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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That safe yield of stream is the lowest dry weather flow of a stream [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for jurassic. (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
Rpartition quantitative des phnomnes karstiques super-ficiels et souterrains en fonction de la lithologie sur le Causse Comtal (Aveyron, Fr .), 1983, Dodge, D.
QUANTITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SURFICIAL AND UNDERGROUND KARSTIC PHENOMENA ACCORDING TO LITHOLOGY ON THE CAUSSE COMTAL (AVEYRON, FRANCE) - The quantitative distribution of karst phenomena (dolines, karren, dry valleys, springs, sinkholes and caves) in the Causse Comtal aquifers is analysed. This distribution is dependent on lithology, topography, tectonics, and permeability of the aquifer layers and relative importance of underground drainage networks. The part played by each of these factors in the development of the observed phenomena is discussed. The relationship between superficial and deep karst features is examined.

Hydrogologie karstique des Alpes-Maritimes, 1984, Baissas, P.
Karst hydrogeology in the Alpes-Maritimes - In the Marguareis, the systems penetrate very quickly by transverse faults, to reach the impermeable basement and then follow the dip. All the waters, even those on the French side, belong to the P basin. In the Roya arc, underflows are to be found going round the base of the Argentera-Mercantour. In the Nice arc, the karstification depends principally on tectonic factors and according to the places, the water follows either the overlaps or transverse faults. In the Grasse plateaus, the galleries follow at the outset the slopes and the dips of the synclinal hinges; the tectonic factors determine the location of the resurgences ; at depth, the karst is always phreatic, with relations between tectonic compartments during floods. In the cover of the Tanneron-Esterel basement and Barrot Dome, lithological factors determine flow.

Hydrogologie karstique du polj d'lrmene, Bodrum (Turquie), 1985, Canik, B.
KARSTIC HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE IRMENE POLJE - BODRUM (TURKEY) - The Irmene polje (25 km2) is located in the Bodrum peninsula, Turkey. The formation exposed, are coloured argilaceous schists, blackish shales and sandstones of a paleozoic age. They are overlapped by unconformable carbonate formations of Early Triassic to Late Jurassic. The karstification is mostly developed on the non-dolomitic parts of the fissured limestones. The groundwater flow is generally northwards, towards coastal or submarine springs. Thus, it is calculated that a discharge of about 40 l/s can be obtained from possible wells to supply water for the Irmene village. We propose to increase the infiltration rate within the karstic aquifer by building barriers, which would favour runoff towards natural wells or sinks not active for the moment.

Prsentation des principales cavites du Causse de Laissac-Sverac (Aveyron), 1990, Rigal, C.
PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN CAVES OF THE CAUSSE OF LAISSAC-SEVERAC (AVEYRON, FRANCE) - The causse of Laissac-Severac is situated between "Grands Causses" and "Causse of Sauveterre" (Aveyron), in limestones and dolomites of Lias and Middle Jurassic. This speleological area presents two kinds of karst systems: losses and resurgences at the contact of the crystalline massif (Levezou) on the south part (Clos del Pous = 3km), and caves with numerous sumps under the Causse of Severac on the north part (plateau with large depressions (Tantayrou = 3.1km). These caves are post-Miocene because of the dated volcanism; they cut an eogene paleokarst, which is characterised by ferralitic paleosoils (ferruginous sandstone called "Siderolithique") from the alteration of crystalline massif.

Permo-Mesozoic multiple fluid flow and ore deposits in Sardinia: a comparison with post-Variscan mineralization of Western Europe, 2002, Boni M, Muchez P, Schneider J,
The post-Variscan hydrothermal activity and mineralization in Sardinia (Italy) is reviewed in the framework of the geological and metallogenic evolution of Western Europe. The deposits can be grouped into (a) skarn, (b) high- to low-temperature veins and (c) low-temperature palaeokarst. The structural, stratigraphical and geochemical data are discussed. The results suggest three hydrologically, spatially, and possibly temporally, distinct fluid systems. System 1 (precipitating skarn and high-temperature veins) is characterized by magmatic and/or (?) magmatically heated, meteoric fluids of low-salinity. The source of metals was in the Variscan magmatites, or in the Palaeozoic/Precambrian basement. System 2 (low-temperature veins and palaeokarst) is represented by highly saline, Ca-rich (formation or modified meteoric) fluids. Sources of the metals were the pre-Variscan ores and carbonate rocks. System 3 is characterized by low-temperature, low-salinity fluids of meteoric origin. The hydrothermal deposits related to Systems 1 and 2 can be framed in a crustal-scale hydrothermal palaeofield', characterizing most of the post-orogenic mineralization in Variscan regions of Western and Southern Europe, allowing for local age differences of each single ore district and background effects. The suggested timing for the hydrothermal events in Sardinia is: (1) Mid-Permian (270 Ma), (2) Triassic-Jurassic. It is suggested that the Mesozoic events were related to the onset of Tethys spreading

Mesozoic plate tectonic reconstruction of the Carpathian region, 2004, Csontos L, Voros A,
Palaeomagnetic, palaeobiogeographic and structural comparisons of different parts of the Alpine-Carpathian region suggest that four terranes comprise this area: the Alcapa, Tisza, Dacia and Adria terranes. These terranes are composed of different Mesozoic continental and oceanic fragments that were each assembled during a complex Late Jurassic-Cretaceous-Palaeogene history. Palaeomagnetic and tectonic data suggest that the Carpathians are built up by two major oroclinal bends. The Alcapa bend has the Meliata oceanic unit, correlated with the Dinaric Vardar ophiolite, in its core. It is composed of the Western Carpathians, Eastern Alps and Southern Alcapa units (Transdanubian Range, Bukk). This terrane finds its continuation in the High Karst margin of the Dinarides. Further elements of the Alcapa terrane are thought to be derived from collided microcontinents: Czorsztyn in the N and a carbonate unit (Tisza?) in the SE. The Tisza-Dacia bend has the Vardar oceanic unit in its core. It is composed of the Bihor and Getic microcontinents. This terrane finds its continuation in the Serbo-Macedonian Massif of the Balkans.The Bihor-Getic microcontinent originally laid east of the Western Carpathians and filled the present Carpathian embayment in the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic. The Vardar ocean occupied an intermediate position between the Western Carpathian-Austroalpine-Transdanubian-High Karst margin and the Bihor-Getic-Serbo-Macedonian microcontinent. The Vardar and Pindos oceans were opened in the heart of the Mediterranean-Adriatic microcontinent in the Late Permian-Middle Triassic. Vardar subducted by the end of Jurassic, causing the Bihor-Getic-Serbo-Macedonian microcontinent to collide with the internal Dinaric-Western Carpathian margin.An external Penninic-Vahic ocean tract began opening in the Early Jurassic, separating the Austroalpine-Western Carpathian microcontinent (and its fauna) from the European shelf. Further east, the Severin-Ceahlau-Magura also began opening in the Early Jurassic, but final separation of the Bihor-Getic ribbon (and its fauna) from the European shelf did not take place until the late Middle Jurassic.The Alcapa and the Tisza-Dacia were bending during the Albian-Maastrichtian. The two oroclinal bends were finally opposed and pushed into the gates of the Carpathian embayment during the Palaeogene and Neogene. At that time, the main N-S shortening in distant Alpine and Hellenic sectors was linked by a broader right-lateral shear zone along the former Vardar suture

Formes et formations superficielles de la partie ouest du Causse de Sauveterre (Grands Causses, Aveyron et Lozre), 2007, Bruxelles Laurent , Simoncoinon Rgine, Guendon Jeanlouis, Ambert Paul
MORPHOLOGY AND SUPERFICIAL FORMATIONS OF THE WESTERN PART OF THE CAUSSE DE SAUVETERRE (GRANDS CAUSSES, AVEYRON AND LOZ?RE, FRANCE). In 2002, the Natural Regional Park of Grands Causses has coordinated a hydrogeological study of the western part of the Causse de Sauveterre, the northernmost of the Grands Causses. A multidisciplinary approach (geology, geomorphology, geochemistry and hydrology) was used to delineate the catchment area of the main springs and to estimate the vulnerability of karstic aquifers. The Grands Causses are situated in the southern part of the French Massif Central. The landscape is characterised by huge limestone plateaus cut by deep canyons. The morphologic study of the western part of the Causse de Sauveterre (Causse de Massegros and Causse de S?v?rac), combined with analysis of superficial formations, allows us to identify the main steps of landscape evolution. The discovery of bauxite and of many outcrops of Upper Cretaceous sandstone confirm that the Coniacian ingression invaded some paleo-landscapes developed within a long period of continental evolution which was initiated at the end of the Jurassic. During the Tertiary, many residual formations form covers of the limestone plateaus. We can distinguish alterites developed from different formations of the stratigraphic series (clay with cherts from Bajocian, dolomitic sand from Bathonian and Callovian, sandy clays from Cretaceous deposits) from some allochtonous deposits which can be found in some parts of the Causse de Massegros. These formations are found in association with morphological features (shelves, polj?s, fluvio-karstic valleys, sinkholes) and are more or less responsible of their development. Furthermore, some volcanic rocks cut through or even reused some of them. With the deepening of canyons and the base level drop, horizontal morphologies are preserved only where superficial formations are abundant and thick enough to maintain crypto-corrosion. Elsewhere, karst unplugging removes most of the superficial formations, and the karstic evolution tends to show a vertical development of morphologies and caves. Some springs, which benefit from a favourable lithologic, structural and hydrologic context, are more competitive and expand their catchment area at the expense of the other springs. Many superficial features express this dynamism on the plateau and allow us to determine the most sensible areas for water pollution and the most fragile ones for human activities.

Geographical and geological data from caves and mines infected with white-nose syndrome (WNS) before September 2009 in the eastern United States, 2011, Swezey C. S. , Garrity C. P.

Since 2006, a white fungus named Geomyces destructans has been observed on the muzzles, noses, ears, and (or) wings of bats in the eastern United States, and bat colonies that are infected with this fungus have experienced dramatic incidences of mortality. Although it is not exactly certain how and why these bats are dying, this condition has been named white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS appears to have spread from an initial infection site at a cave that is connected to a commercial cave in New York, and by the end of August 2009 was identified in at least 74 other sites in the eastern United States. Although detailed geographical and geological data are limited, a review of the available data shows that sites infected with WNS before September 2009 include both natural caves and mines. These infected sites extend from New Hampshire to Virginia, and known site elevations range from 84 to 2693 feet above sea level. In terms of geological
setting, the infected sites include sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks of ages ranging from Precambrian to Jurassic. However, by the end of August 2009, no infected sites had been identified in strata of Mississippian, Cretaceous, or Triassic age. Meteorological data are sparse, but most of the recorded air temperatures in the known WNS-infected caves and mines range from 0 to 13.9 uC, and humidity measurements range from 68 to 100 percent. Although it is not certain which environmental parameters are
important for WNS, it is hoped that the geographical and geological information presented in this paper will inform and clarify some of the debate about WNS, lead to greater understanding of the environmental parameters associated with WNS, and highlight the paucity of scientific data from caves in the eastern United States.

Isotopic and hydrochemical data as indicators of recharge areas, flow paths and waterrock interaction in the Caldas da RainhaQuinta das Janelas thermomineral carbonate rock aquif, 2013, Marques J. M. , Graa H. , Eggenkamp H. G. M. , Neves O. , Carreira P. M. , Matias M. J. , Mayer B. , Nunes D. , Trancoso V. N.

An updated conceptual circulation model for the Caldas da Rainha and Quinta das Janelas thermomineralwaters was developed. These thermomineral waters (T _ 33 _C) are related to a huge syncline ascribed tothe regional flow paths. Two diapiric structures were responsible for the uplift and subsequent folding ofregional Jurassic carbonate rocks. Environmental isotopic (d2H and d18O) data indicates that the mainrecharge area of the thermomineral system is linked to the Jurassic limestones (Candeeiros Mountains,E border of the syncline). The thermomineral waters belong to the Cl–Na sulphurous-type, with a totalmineralization of about 3000 mg/L. The thermomineral aquifer system seems to be ‘‘isolated’’ fromanthropogenic contamination, which is typical for the local shallow groundwater systems, due to theexistence of impermeable layers composed of a series of loamy and detritic rocks of the Upper Jurassic.The presence of 3H in some thermomineral borehole waters, not accompanied by an increase in SO2_4 andNO_3 , could be ascribed to different underground flow paths and different mean residence time. Thed34S(SO4) and d18O(SO4) values of dissolved sulphate of groundwaters of the Caldas da Rainha Spas indicatethat the sulphate is the result of water–rock interaction with evaporitic rocks (e.g. gypsum and anhydrite)ascribed to the regional synclinal structure.

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