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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for jurassic limestones (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 21
Le karst des Monts Padurea Craiulu (Roumanie), 1986, Badescu, D.
THE KARST OF PADUREA CRAIULUI MOUNTAINS AND THE SYSTEM OF TINOASA-CIUR-TOPLITZA DE ROSIA (ROMANIA) - Padurea Craiului mountains represent one of the most interesting karstic area of Romania. The existence of limestones affected by a lot of tectonics accidents had done these mountains to have distinct morphological aspects. The relative developed hydrographic network, together with the geological structure and the favourable tectonic, brought about a lot of endokarstic and exokarstic phenomena too. This is very clear in Runcuri plateau, which lodges the karstic systems Tinoasa-Ciur-Toplitza. The influence of the tectonic is demonstrated by the underground observations about the fissures. The development of these systems, as well as the morphology of the caves, are influenced by the structure and texture of the different jurassic limestones.

Des cavits dans la couverture limoneuse des plateaux nivernais (Nivre), 1986, Chabert, C.
CAVES IN THE SOFT COVER OF THE PLATEAUX DU NIVERNAIS (NIEVRE, FRANCE) - North of the Massif Central, around Nevers, the jurassic limestones are covered with a mio-pliocene silt mantle characterised by different caves: collapse dolines in relation with the crypto-karst situated into the underlying limestones and little holes developing in the silt mass (ex.: ponor of Bois de la Grange, length: 11 m). The tertiary mantle and the forests take a prominent part in the regulation and the physico-chemistry of karst waters.

Les karsts dans le Jurassique ardchois, 1992, Marchand, Th.
ARDECHE KARSTS IN THE JURASSIC LIMESTONES - The southern part of the department of the Ardeche consists of numerous karstic zones. In these places, there are several caves, some of which are well-known: The Sauvas-Cocalieres cave, St Marcels cave... But speleological and scientific studies have mainly focused on the Cretaceous karst. The Ardche gorges cut through this area. The Jurassic karsts although lesser known deserve to be studied in depth for their hydrogeological and geomorphologic interest. The surface landforms show evidence of the intense karstification, but it is deep down underground that these phenomena are most impressive. Four elements characterise the originality of these plateaus: the very strong amplitude of outflows in relation to the structure, the active grinding and the neotectonic affect most of the caves, the importance of the fillings which are sometimes allochtonous and the probable age of the caves. In most cases, investigating them means using subterranean diving techniques.

Geochemistry and water dynamics: Application to short time-scale flood phenomena in a small Mediterranean catchment .1. Alkalis, alkali-earths and Sr isotopes, 1997, Benothman D, Luck Jm, Tournoud Mg,
We report major, trace elements and Sr isotope data for water samples taken regularly during a four-day-long September flood of a Mediterranean river, the Vene (Herault, S. France). The objective is to combine all these data into a dynamic model that describes the origin(s) and movements of waters and their loads. This river drains the runoff from a small, mainly carbonate, partly karstified watershed with Miocene and Jurassic lithologies. The watershed is also impacted by both agricultural and urban activities. Both the dissolved and the particulate loads were analyzed. Concentrations of the dissolved components show major remobilization of almost all elements during the first few hours of the flood (water treatment plants and aerosol scavenging), followed by a sharp concentration decrease. Some major species return to their previous summer values (Ca, HCO3) while others reach low 'background' levels (Na, K, Cl, SO4). Some trace elements (Rb, Sr, Cs) show similar behaviour but (Ba) appears somewhat unaffected. Trace element concentrations and ratios define two main periods (three in the suspended particulate matter). Ratios do not allow distinguishing between the three main sources for the dissolved load in the first period (Miocene, Jurassic, water treatment plants), but clearly show the Jurassic karst influence later on. The Sr-87/Sr-86 Of the suspended particulate matter is more variable and more radiogenic than in the dissolved phase. Variations in concentration ratios and Sr isotope composition in particulates indicate the large and variable contribution of Miocene silicates with some carbonate. However, there is a need for another component with [Rb]/[Sr] higher than bedrocks, internal or external to the watershed, possibly due to differential erosion. Dissolved Ca and Mg fluxes during the flood were calculated at 0.26 ton and 0.029 ton/km(2), respectively. Even though the carbonate nature of the watershed restricts variability in Sr isotope composition in the dissolved load, we distinguish several endmembers: seawater(approximate to marine rain), Miocene marls, Jurassic limestones, water treatment plants (and possibly another attributable to fertilizers). Combined with major and trace element variational Sr isotope fluctuations indicate time-varying proportions of different water endmembers at the outflow and suggest a general dynamic model. Based on PCA (principal component analysis), a 3D representation allows to visualize the geochemical evolution of the Vene waters. In particular, Sr isotopes clearly indicate that the inflow of karstic waters during the flood was not continuous but occurred as a series of marked oscillations between flowing waters with chemical signature of Miocene lithologies and increasing flushes of deeper waters that interacted with Jurassic lithologies. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Ancient helictites and the formation of vadose crystal silt in upper Jurassic carbonates (Southern Germany), 1998, Reinhold C. ,
Speleothems and vadose crystal silt are effective indications for karstification processes in the fossil record. Upper Jurassic limestones in Southern Germany that have undergone vadose diagenesis contain on crystal margins and tips of coarse bladed calcites numerous fibrous calcite crystals, formed by abnormal growth conditions, and internal sediment within fractures and vugs, Fibrous calcite crystals grew as crusts, in fence and mesh-like arrangements. Fibrous crystals, which have a length:width ratio of greater than 1:10, are made up of stacked subcrystals composed of an alternation of hexagonal prisms and rhombohedra, They exhibit a central to somewhat eccentric capillary. Electron probe microanalysis shows low-Mg calcite mineralogy with negligible amounts of Fe, Mn, and Sr as well as dis seminated clay and metal hydroxide impurities. Stable-isotope data show relatively C-13-enriched and O-18-depleted values (delta(13)C similar to parts per thousand PDB, delta(18)O similar to -6 parts per thousand PDB), suggesting a meteoric environment and CO2 degassing as the main process of formation, Fibrous calcite crystals form from capillary fluids that are highly supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate, contaminated with alien mineral impurities. The abnormal growth pattern is suggested to be substrate-controlled and attributed to mineral impurities that produce numerous crystallization nuclei. Fibrous calcite crystals are comparable to helictites of the filiform type that are reported only from Quaternary caves. Nevertheless, the diagenetic sequence and oxygen isotope data suggest a Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age for their formation. The internal sediment consists exclusively of silt-size fragments of fibrous crystals and therefore is comparable to vadose crystal silt. Crystal silt is generated by the erosion of fibrous crystals both by va dose seepage and air currents. This study is the first observation of ancient helictites and related vadose crystal silt, documenting the close relationship between pore ceiling vadose cements and the generation of crystal silt

Influence of contaminated Vistula River water on the groundwater entering the Zakrzowek limestone quarry, Cracow region, Poland, 2000, Motyka J. , Postawa A. ,
Chemical composition of water inflows in the Zakrzowek quarry, developed in fractured and karstified Upper Jurassic limestones, is controlled by infiltration of polluted water from the Vistula River and by infiltrating meteoric water. The river water TDS value is 2.5 g/dm(3). The quarry waters have 0.6-2.0 g/dm(3) TDS. Highly mineralised waters belong to Cl-Na type. With decreasing TDS the percentage of sulphates, calcium, magnesium and hydrocarbonates increases. This seems to result from various processes including dilution of polluted river water, leaching of aquifer rocks, and ion exchange. The transfer time of river water to the quarry is about 100-120 days. Concentration of contaminants contained in the river water declines during the migration through limestones to the quarry

L'aven de la Combe Rajeau : un jalon dans l'evolution du karst des plateaux jurassiques et de la moyenne vallee de l'Ardeche, 2001, Audra Ph. , Camus H. , Rochette P.
The << Combe Rajeau >> aven is a large cave system in the Ardeche Jurassic limestones. It harbours a 100 m high underground canyon, which was entrenched during the Ardeche downcutting. Paleomagnetic dating of the canyon's sediments allow us to follow this entrenchment during about 2 m. y. (magnetic polarities related to the Brunhes and Matuyama periods). Correlation between the underground levels and the Ardeche terraces allows to date the beginning of the Ardeche entrenchment to about 2 Ma, with a middle level around 780 ka. Over this period, mean entrenchment lowering is about 5 cm/ka.

Contribution la connaissance de lhydrogologie karstique du plateau de Calern (Alpes-Maritimes, France).Traage laven du Moustique, 2002, Martin Marie, Audra Philippe
Contribution to Calern karst hydrogeology knowledge (Alpes-Maritimes, France). Dye tracing in Moustique aven - Within the framework of a hydrogeological study of the plateau of Calern, an artificial tracer has been put into the underground river of the Moustique aven. The dye has reappeared at a single outlet: the Bramafan spring. This emergence locates at the east of the Calern plateau, in the Loups valley, at the contact between Jurassic limestones and Triassic impervious formations. It appears as being the main outlet of this vast karst area.

Deep water circulation, residence time, and chemistry in a karst complex, 2003, Aquilina L, Ladouche B, Doerfliger N, Bakalowicz M,
We investigated the hydrochemistry of a complex karst hydrosystem made of two carbonate units along a coastal lagoon. Ground water emerges on the lagoon floor from a submarine spring. In addition, thermal waters circulate through the limestone and mix with karst water near the lagoon shore. A distinction between the water from the two carbonate units is related to marine influences and human activities. In one of the massifs, the data show an incongruent dissolution of dolomite with time. In the other system, a slight contamination by saline fluids from the thermal reservoir has led to high calcium and magnesium concentrations. Cl-36, C-14, and H-3 data constrain the residence time of the water, and allow for the distinguishing of four circulation types: (1) shallow surface circulation (primarily above sea level) in the karstic units with short residence times (<20 years); (2) shallow subsurface circulation (approximately 0 to -50 in) below the karstic units with residence time in the order of 50 years; (3) deep circulation at depth of 700 to 1500 m in the Jurassic limestones below thick sedimentary cover, with residence time of several thousand years for a part of the water; and (4) deep circulation at a depth of similar to2500 in, which represents the thermal reservoir in the Jurassic units with residence time of similar to100,000 years. An interpretative hydrogeological framework is based on the constraints of the geochemical analyses of the deep thermal system. and by water flow from the surface to the deep parts of the carbonate formations

Hydrogeological properties of Upper Jurassic limestones pore space of the Cracow Upland in light of laboratory investigations. [in Polish], 2005, R?kowski Jacek, Motyka Jacek, R?kowski Kazimierz, Polonius Adam

Karst and cave systems in Bosnek region (Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) and Wintimdouine (High Atlas Mountain, Morocco), 2005, Angelova Dora, Beloul M'hamed Alaeddine, Bouzid Sophia, Faik Farid

The study of both endokarstic systems Bosnek (Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) and Wintimdouine (High Atlas Mountain, Morocco) is presented in this work. Both regions are standard for the study of geodynamic processes in Bulgaria and Morocco, and they could be used as geodynamic polygons in the Mediterranean region. The karst is developed in Triassic and Jurassic limestones. The karst processes in both endokarstic systems occur under the conditions of active Quaternary and recent tectonics. A typical structural karst is formed. The present work shows also the results of the comprehensive studies performed in the field of geology, tectonics, geomorpholody, hydrology, climatology, etc., of the karst. It is accented on the genesis and the evolution of the greatest cave systems in Bulgaria (Duhlata cave ý more than 17 km) and Morocco (Wintimdouine cave ý more than 19 km long). Both cave systems are situated in zones with high seismicity, with open surface and sud-surfase paleoseismic disruptions. The karst study and monitoring of its processes has great practical value in Bulgaria and Morocco because they are related to one of the largest urbanized territories ( Pernik and Sofia for Bulgaria, and Agadir for Morocco) and they are protected natural objectives as well.

Stable isotope investigations on speleothems from different cave systems in Germany, 2005, Nordhoff, P.

Seven speleothems from six independent cave systems in Germany were investigated on their suitability as paleoclimatic archives. The caves are located in the Jurassic Limestones of the Swabian/Franconian Alb (southern Germany) and in a small-scale Devonian (reef) complex of the Harz Mountains (northern Germany). Based on the chronological control using 234U/230Th (TIMS) ages, δ18O/δ13C timeseries of the speleothems were established and related to known paleoclimatic events.
Results of the present-day assessment of the cave systems demonstrated that the cave temperature responses; the stable isotopic abundances of the dripwater, and present-day cave calcites reflect mean annual surface air temperatures as well as established isotopic equilibrium conditions during cave calcite precipitation. However, existing biases have been monitored but most of them may be deduced to anthropogenic influences like mining operations (Zaininger-Cave, Swabian Alb) or showcave business (Hermann’s- and Baumann’s-Cave, Harz Mountains). Although the scenarios leave partially an imprint on present-day spelean calcites, like the indicated non-equilibrium conditions at the Zaininger-Cave, their temporal imprint is restricted very much to the last couple of decennial years and thus assumed not to influence the paleorecords at all. Since the δ18O compositions of present-day calcite precipitates are primarily controlled by temperature, the sites may thus be suitable for paleoclimatic investigations from a today perspective.
Since the paleorecords of the Hermann’s- and Baumann’s-Cave stalagmites (Harz Mountains) display ages, which are not in chronological order, a construction of timeseries was not possible.
Past stable isotopic equilibrium conditions of the remaining paleorecords were verified using the single layer “Hendy-Test” as well as δ18O/δ13C regression analyzes of the subsample profiles. Late Pleistocene growth periods were found in the Paleocave Hunas Stalagmite (79373 ± 8237 to 76872 ± 9686 a. B.P.; Franconian Alb) and the Cave Hintere Kohlhalde Stalagmite (44158 ± 3329 to 2709 ± 303 a B.P.; Swabian Alb). Unexpectedly, the latter displays no macroscopic visible growth hiatuses and was deposited continuously during the “cold” OIS 2 and the LGM. This has been interpreted owing to the special conditions and mode of vadose water circulation of a discontinuous permafrost zone which may have prevailed on the Swabian Alb during that time. Here, just like for the subsequent periods, principal changes in mean δ18O/δ13C and linear extension rates of the timeseries echoed the Boelling/Alleroed Interstadial and Younger Dryas cold phase. The comparison of coeval timeseries between the Cave Hintere Kohlhalde stalagmite, the Zaininger-Cave stalactite (both Swabian Alb) and the Mühlbach-Cave stalagmite (Franconian Alb) reveal some analogy such as the transitions from the Late Glacial to the Early Holocene between 10513 and 10587 cal. a B.P. for the Swabian Alb and 10227 cal. a B.P. for the Franconian Alb; the anomaly around 8.2 ka B.P. recorded in the Zaininger- and Mühlbach-Cave; and a climatic deterioration which leads to an almost simultaneous cessation of speleothem growth on the Swabian/Franconian Alb between 2.5 and 2.8 ka B.P.
Important changes of the stable isotopic composition occur together with changes in growth rate and in the macroscopic aspect of the investigated speleothems. This confirms that general climatic and environmental parameters control the recorded variations and that they are not owing to very local factors.

Modelling of dripwater hydrology and hydrogeochemistry in a weakly karstified aquifer (Bath, UK): Implications for climate change studies, 2006, Fairchild Ij, Tuckwell Gw, Baker A, Tooth Af,
A better knowledge of dripwater hydrology in karst systems is needed to understand the palaeoclimate implications of temporal variations in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca of calcareous cave deposits. Quantitative modelling of drip hydrology and hydrochemistry was undertaken at a disused limestone mine (Brown's Folly Mine) in SW England overlain by 15 m of poorly karstified Jurassic limestones, with sub-vertical fracturing enhanced by proximity to an escarpment. Discharge was monitored at 15 sites intermittently from the beginning of 1996, and every 10-20 days from later 1996 to early 1998. Samples for hydrochemical parameters (pH, alkalinity, cations, anions, fluorescence) were taken corresponding to a sub-set of these data and supplernented by bedrock and soil sampling, limited continuously logged discharge, and soil water observations. Three sites, covering the range of discharge (approximately 1 mu L s(-1) to 1 ml s(-1) maximum discharge) and hydrochemical behaviours, were studied in more detail. A quantitative flow model was constructed, based on two parallel unit hydrographs: responsive and relatively unresponsive to discharge events, respectively. The linear response and conservative mixing assumptions of the model were tested with hydrogeochemical data. Dripwaters at many of sites are characterized by evidence of prior calcite precipitation in the flowpath above the mine, which in the higher discharging sites diminishes at high flow. Also at low flow rates, dripwaters may access seepage reservoirs enriched in Mg and/or Sr, dependent on the site. The discharge at all three sites can be approximated by the flow model, but in each case, hydrochemical data show violations of the model assumptions. All sites show evidence of non-conservative mixing, and there are temporal discontinuities in behaviour, which may be stimulated by airlocks generated at low flow. Enhanced Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca often do relate to low-flow conditions, but the relationships between climate and hydrogeochemical response are non-linear. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

The deepest cave in the world in the Arabika Massif (Western Caucasus), 2008, Klimchouk A. B. , Samokhin G. V. & Kasjan Yu. M.

Arabika is an outstanding high-mountain karst massif in the Western Caucasus composed of Lower Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic limestones continuously dipping southwest to the Black Sea shore and plunging below the sea level. The central sector (elevations within 2000-2700 m) is characterized by pronounced glacio-karstic landscape and hosts several deep caves including the deepest cave in the world (Krubera-Voronja Cave) recently explored to the depth of -2191 m.  Dye tracing experiments conducted in 1984-1985 revealed that the Krubera Cave area is hydraulically connected with major springs at the Black Sea shore and the submarine discharge, with the flow directed across major fold structures. Krubera Cave has an extremely steep profile and reveals a huge thickness of the vadose zone. Its lower boundary is at elevation of about 110 m, which suggests a very low overall hydraulic gradient of 0.007-0.008. Reported low salinity groundwater tapped by boreholes in the shore area at depths 40-280, 500, 1750 and 2250 m, which suggests the existence of deep flow system with vigorous flow. Submarine discharge in the Arabika coast is reported at depths up to ca. 400 m bsl. Huge closed submarine depression is revealed at the sea-floor in front of Arabika with the deepest point of ca. 400 m bsl. These facts point to a possibility that the main karst system in Arabika could have originated in response to the Messinian salinity crisis (5.96 – 5.33 Myr) when the Black Sea could have almost dried up, similarly to the adjacent Mediterranean where the sea level drop up to 1600 m is well established. Further development of the huge vadose zone and a super-deep cave have been caused by subsequent uplifts during Pliocene-Pleistocene, highly differential between the shore sector (0.1-0.2 km of total uplift) and the central sector (2-2.5 km) of Arabika.

Die Riesenberghhle - Norddeutschlands grtes Hhlensystem in Jurakalken, 2009, Meyer S. , Dorsten I.
The Riesenberg-Hhlensystem having 1127 m length is the biggest northern most cave system in Germany that developed in Jurassic limestone. This article is the first summary of explorations in the past 40 years. Besides a short description of the karst area called Sntel, the geology, and genesis of the cave also the observed fauna is described. The reference list also includes not so well known articles concerning the topic.

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