use them for the performance of sacred or secular music. The earliest record of music at Jenolan is that of J. C. Millard, who wrote that his party "camped in the largest cave, sang a few hymns... and early next morning arose and sang the doxology" (Millard, 1858). However music must have been performed there prior to that since the Bathurst Free Press reported in 1856 that a dancing platform had been erected in the Grand Arch. Trickett (1905) however gave the date of installation of the dance floor as 1869. This was in regular use until the end of the century (Harvard, 1936) when the improved amenities of the guest house rendered it redundant. A poster of 1898 gives evidence of 'Smoke Concerts' held in the Grand Arch, with local employees providing the entertainment. The Cathedral Cave was reputedly consecrated as a place of worship in the 1880s by Bishop Barry, Anglican Primate of the colony. Since then it has been used by various denominations for divine services. This cave was also sometimes used for live broadcasts of 'Radio Sunday School' on radio station 2GB in the 1930s and 1940s. Performers included Albert Boyd, a popular light baritone, and the Lithgow Brass Band. From about 1910 until the end of the 1940s musical performances were common at Caves House, with resident musicians employed on a permanent basis to play light music during meals and after dinner to provide dance music in the Ballroom. Many entertainments were organised which were attended by both staff and guests. This came to an end in the 1950s, and for 20 years live music became a rarity at Jenolan. Inspection parties visiting the Cathedral Cave had commonly been invited to sing, but in the 1950s this tradition was dropped, and instead a remote controlled record player was installed in the cavern. The recordings played were generally of a religious character. This equipment, in a state of disrepair, was finally removed in 1979. In the late 1960s the Smoke Concerts in the Grand Arch were revived, but were abandoned in 1974 after disruption by hooligan elements. However social concerts and dances continued in Caves House. In 1983 the regular engagement of musicians began again, and live music shows are now a regular feature on Saturday nights. Occasional concerts are once more taking place in the Grand Arch. Religious services and Masonic ceremonies have taken place in the caverns. Music is once again part of the Jenolan experience.


Jenolan Caves - Heritage and History, 1986, Dunkley, John R.

My aim today is not to talk about the history of Jenolan Caves as such, but rather to suggest the contribution an understanding of its history can make to the heritage significance of Jenolan, what part can it play in attracting visitors and making their visit worthwhile. There are some implications here for those of you interested in the history of other cave areas. I would like to start by reading the first few sentences in the official guidebook to Jenolan Caves : "Jenolan Caves is Australia's show-place and premier tourist resort of its kind. It is a wild, yet easily and pleasantly accessible spot found in a forest and mountain reserve, and its limestone cave scenery is the best that can be found in a country richly endowed with caves ... the caves are visited by many thousands of tourists each year and have a record of steady progress in fame and popularity that can be accounted for only by great merit". Well, what is it that makes for this great merit? Ask an average member of the public, even an environmentally conscious one, and the reply would most likely emphasise Jenolan's great beauty and magnificence.


The Source of the Jenolan River, 1988, Kiernan, Kevin

Geomorphological and Hydrological investigation of un-mapped limestone outcrops and enclosed depressions that occur between North Wiburds Bluff and the headwaters of Bindo Creek has confirmed the presence of significant karst well to the north of the boundary of the Jenolan Caves Reserve and that karst drainage could conceivably breach the Great Dividing Range. The limestone becomes progressively less well dissected northwards with the karst being very subdued at the northern end of the belt. Fluoroscein testing has shown that a streamsink at the southern end of this area drains directly to Central River in Mammoth Cave, and thence to imperial Cave and Blue Lake. This indicates that at least some of the limestone in this area is continuous beneath the surficial covers with the main Northern Limestone rather than being a discrete lens. The situation has important management implications in view of expanding forestry operations in the area since these have the potential to seriously increase the sediment load of waters that pass through wild caves and the Jenolan tourist caves complex.


The Geomorphology of the Jenolan Caves Area, 1988, Kiernan, Kevin

The Jenolan Caves occur in a small impounded fluviokarst developed in limestone of late Silurian age. This paper reviews present knowledge of the geomorphology of Jenolan. The surface and underground geomorphology has been strongly influenced by the lithology and structure of the limestone and the non-carbonate rocks that surround the karst. There is evidence in the present geomorphology of the inheritance of influences from palaeo landscapes. Abundant surficial and cave sediments reflect slope gradients and climatic conditions that have existed in the past. Despite the very limited size of the limestone outcrop there is a great variety in the karst, including many kilometres of underground passage and a range of cave morphologies and clastic and chemical sediments underground.


GEOLOGICAL NOTE - CAVE FORMATION BY EXHUMATION OF PALEOZOIC PALEOKARST DEPOSITS AT JENOLAN CAVES, NEW-SOUTH-WALES, 1993, Osborne R. A. L. ,

Abstract: Distribution of Bryophites on limestones in Eastern Australia IN: Proceedings of the Wombeyan Karst Workshop November 19-22, 1993 , 1993, Downing, A. J.

Comparisons of bryophytes on limestone and nonlimestone substrates at Jenolan Caves, London Bridge, and Attunga.


An Investigation of the Climate, Carbon Dioxide and Dust in Jenolan Caves, N.S.W., PhD Thesis, 1997, Michie, Neville

Pressure of use of Jenolan Caves as a tourist spectacle has raised concerns about the wellbeing of the caves, so three related physical subjects were reviewed and investigated; the cave microclimate, the carbon dioxide in the cave atmosphere and dustfall in the caves. The microclimate has been shown to be dominated by several physical processes: in the absence of air movement, conduction and radiation dominate; in association with air movement, convective coupled heat and mass transfer tends to dominate energy flows. A new approach using boundary conditions and qualitative characteristics of transient fronts enables accurate measurement and analysis of energy, heat and mass transfer. This technique avoids the dimensionless number and transfer coefficient methods and is not geometrically sensitive. Conditions in caves are also determined by the capillary processes of water in cave walls. Air movement in caves depends on surface weather conditions and special problems of surface weather observation arise. A series of experiments were undertaken to evaluate the cave and surface processes. The physical processes that collect, transport and release dust were measured and described. Dust in the caves was shown to be carried from the surface, mainly by visitors. The concept of the Personal Dust Ooud is developed and experimental measurements and analysis show that this process is a major threat to the caves. New techniques of measurement are described. An accurate physiological model has been developed which predicts most of the carbon dioxide measured in Jenolan Caves, derived mainly from visitors on the cave tours. This model, developed from previously published human physiological information also predicts the production of heat and water vapour by cave tourists. The effects of carbon dioxide on cave conditions has been investigated. Details of a two year program of measurements in the caves are given. The generalised approach and methods are applicable to other caves, mines and buildings.


Effect of automobile emissions on the Jenolan Caves , 1998, James Julia M. , Antil Sarah J. , Cooper A. , Stone D. J. M.

Jenolan Caves are a major tourist attraction in NSW, Australia. One of the major features of the caves is a natural archway known as the Grand Arch, through which a road passes. Carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter were measured in an attempt to determine the associated risk to the caves. CO2 levels were above the average atmospheric concentration but below the limestone damage threshold of 2400 ppm. The SOx, NOx and VOCs concentrations were exceptionally low. Vehicle-produced particulate matter from the Grand Arch was found up to 100 m into the tourist caves but was prevented from further penetration by a barrier of moist cave air.


Thesis Abstract: An investigation of the Climate, Carbon Dioxide and Dust in Jenolan Caves, N.S.W., 1999, Michie N. J.

The origin of Jenolan Caves: Elements of a new synthesis and framework chronology., 1999, Osborne R. A. L.

The relationship between local climate and radon concentration in the Temple of Baal, Jenolan Caves, Australia, 2003, Whittlestone Stewart , James Julia , Barnes Craig
Radon measurements were collected over a period of one year in a large chamber known as the Temple of Baal at Jenolan Caves, near Sydney, Australia. Correlation of radon concentrations with rainfall, surface air pressure and temperature confirmed that radon originating from different locations was predominant under different conditions. During periods of low rainfall, radon concentrations varied in strong anti-correlation with the surface air pressure, indicating that most of the radon was coming from remote locations of large pore or void volume in rock of limited permeability. On the other hand, in wet periods the observed radon levels were low and steady, suggesting a local source. In both wet and dry conditions the correlation of radon concentrations with rainfall on a time-scale of a few days was positive, proving that permeability of surface strata affected the ventilation rate in the cave. The study achieved a detailed understanding of radon concentrations in the Temple of Baal, and the main conclusion reached was that the magnitude and variation of radon concentrations in the Temple of Baal were closely related to the degree of water saturation in the local surrounds.

The relationship between local climate and radon concentration in the Temple of Baal, Jenolan Caves, Australia, 2003, Whittlestone Stewart , James Julia, Barnes Craig

Radon measurements were collected over a period of one year in a large chamber known as the Temple of Baal at Jenolan Caves, near Sydney, Australia. Correlation of radon concentrations with rainfall, surface air pressure and temperature confirmed that radon originating from different locations was predominant under different conditions. During periods of low rainfall, radon concentrations varied in strong anti-correlation with the surface air pressure, indicating that most of the radon was coming from remote locations of large pore or void volume in rock of limited permeability. On the other hand, in wet periods the observed radon levels were low and steady, suggesting a local source. In both wet and dry conditions the correlation of radon concentrations with rainfall on a time-scale of a few days was positive, proving that permeability of surface strata affected the ventilation rate in the cave. The study achieved a detailed understanding of radon concentrations in the Temple of Baal, and the main conclusion reached was that the magnitude and variation of radon concentrations in the Temple of Baal were closely related to the degree of water saturation in the local surrounds.


Australia's crystalline heritage: issues in cave management at Jenolan Caves, 2010, Smith M. J. , Burns G. L.

This paper provides an environmental sustainability perspective on contemporary cave management issues in Australia through examination of Australia’s most prominent tourist cave attraction, Jenolan Caves. Five key issues are discussed: the administration and funding of the Jenolan Caves Karst Conservation Reserve; the extent of baseline data available;
long-term access and transport arrangements to the caves; visitor management; and the provision of interpretation facilities. Each of these illustrates the difficulty of balancing the competing values and interests represented by conservation, commercialisation and tourism. Cave management at Jenolan has improved in recent years but further changes in policy and management structures are required to ensure environmental sustainability. 


Sulfate and Phosphate Speleothems at Jenolan Caves, New South Wales, Australia , 2011, Pogson Ross E. , Osborne R. Armstrong L. , Colchester David M. , Cendn Dioni I.

Sulfate and phosphate deposits at Jenolan Caves occur in a variety of forms and compositions including crusts, ‘flowers’ and fibrous masses of gypsum (selenite), and clusters of boss-like speleothems (potatoes) of ardealite (calcium sulphate, phosphate hydrate) with associated gypsum. This boss-like morphology of ardealite does not appear to have been previously described in the literature and this is the first report of ardealite in New South Wales. Gypsum var. selenite occurs in close association with pyrite-bearing palaeokarst, while the ardealite gypsum association appears to relate to deposits of mineralised bat guano. Isotope studies confirm that the two gypsum suites have separate sources of sulfur, one from the weathering of pyrite (-1.4 to +4.9 δ34S) for gypsum (selenite) and the other from alteration of bat guano (+11.4 to +12.9 δ34S) for the ardealite and gypsum crusts.


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