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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hydraulic radius is the ratio of the filled cross-sectional area to wetted perimeter [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for karst ecosystem (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
Characteristics of karst ecosystems of Vietnam and their vulnerability to human impact, 2001, Tuyet D. ,
Karst in Vietnam covers an area of about 60,000 km(2), i.e. 18 % of the surface of the country. The country has an annual average temperature of 24 degreesC, an annual average rainfall of 2300 nun and a relative humidity of about 90%. Karst in Vietnam is typified by peak cluster-depression landscapes ranging in elevation from 200 to over 2000 m. Tower and coastal karst landscapes also exit. Because of naturally favourable conditions, karst ecosystems are diverse and very rich. Higher plants(cormophytes) are abundant. They are represented by approximately 2000 species, 908 genera, 224 families, 86 orders and 7 phyla. They form a thick vegetation cover of evergreen tropical rainforest. Knowledge about lower plants is limited. The fauna is rich and diverse. Phyla such as Protozoa, Vermes, Mollusca and Arthropoda are yet ill known. Preliminary results show that the phylum Chordata is represented by 541 species from 80 families, 40 orders and 5 classes. There exist many precious and rare mammals, in particular some endemic species such as Trachypithecus poliocephalus, T. delacouri, Rhinopithecus avanculus, Rhinolophus rouxi, Seotoma dineties and Silurus cuephuongensis. The class Insecta has about 2000 species. The fast population growth, particularly in the mountainous areas of the country, triggers an increasing demand for land and therefore threatens the ecosystem. To obtain land for farming, people have cut, burned and destroyed natural forest cover; resulting in occurrence of hazards such as soil-loss, water-loss, flash floods, mud-rock flows, rock-falls, severe drought, water logging and changes of karstic aquifers etc. Poaching precious animals and illegal logging are increasing. In contrast to other natural systems, karst ecosystems cannot be reestablished once damaged. Living karst landscapes will become rocky desert ones without life. Conservation of karstic environmental systems in general and karstic ecosystems in particular should not be the sole vocation of scientists but also a duty and responsibility of authorities and people from all levels. A good example of a multidisciplinary approach to karst-related problems is the implementation of the Vietnamese-Belgian Karst Project (VBEKAP): 'Rural development in the mountain karst area of NW Vietnam by sustainable water and land management and social learning: its conditions and facilitation'. The aim of this project is to improve living conditions of local people and sustained protection and management of the karst environment and ecosystem

On the karst ecosystem, 2001, Yuan D. X. ,
In this paper the author gives a definition of the karst ecosystem and discusses the characteristics of the karst environment and karst ecosystem and the relationship between life and the karst environment. Finally he clarifies the structure, driving force and functions of the karst system

Paleoseismic phenomena in karst terrains in Bulgaria and Morocco, 2003, Angelova Dora, Belfoul M'hamed Alaeddin, Bouzid Sophia, Filahi Mustapha, Faik Farid

During the recent years there has been a growing interest in recording and investigating the effects of paleoseismic events in surface and underground karst in almost all countries. Karst represents a reliable reference marker for understanding the potential seismicity in regions with instrumentally established low to moderate seismicity. The karst errains in Bulgaria and Morocco occupy considerable areas. The disturbances in surface and underground karst had usually been provoked by catastrophic one-act events or by repeatedly activated movements by earthquakes. The catastrophic seismic events had disturbed the naturally interrelated karst ecosystems and were the reason for rejuvenation, reactivation or attenuation of karst processes. The natural surface and underground relief had been partially or entirely destroyed; a new type of relief had been formed; the geological environment had been disturbed; changes occurred in the flowrate and direction of surface and underground karst water; wetlands of the gravitation type had been formed; natural caves, local grabens, rock-falls and landslides collapsed partially or entirely and terrains were subjected to subsidence and destruction; the ecological balance in urbanized territories had been disturbed. The present work considers the different types of paleoseismic phenomena in the karst terrains in Bulgaria and Morocco. Recommendations are given for the protection of these areas.

Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas of Albania, 2004, Parise M. , Qiriazi P. , Sala S. ,
In Albania, about one quarter of the country is occupied by outcroppings of soluble rocks; thus, karst represents an important and typical natural environment. Today karst areas are seriously threatened by a number of hazards, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Many problems are related to agricultural practices: the use of heavy machinery, ever-increasing in recent years, results at many sites in destruction of the original karst landscapes. Use of pesticides and herbicides, in addition, causes the loss of karst ecosystems of great biological relevance, as has been observed in the Dumre district, where about 80 lakes of karst origin are present in the evaporites of Permian-Triassic age. Agricultural practice performed on slopes with medium to high gradient is a further factor which greatly predispose the slopes to erosion. The cave heritage of Albania (estimated so far in about 1000 caves) is at risk because of the uncontrolled quarrying activities which determine the total or partial destruction of karst caves, including many of naturalistic, archaeological and speleological interest. Many caves have also become sites of illegal disposal of solid and liquid wastes, which causes pollution of the karst ecosystems and of the aquifer therein present, with heavy negative consequences on the quality of water. Even though most of the cases here mentioned are related to anthropogenic activities, the natural hazards, such as subsidence phenomena, floods, and the development of sinkholes, have not to be disregarded

A study of the activity and ecological significance of carbonic anhydrase from soil and its microbes from different karst ecosystems of Southwest China, 2005, Li Wei, Yu Long Jiang, Yuan Dao Xian, Wu Yun, Zeng Xian Dong,

Pantan area is situated in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast near town Trogir. It presents inseparable unit consisting of Pantan spring, river course with surrounding swamp area and sea coast. Particularity of the area is swamp which is unique example in this part of the eastern Adriatic coast mostly characterized by dry karst areas. Main characteristic of the spring is periodical salinity during the year with the highest salinity during summer months. Spring presents potential drinking water source under consumption that salinization problem is solved. Unfortunately due to bed watershed management water quality of Pantan spring and environment of Pantan area is highly devastated. Today Pantan area presents an example of not preserving balance between natural resources on karst and human interventions in watershed area. All future measures should be directed on rehabilitation and further protection of this valuable karst environment. Paper gives overview of the state of the spring as well as proposed measures of sustainable management directed to the preservation of this distinct karst ecosystem. As the basis for analyzing the inter-related factors that impact on the environment, DPSIR framework is used. This framework provide rational and clear guideline for analyzing the influence of pressures derived from human activities on natural environment, and the way they are changing state of the environment. Results of the analyses showed that DPSIR framework is adequate tool to shape and implement sustainable development strategy for the Pantan area. It is evident that in this process is extremely important to take into the consideration vulnerability of the karst.

Benchmark Papers in Karst Science, 2007,
A collection of benchmark papers in karst science: The Decade 1971 ? 1980 13. The Geochemistry of Some Carbonate Ground Waters in Central Pennsylvania, D. Langmuir 14. Genetic Interpretation of Regressive Evolutionary Processes: Studies on Hybrid Eyes of Two Astyanax Cave Populations (Characidae, Pisces), H. Wilkins 15. Cavernicoles in Lava Tubes on the Island of Hawaii, F.G. Howarth 16. Evolutionary Genetics of Cave-Dwelling Fishes of the Genus Astyanax, J.C. Avise and R.L. Selander 17. Deducing Flow Velocity in Cave Conduits from Scallops, R.L. Curl 18. The Origin of Maze Caves, A.N. Palmer 19. Foraging by Cave Beetles: Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Prey, T.C. Kane and T.L. Poulson 20. Considerations of the Karst Ecosystem, R. Rouch 21. Diffuse Flow and Conduit Flow in Limestone Terrain in the Mendip Hills, Somerset (Great Britain), T.C. Atkinson 22. The Development of Limestone Cave Systems in Dimensions of Length and Depth, D.C. Ford and R.O. Ewers The Decade 1981 ? 1990 23. Magnetostratigraphy of Sediments in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, V.A. Schmidt 24. Uranium-Series Ages of Speleothem from Northwest England: Correlations with Quaternary Climate, M. Gascoyne, D.C. Ford and H.P. Schwarcz 25. Analysis and Interpretation of Data from Tracer Tests in Karst Areas, W.K. Jones 26. Evolution of Adult Morphology and Life-History Characters in Cavernicolous Ptomaphagus Beetles, S.B. Peck 27. Ecology of the Mixohaline Hypogean Fauna along the Yugoslav Coasts, B. Sket 28. Fractal Dimensions and Geometries of Caves, R.L. Curl 29. Regional Scale Transport in a Karst Aquifer. 1. Component Separation of Spring Flow Hydrographs, S.J. Dreiss 30. Morphological Evolution of the Amphipod Gammarus minus in Caves: Quantitative Genetic Analysis, D.W. Fong 31. The Flank Margin Model for Dissolution Cave Development in Carbonate Platforms, J.E. Mylroie and J.L. Carew 32. Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis of Carlsbad Cavern and Its Relationship to Hydrocarbons, Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas, C.A. Hill The Decade 1991 ? 2000 33. Origin and Morphology of Limestone Caves, A.N. Palmer 34. How Many Species of Troglobites Are There? D.C. Culver and J.R. Holsinger 35. Annual Growth Banding in a Cave Stalagmite, A. Baker, P.L. Smart, R.L. Edwards and D.A. Richards 36. Natural Environment Change in Karst: The Quaternary Record, S.-E. Lauritzen 37. Pattern and Process in the Biogeography of Subterranean Amphipods, J.R. Holsinger 38. A Chemoautotrophically Based Cave Ecosystem, S.M. Sarbu, T.C. Kane and B.K. Kinkle 39. Rhodopsin Evolution in the Dark, K.A. Crandall and D.M. Hillis 40. Climate and Vegetation History of the Midcontinent from 75 to 25 ka: A Speleothem Record from Crevice Cave, Missouri, USA, J.A. Dorale, R.L. Edwards, E. Ito and L.A. González

Karst and Cryokarst, 2007,

"Karst and Cryokarst", dedicated to the memory of Teresa Wiszniowska (authority on research of large fossil mammals, cave bear especially) and Marian Pulina (authority on speleology and geomorphology), contains works covering the subjects of their broad scientific interests.
The book is a joint publication of IGU Karst Commission and UIS Commission Glacier Caves and Cryokarst in Polar and High Mountain Regions /GLACKIPR/.

Eraso A., Domìnguez M.C.
Subpolar glacier network as natural sensors of global warming evolution
Mavlyudov B.R.
Internal drainage systems of glaciers
Schroeder J.
Moulins of a subpolar glacier seen as a thermal anomaly Domìnguez M.C., Eraso A.
Frequent systematic errors In the measurements of the glacier discharge
Domínguez M.C., Eraso A.
Substantial changes happened during the last years in the icecap of King George, Insular Antarctica
Eraso A., Domínguez M.C.
Physicochemical characteristics of the subglacier discharge in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica
Sauro U.
Forms of mixed origin in the karst environment of the Venetian Prealps
Auly T.
Quelques morphologies de rapport karst/glaciaire dans les Pyrénées (France)
Pawłowska-Bielawska P.
Evolution of Wielka Śnieżna Cave in the light of geomorphologic observations
Dobrowolski R.
Model of glaciogenic transformation of the Lublin-Volhynia chalk karst (Poland SE, Ukraine NW)
Bieroński J., Socha P., Stefaniak K.
Deposits and fauna of the Sudetic caves ? the state of research Trofimova E.V.
Particularités du développement récent du karst calcaire de Sibérie et d'Extrême-Orient (Russie)
Cao Jianhua, Yuan Daoxian, Zhang Cheng, Jiang Zhangcheng
Karst ecosystem of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region constrained by geological setting: Relationship between carbonate rock exposure and vegetation coverage
Smieja A., Smieja-Król B.
Springs with active calcium carbonate precipitation in the Polish part of the Tatra Mountains
Parise M., Trisciuzzi M.A.
Geomechanical characterization of carbonate rock masses in underground karst systems
Piasecki J., Sawiński T.
Acoustic measurements of airflow in speleo-climatological studies
Kadebskaya O.
News in monitoring system and recommendations in development of use and protection of Kungur Ice cave
Mokrushina O.
Ordinskaya cave as new object of speleoturism

Book is available at the Department of Geomorphology University of Silesia ordering via e-mail: atyc@us.edu.pl

Karst drainage relations with catchment land use change, Mole Creek, Tasmania, Australia, 2008, Hunter, Deborah L, Trevor W Lewis And Joanna Ellison.
Since 2001, the previously perennial Parsons' Spring of the Mole Creek fluviokarst in northwestern Tasmania, Australia, has become intermittent in discharge. This change follows the establishment of 636 ha of eucalypt plantations since 1995 above the Spring, including where Quaternary slope deposits obscure the geological contact of the limestone with overlying rocks. In this 2008 study, water quality was compared and contrasted between Parsons' Spring and other sites in the study catchment and a resurgence in a nearby reference catchment over different flow conditions and in response to a rainstorm. Results show that the study spring has a mixed recharge regime and complex discharge controls, including diffuse and conduit hydrological components. Parsons' Spring is probably the main wet season overflow spring of a distributary system connected to the phreatic aquifer underlying the area. Apparent chemical 'signatures' indicating soil disturbance in the study spring's waters implied the presence of an epikarst reservoir beneath the slope deposits cultivated for plantation establishment. Given their location, extent and growth stage, the plantations are expected to reduce aquifer recharge substantially by 2013-2018 as interception of recharge increases. The consequent reduction of available aquifer yield would result in economic stress for the rural community and compromise of karst ecosystems. (This paper was first presented audio-visually at a conference of the Australian Speleological Federation in January 2009, and a shorter version has been submitted for the conference proceedings).

Ecosystem Science and Karst Systems, 2008, Simon, K. S.

Focus Group on Ecosystem Function, 2008, Simon K. , Fong D. , Hinderstein L. , Maloney B. , Payn R. , Vernarsky M. , Wilhelm F.

Variability in terrestrial and microbial contributions to dissolved organic matter fluorescence in the Edwards Aquifer, Central Texas, 2009, Birdwell J. E. And Engel A. S.
Most cave and karst ecosystems are believed to be dependent on an influx of allochthonous organic carbon. Although microbes are largely responsible for the fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in karst, the role of microbes in chemosynthetic (autochthonous) production and processing of DOM has received limited attention. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of DOM that absorbs ultraviolet and visible light, and differences in the fluorescence spectral characteristics of humic-like (terrigenous) and protein-like (microbially-derived) CDOM allow for tracing the relative contributions of allochthonous or autochthonous carbon sources, respectively, in water. We investigated CDOM in karst-aquifer well and spring waters along the fresh- to saline-water transition zone of the Edwards Aquifer, Central Texas, over a four year period. The groundwater fluorescence spectral characteristics were distinct from those generally observed in surface waters and soil porewaters. The dominant source of organic carbon in the aquifer waters may be a product of chemolithoautotrophic primary production occurring in situ. It is possible that the absence of a strong terrestrial CDOM signature may be due to filtering effects in the epikarst or rapid utilization by heterotrophs in the aquifer. Our results indicate that intense recharge following periods of drought may influence the intensity of microbial activity, either due to an influx of DOM or nutrients from the surface that was not quantified by our analyses or because of increased in situ autotrophic activity, or both. The variable contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous DOM during and after recharge events call into question whether karst aquifer ecosystems are necessarily dependent on allochthonous organic matter.

Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA COUNT test kits, 2012, Mulec Janez, Kritů, Fek Vclav, Chroň, kov Alica

RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/) for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units per cm2) we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia) were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count) in the range of 1 001-10 000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia) can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ≥ 10 001 CFU/100 cm2). Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of air-borne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

Preucevanje kraskega ekosistema skozi preucevanje kraskih zdruzb, 2012, Culver D. C. , Debevec B. , Knez M. , Kovacic G. , Kranjc A. , Mulec J. , Pipan T. , Preloovsek M. , Ravbar N. , Semeja A. , Slabe T. , Sebela S. , Hajna N. Z.

Hydroecogeochemical effects of an epikarst ecosystem: case study of the Nongla Landiantang Spring catchment, 2012, Shen L. , Deng X. , Jiang Z. , Li T.

A typical small-scale epikarst ecosystemusually consists of an epikarst zone, soil and vegetation. In this study, to determine the hydro-eco-geochemical effects of an epikarst ecosystem in subtropical humid area, the samples of vegetation, soil, soil microbes, rainfall, throughfall, stem flow, soil water and epikarst springs of Nongla Village, Mashan County, Guangxi in China were collected and analyzed. The research results have shown in the epikarst ecosystem, the conductivity, temporary hardness and total carbon increased continuously in hydro-ecochemical cycle; the vegetation–soil system conducted the transformation and transference of carbon in hydro-ecochemical cycle; the vegetation layer was the major source for organic carbon, while the soil layer was of the important chemical field for the conversion of organic/inorganic carbon and HCO3 –, which would affect the epikarst dynamical system; for most ions, the vegetation layer and shallow soil layer presented more leaching effect than absorption, in contrast, the deep soil layer behaved oppositely. The vegetation layer and shallow soil layer leached ions, and deep soil layer absorbed them. With the plant community presenting in a positive succession, the epikarst ecosystem trended to be stabilized gradually, which made the hydro-eco-geochemical effects to be adjusted and controlled more effectively

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