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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That calc- is prefix meaning limy; containing calcium carbonate [10].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst river (Keyword) returned 12 results for the whole karstbase:
Rotifer fauna in the periphyton of Karst rivers in Croatia, Yugoslavia, 1987, Erben R,

Thalweg variability at bridges along a large karst river: the Suwannee River, Florida, 1998, Mossa J. , Konwinski J. ,
Geomorphologists and engineers have different perspectives and approaches for examining river channels and the changes that occur during floods. The field-oriented approach typically adopted by geomorphologists has little predictive ability and design usefulness. In contrast, the empirical approach adopted by engineers is based on predictive equations or models that often differ greatly from reality. Such equations are not based on comprehensive field data and often fail to consider a number of site conditions, especially geology and geomorphology. Yet, in order for geomorphic techniques to be useful to the design and planning of engineering structures such as bridges, it is important that sufficient observations exist in order to characterize long-term and short-term changes in bottom topography and scour potential. Six gaging stations on the Suwannee River, a large river draining karst terrain in the southeastern US, were used to examine the temporal variability in thalweg elevation, the deepest point in a given cross-section. The cross-sections have maximum thalweg variability of just a few meters, despite the occurrence of several large floods. suggesting that the bottoms are fairly stable. Historical approaches can be applied to design the length and depth placement of pilings by providing information on site conditions not considered in engineering equations, such as response of bottom materials to various flow conditions, and thus have potential benefits to public safety and cost effectiveness. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V

Ecologically acceptable flows definition for the Zrnovnica River (Croatia), 1998, Bonacci O, Kerovec M, Rojebonacci T, Mrakovcic M, Plenkovicmoraj A,
The paper defines an ecologically acceptable flow regime for the River Zrnovnica, Croatia. This is a small and relatively short karst river with high flows and high quality water, convenient for use for public water supply. Because the water from the river will be taken from the karst spring zone, the entire river channel could suffer negative ecological consequences. The main goal of setting minimum acceptable flows is to protect the Zrnovnica river food webs and to sustain the rare and endangered fish species Salmothymus obtusirostris. This paper presents results obtained from hydrological, morphological and biological investigations. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Biological assessment of stream water quality - the example of the Reka river (Slovenia), 2000, Pipan, Tanja

Investigations of macroinvertebrate communities in the Reka, a karst river, were carried out at three sampling sites. We used the so-called "kick sampling" semi-quantitative method, sampling every three months from July 1995 to June 1996. This method proved to be a suitable sampling procedure for identifying macroinvertebrate community structures and for their further analysis. The differences in physical and chemical factors, which indicated seasonal changes, affected the changes in the living communities of macroinvertebrates and were evaluated using diversity, saprobic and biotic indices. The Chandler biotic score changed in proportion to the saprobic value and qualitative classes, and proved to be the best index for assessing water quality in the Reka. Assessments made using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index corresponded with those made using a modified saprobic index and the average Chandler biotic score. The river, with an actual biological optimum, does not exert any substantial negative impact on the underground streams of Škocjanske Jame, into which it flows.


Function feeding groups of macroinvertebrates in the Reka river (Slovenia), 2000, Pipan, Tanja

This ecological study deals with the structure of the fauna in a Karst river, classified into different feeding. From the source to the swallow hole the proportion of suspension feeders, filterer-collectors and shredders diminished, but the proportion of deposit feeders and grazers increased. The proportion of predators was roughly the same at all sampling sites. Biological research showed that in the Reka river optimal food exchange with slightly increased trophic activity takes place, but it does not have a negative effect on the community structure of macroinvertebrates.


SINKING KARST RIVERS HYDROLOGY: CASE OF THE LIKA AND GACKA (CROATIA), 2008, Bonacci Ognjen & Andri? Ivo
In this paper a case of very special hydrological behaviour of two neighbouring sinking karst rivers, Lika and Gacka, (Dinaric karst of Croatia), is analysed. The Lika River has a torrential hydrological regime. At the Sklope gauging station its minimum, mean and maximum measured discharges in the 1951-2005 period were: 0 (dry) m3/s : 24.5 m3/s : 729 m3/s. During the same period the Gacka River, at the Vivoze gauging station, had the following characteristic discharges: 2.29 m3/s; 14.7 m3/s; 71.0 m3/s. While the flow regime of the Lika River is characterised by extremely and very quick changes of discharges, the Gacka River flow regime is unusually uniform. The objective of the investigations made in this paper was to analyse the extremely different hydrological behaviour of the two neighbouring sinking rivers in order to find its reasons. Master depletion curves defined for the two analysed rivers shows that the karst aquifer of the Gacka River is much more abundant than Likas. The difference in the water temperature regime of the two neighbouring rivers is extremely high. At the Lika-Bilaj gauging station the minimum, mean and maximum measured water temperatures in the period of 1964-1991 were: 0.6C; 9.3 C; 21.4C. During the period of 1964-2005 the Gacka River, at the ovii gauging station had the following characteristic water temperatures: 6.4C : 9.1C : 11.6C. The resident time in the karst underground of water discharging from the Gacka karst springs is much longer than in the case of the Lika River. The most probable explanation for this unusual hydrological behaviour of the two neighbouring karst rivers is that water from the Lika River and its catchment recharges some karst springs of the Gacka River. It is concluded that the Lika River feeds the Gacka River with an average annual discharge of about 5.35 m3/s. This value is different during each year and depends on the hydrological situation. It is very probably higher during the wet years than during the dry ones.

Occurrence of Antrobathynella stammeri (Jakobi, 1954) (Crustacea: Syncarida: Bathynellidae) in the hyporheic zones of two English karst rivers, 2008, Stubbington, Rachel, Mark P Dunscombe And Terence Gledhill.
This paper reports the first records of Antrobathynella stammeri in the British Isles since 1985. Numerous individuals were observed in hyporheic water extracted from the River Skirfare (Yorkshire, UK), whilst, in an independent study, a single confirmed specimen was recorded from hyporheic water pumped from the River Lathkill (Derbyshire, UK). The latter observation is the first record of the superorder Syncarida in the Peak District and provides an important geographical link between previously recorded individuals in Scotland and north-west England and records from the south of England. These records suggest that bathynellids might be more abundant in the UK than previously thought, highlighting the need for more effective sampling of subterranean habitats to determine the conservation status of such rarely seen species.

Do Karst Rivers deserve their own biotic index? A ten years study on macrozoobenthos in Croatia, 2010, Ra?a B. , Puljas S.
In this study we present the results of a ten year survey of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along four karst rivers: Jadro, rnovnica, Grab and Ruda, all of them situated in the Middle Dalmatia region of Croatia, in an attempt to construct the Iliric Biotic Index, which will be more applicable for the water quality analysis than the most frequently applied biotic index in Croatia, the Italian Modification of Extended Biotic Index. The rivers geologically belong to the Dinaric karst, unique geological phenomena in Europe. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along each river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling along with several physicochemical parameters, including: temperature, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, hardness and pH. Univariate and multivariate techniques revealed differences in the macroinvertebrate community structure as well as in physicochemical parameters between the Karst rivers and continental rivers. Based on those differences, the Iliric Biotic Index was proposed as the standard of karst river water quality in Croatia in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive. Differences between the Iliric Biotic Index and the most commonly used biotic indices in the European Community and the USA (The Biological Monitoring Working Party (B.M.W.P.) scores, i.e. Extended Biotic Index, Indice Biotique, Family Biotic Index) suggest that karst rivers need a new biotic index.

Do Karst Rivers deserve their own biotic index? A ten years study on macrozoobenthos in Croatia, 2010, Rađ, A B. , Puljas S.

In this study we present the results of a ten year survey of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along four karst rivers: Jadro, rnovnica, Grab and Ruda, all of them situated in the Middle Dalmatia region of Croatia, in an attempt to construct the Iliric Biotic Index, which will be more applicable for the water quality analysis than the most frequently applied biotic index in Croatia, the Italian Modification of Extended Biotic Index. The rivers geologically belong to the Dinaric karst, unique geological phenomena in Europe. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along each river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling along with several physicochemical parameters, including: temperature, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, hardness and pH. Univariate and multivariate techniques revealed differences in the macroinvertebrate community structure as well as in physicochemical parameters between the Karst rivers and continental rivers. Based on those differences, the Iliric Biotic Index was proposed as the standard of karst river water quality in Croatia in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive. Differences between the Iliric Biotic Index and the most commonly used biotic indices in the European Community and the USA (The Biological Monitoring Working Party (B.M.W.P.) scores, i.e. Extended Biotic Index, Indice Biotique, Family Biotic Index) suggest that karst rivers need a new biotic index.


Potential impact of a proposed railway tunnel on the karst environment: the example of Rosandra valley, Classical Karst Region, Italy-Slovenia, 2011, Zini Luca , Visintin Luca, Cucchi Franco, Boschin Walter

Val Rosandra is a unique geomorphological environment located on the western side of the Classical Karst Plateau (NE Italy). This deep limestone gorge is crossed by a stream that is fed by a large basin located in Slovenia. Val Rosandra is the only example of a karst river valley with surface hydrography in the Classical Karst Plateau. The torrent that crosses it digs a deep gully into the rock, rich in rapids, swirl holes, small waterfalls, enclosed meanders and basins; here, the first seepage phenomena occur, and part of the water feeds the underground aquifer.Val Rosandra is characterised by a complex structural situation. The NE slope culminates in the structure of Mt. Stena, a limestone tectonic wedge between two faults, firmly rooted in the karst platform. Both its external morphology and its caves are influenced by the structure, i.e. by the attitude of bedding planes, fault planes and master joints. Mt. Stena, in particular, hosts a comprehensive net of articulated and diversely shaped caves, basically organised on several levels. This network stretches over a total of 9,000 metres, bearing testimony to ancient geological and hydrogeological origins.The deepest areas of the system reach a suspended aquifer that is probably sustained by an overthrust and placed about 100 meters above the underground aquifer of the Rosandra torrent.A series of feasibility studies on the Trieste-Divača high-speed railway link concentrated on the potential interaction between the project and karst features. In line with the project requirements, risk of voids intersection and water contamination were analyzed as Mt. Stena’s suspended aquifer partially feeds the Rosandra torrent, which flows in a protected natural area. We therefore suggest that further investigations ought to be performed to integrate the existing knowledge on karst and on the hydrogeological aspects of the massif.


Karst rivers particularity: an example from Dinaric karst (Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina), 2013, Bonacci O. , Zeljkovic I. , Galic A.

The very complex system of sinking, losing and underground transboundary Karst rivers, lakes and aquifers in the central part of the deep and bare Dinaric karst in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is analysed. The groundwater and surface water are hydraulically connected through numerous karst forms which facilitate the exchange of water between the surface and subsurface. A complex underground conduit system is an inherent characteristic karst system analysed. Groundwater and surface water exchange with both adjacent and distant aquifers through underground routes or inflows from surface streams and artificial reservoirs. Because of a complex surface and underground karst features, which strongly influenced its hydrological and hydrogeological regime, the main open stream flow, with a longitude of about 106 km, undergoes eight name changes. In this paper, it is noted as ‘‘the eight-name river’’. In fact, it represents one river with losing, sinking and underground stream sections. Different surface and underground karst forms play crucial roles in the way the water flowing over the surface and on the underground sections of its catchment. The analysed area is full of varied and often spectacular surface landforms, including for example the Blue and Red Lakes and the Kravice Waterfall. The analyses made in the paper show the existence of a decreasing trend of mean annual discharges on the eight-name river, which can cause numerous problems in the regional water resource management of this transboundary river and catchment.


Karst rivers particularity: an example from Dinaric karst (Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina), 2013, Bonacci Ognjen, Ž, Eljković, Ivana, Galić, Amira

The very complex system of sinking, losing and underground transboundary Karst rivers, lakes and aquifers in the central part of the deep and bare Dinaric karst in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is analysed. The groundwater and surface water are hydraulically connected through numerous karst forms which facilitate the exchange of water between the surface and subsurface. A complex underground conduit system is an inherent characteristic karst system analysed. Groundwater and surface water exchange with both adjacent and distant aquifers through underground routes or inflows from surface streams and artificial reservoirs. Because of a complex surface and underground karst features, which strongly influenced its hydrological and hydrogeological regime, the main open stream flow, with a longitude of about 106 km, undergoes eight name changes. In this paper, it is noted as ‘‘the eight-name river’’. In fact, it represents one river with losing, sinking and underground stream sections. Different surface and underground karst forms play crucial roles in the way the water flowing over the surface and on the underground sections of its catchment. The analysed area is full of varied and often spectacular surface landforms, including for example the Blue and Red Lakes and the Kravice Waterfall. The analyses made in the paper show the existence of a decreasing trend of mean annual discharges on the eight-name river, which can cause numerous problems in the regional water resource management of this transboundary river and catchment.


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