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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That compaction is a decrease in the volume of a mass of sediments from any cause. in general, compaction may be regarded as the decrease in the thickness of sediments, as a result of an increase in vertical compressive stress, and is synonymous with 'one-dimensional consolidation,' as used by engineers. the term compaction is applied both to the process and to the measured change in thickness. in thick fine-grained beds, compaction is a delayed process involving the slow escape of pore water and the gradual transfer of stress from neutral to effective. until sufficient time has passed for excess pore pressure to decrease to zero, measured values of compaction are transient [21]. see also compaction, residual; compaction, specific.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst shafts (Keyword) returned 5 results for the whole karstbase:
Gypsum karst of the Baltic republics., 1996, Narbutas Vytautas, Paukstys Bernardas
The Baltic Republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have karst areas developed in both carbonate and gypsiferous rocks. In the north, within the Republic of Estonia, Ordovician and Silurian limestones and dolomites crop out, or are covered by glacial Quaternary sediments. To the south, in Latvia and Lithuania, gypsum karst is actively developing in evaporites of Late Devonian (Frasnian) age. Although gypsum and mixed sulphate-carbonate karst only occupy small areas in the Baltic countries, they have important engineering and geo-ecological consequences. Due to the rapid dissolution of gypsum, the evolution of gypsum karst causes not only geological hazards such as subsidence, but it also has a highly adverse effect on groundwater quality. The karst territory of the Baltic states lies along the western side of the area, called the Great Devonian Field that form part of the Russian Plain. Within southern Latvia and northern Lithuania there is an area, exceeding 1000 sq. km, where mature gypsum karst occurs at the land surface and in the subsurface. This karst area is referred to here as the Gypsum Karst Region of the Baltic States. Here the surface karst forms include sinkholes, karst shafts, land subsidence, lakes and dolines. In Lithuania the maximum density of sinkholes is 200 per sq. km; in Latvia they reach 138 units per sq. km. Caves, enlarged dissolution voids and cavities are uncommon in both areas.

Morphogenetical aspects of collapse dolines and open pits in the karst of the Venetian Fore-Alps, 2000, Sauro, Ugo

The author found 6 reasons related to formation of collapse dolines and openings of karst shafts in Venetian Fore-Alps: a) collapse of the roof, decapping of hypogean cavity, speleogenesis and dynamics of the epikarst, swallowing of filling materials inside hypogean voids, swallowing cover of loose materials, opening by seismic shocks. Types of karst structures are the superficial expression of the evolution of drainage structures in the epikarst.

Etude glaciologique et climatologique des cavits glaces du Moncodeno (Grigna septentrionale, province de Lecco, Lombardie, 2003, Turri S. , Citterio M. , Bini A. , Maggi V. , Udistj R. , Stenni B.
GLACIOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL STUDIES IN ICE-CAVES OF MONCODENO (NORTH GRIGNA, PROVINCEOFLECCO, LOMBARDY) - The existence of perennial ice and snow deposits in the karst shafts of the Moncodeno area, at altitudes of about 1800 to 2100 m a.s.l, has long been known. Even so, no detailed study has been formerly carried out. Three ice and snow cores have been drilled in the glaciated cave environment and chemical, isotopic, crystallographic and textural analyses were carried out on them. By linking these observations with the morphology, stratigraphy and internal structures of the deposits, and with the hypogean and epigean climate records, we were able to identify the accumulation processes and to give one upper and some lower limits to the age of these deposits. The most notable deposit shows a more than 15 m thick succession of clear-ice layers, found at a depth of about 80 m and suspended between two shafts in the cave "Abisso sul margine dell'Alto Bregaia Because of the relative position to the cave entrance, no snow can reach this deposit. The crystallographic and textural features, confirmed by the chemical and isotopic trends, show that this is lake-ice. At present no accumulation can be observed and the top surface is now at least 3 m lower than it was three decades ago. The underlying shaft, deglaciated at some time in the past by the air circulation drains the water so that hypogean lakes can no more develop. We have found sound stratigraphic and glaciotectonic evidences of at least three accumulation and three ablation phases. When compared to local present precipitations and to the values available from literature, the ice chemical composition and 6110 values show that this ice must be younger than the end of the last ice age, while preceding the beginning of industrial activity related contributions.

Speleogenesis along sub-vertical joints: A model of plateau karst shaft development: A case study: the Doln Vrch Plateau (Slovak Republic), 2003, Baroň, I.

Speleogenesis of narrow and relatively deep karst shafts (avens) was studied in the Slovak part of the Dolný Vrch Plateau (the Slovak Karst Biosphere Reserve, SE Slovakia). Most of the 211 shafts and shaft-related depressions located on the plateau have similar characteristics and no shaft has a known accessible connection to an active horizontal cave system. Dominant tectonic fractures are sub-vertical (sloping 70 - 90°) in most of the shafts. Several microforms, e.g. scallop-like forms, wall troughs or networks of protruding veins, evidence the main speleogenetic processes.
Water film dissolution extends the fractures, usually at the base of the epikarstic zone (Klimchouk, 1995), while the scallop-like forms develop. Then corrosive and erosive action of dripping water takes place and the wall troughs develop downwards - the shaft develops progressively now. Increased carbon dioxide concentration makes the solutions more aggressive and enables the processes working on the shaft bottoms. Water film action and selective condensation corrosion are responsible for upward shaft development. Later, shafts open to the surface, interacting with the effects of surface denudation.


The Eocene limestone plateau of the western Desert of Egypt has various karst features, including shafts created during ancient wet periods. These Paleokarst shafts have been investigated on the plateau to the west of the Nile valley, specifically northwest of Assiut. Most of these shafts are infilled by conglomerate (cemented flint, red soil and limestone chips) and appear as pockets in limestone hills. The morphology of the shafts and the characteristics of their infillings suggest that they developed in vadose zone at the base of epikarst limits. This stage probably took place from the end of Early Eocene to the Middle Miocene. A later, different stage of water erosion occurred, most probably during Pliocene/Pleistocene period. This stage led to remove the epikarst zone, and reshaped the area to create a hilly landscape penetrated by infilled shafts.

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