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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That illite is a clay mineral.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst subsidence (Keyword) returned 10 results for the whole karstbase:
Hydrogeologic controls on the groundwater interactions with an acidic lake in karst terrain, Lake Barco, Florida, 1996, Lee T. M. ,
Transient groundwater interactions and lake stage were simulated for Lake Barco, an acidic seepage lake in the mantled karst of north central Florida. Karst subsidence features affected groundwater flow patterns in the basin and groundwater fluxes to and from the lake. Subsidence features peripheral to the lake intercepted potential groundwater inflow and increased leakage from the shallow perimeter of the lake bed. Simulated groundwater fluxes were checked against net groundwater flow derived from a detailed lake hydrologic budget with short-term lake evaporation computed by the energy budget method. Discrepancies between modeled and budget-derived net groundwater flows indicated that the model underestimated groundwater inflow, possibly contributed to by transient water table mounding near the lake. Recharge from rainfall reduced lake leakage by 10 to 15 times more than it increased groundwater inflow. As a result of the karst setting, the contributing groundwater basin to the lake was 2.4 ha for simulated average rainfall conditions, compared to the topographically derived drainage basin area of 81 ha. Short groundwater inflow path lines and rapid travel times limit the contribution of acid-neutralizing solutes from the basin, making Lake Barco susceptible to increased acidification by acid rain

Karst subsidence in South-Central Apulia, Southern Italy, 2002, Delle Rose Marco, Parise Mario
Subsidence in the karst of Apulia (Southern Italy), one of the classical karst areas of Italy, is described in this paper. The carbonate rocks that make up the geological structure of the Apulia region are affected by subsidence, which is of different type and intensity depending upon geological, topographical, and hydrogeological conditions. In particular, we discriminate between inland subsidence and coastal subsidence. Inland subsidence is generally restricted to the presence of individual cavities, either empty or partly or totally filled with deposits produced by dissolution of soluble rocks underground. Locally, such subsidence can cause severe effects on anthropogenic structures above. The coastal plains of Apulia, particularly the southernmost part (Salento Peninsula), show interesting karst subsidence. Here the main feature is the development of compound sinks extending for several thousands of square metres, or the formation of individual, mostly circular, dolines along the coastline. Occurrence of one or the other of the above features seems to depend upon topographical conditions, and also upon their relationship with sea level oscillations.

Assessing the risk of karst subsidence and collapse, 2003, Benson R. C. , Yuhr L. , Kaufmann R. D.

Mechanisms of karst breakdown formation in the gypsum karst of the fore-Ural region, Russia (from observations in the Kungurskaja Cave), 2004, Andrejchuk V. N. , Klimchouk A. B.

The fore-Ural is a classical region of intrastratal gypsum karst. The intensive development of karst in the Permian gypsums and anhydrites causes numerous practical problems, the subsidence hazard being the most severe.
Mechanisms of karst breakdown formation were studied in detail in the Kunguskaya Cave area. The cave and its setting are characteristic to the region and, being a site of detailed stationary studies for many years, the cave represents a convenient location for various karst and speleological investigations.
Breakdown structures related to cavities of the Kungurskaya Cave type develop by two mechanisms: gravitational (sagging and fall-in of the ceilings of cavities) and filtrational/gravitational (crumbling and fall-in of the ceilings of vertical solution pipes, facilitated by percolation). The former implies upward stoping of the breakout roof and cessation of the process at some height above the floor of the cave due to complete infilling by fallen clasts. This mechanism cannot generate surface deformation where the overburden thickness exceeds a certain value. The latter mechanism implies that breakdown will almost inevitably express itself at the surface, most commonly as a sudden collapse, even where the thickness of the overburden is large. These mechanisms result in different appearance, distribution and further evolution of the respective surface forms, so that subsidence hazard assessment should be performed differently for these types of breakdown.
The conclusions reached by this study are representative for the region, although some of them bear more general validity for intrastratal karst conditions. This study underlines the ultimate importance of speleological investigations to the understanding of karst breakdown mechanisms.


Hypogene Speleogenesis: Hydrogeological and Morphogenetic Perspective., 2007, Klimchouk A. B.

This book provides an overview of the principal environments, main processes and manifestations of hypogenic speleogenesis, and refines the relevant conceptual framework. It consolidates the notion of hypogenic karst as one of the two major types of karst systems (the other being epigenetic karst). Karst is viewed in the context of regional groundwater flow systems, which provide the systematic transport and distribution mechanisms needed to produce and maintain the disequilibrium conditions necessary for speleogenesis. Hypogenic and epigenic karst systems are regularly associated with different types, patterns and segments of flow systems, characterized by distinct hydrokinetic, chemical and thermal conditions. Epigenic karst systems are predominantly local systems, and/or parts of recharge segments of intermediate and regional systems. Hypogenic karst is associated with discharge regimes of regional or intermediate flow systems.

Various styles of hypogenic caves that were previously considered unrelated, specific either to certain lithologies or chemical mechanisms are shown to share common hydrogeologic genetic backgrounds. In contrast to the currently predominant view of hypogenic speleogenesis as a specific geochemical phenomenon, the broad hydrogeological approach is adopted in this book. Hypogenic speleogenesis is defined with reference to the source of fluid recharge to the cave-forming zone, and type of flow system. It is shown that confined settings are the principal hydrogeologic environment for hypogenic speleogenesis. However, there is a general evolutionary trend for hypogenic karst systems to lose their confinement due to uplift and denudation and due to their own expansion. Confined hypogenic caves may experience substantial modification or be partially or largely overprinted under subsequent unconfined (vadose) stages, either by epigenic processes or continuing unconfined hypogenic processes, especially when H2S dissolution mechanisms are involved.

Hypogenic confined systems evolve to facilitate cross-formational hydraulic communication between common aquifers, or between laterally transmissive beds in heterogeneous soluble formations, across cave-forming zones. The latter originally represented low-permeability, separating units supporting vertical rather than lateral flow. Layered heterogeneity in permeability and breaches in connectivity between different fracture porosity structures across soluble formations are important controls over the spatial organization of evolving ascending hypogenic cave systems. Transverse hydraulic communication across lithological and porosity system boundaries, which commonly coincide with major contrasts in water chemistry, gas composition and temperature, is potent enough to drive various disequilibrium and reaction dissolution mechanisms. Hypogenic speleogenesis may operate in both carbonates and evaporites, but also in some clastic rocks with soluble cement. Its main characteristic is the lack of genetic relationship with groundwater recharge from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. It may not be manifest at the surface at all, receiving some expression only during later stages of uplift and denudation. In many instances, hypogenic speleogenesis is largely climate- independent.

There is a specific hydrogeologic mechanism inherent in hypogenic transverse speleogenesis (restricted input/output) that suppresses the positive flow-dissolution feedback and speleogenetic competition in an initial flowpath network. This accounts for the development of more pervasive channeling and maze patterns in confined settings where appropriate structural prerequisites exist. As forced-flow regimes in confined settings are commonly sluggish, buoyancy dissolution driven by either solute or thermal density differences is important in hypogenic speleogenesis.

In identifying hypogenic caves, the primary criteria are morphological (patterns and meso-morphology) and hydrogeological (hydrostratigraphic position and recharge/flow pattern viewed from the perspective of the evolution of a regional groundwater flow system). Elementary patterns typical for hypogenic caves are network mazes, spongework mazes, irregular chambers and isolated passages or crude passage clusters. They often combine to form composite patterns and complex 3- D structures. Hypogenic caves are identified in various geological and tectonic settings, and in various lithologies. Despite these variations, resultant caves demonstrate a remarkable similarity in cave patterns and meso-morphology, which strongly suggests that the hydrogeologic settings were broadly identical in their formation. Presence of the characteristic morphologic suites of rising flow with buoyancy components is one of the most decisive criteria for identifying hypogenic speleogenesis, which is much more widespread than was previously presumed. Hypogenic caves include many of the largest, by integrated length and by volume, documented caves in the world.

The refined conceptual framework of hypogenic speleogenesis has broad implications in applied fields and promises to create a greater demand for karst and cave expertise by practicing hydrogeology, geological engineering, economic geology, and mineral resource industries. Any generalization of the hydrogeology of karst aquifers, as well as approaches to practical issues and resource prospecting in karst regions, should take into account the different nature and characteristics of hypogenic and epigenic karst systems. Hydraulic properties of karst aquifers, evolved in response to hypogenic speleogenesis, are characteristically different from epigenic karst aquifers. In hypogenic systems, cave porosity is roughly an order of magnitude greater, and areal coverage of caves is five times greater than in epigenic karst systems. Hypogenic speleogenesis commonly results in more isotropic conduit permeability pervasively distributed within highly karstified areas measuring up to several square kilometers. Although being vertically and laterally integrated throughout conduit clusters, hypogenic systems, however, do not transmit flow laterally for considerable distances. Hypogenic speleogenesis can affect regional subsurface fluid flow by greatly enhancing initially available cross- formational permeability structures, providing higher local vertical hydraulic connections between lateral stratiform pathways for groundwater flow, and creating discharge segments of flow systems, the areas of low- fluid potential recognizable at the regional scale. Discharge of artesian karst springs, which are modern outlets of hypogenic karst systems, is often very large and steady, being moderated by the high karstic storage developed in the karstified zones and by the hydraulic capacity of an entire artesian system. Hypogenic speleogenesis plays an important role in conditioning related processes such as hydrothermal mineralization, diagenesis, and hydrocarbon transport and entrapment.

An appreciation of the wide occurrence of hypogenic karst systems, marked specifics in their origin, development and characteristics, and their scientific and practical importance, calls for revisiting and expanding the current predominantly epigenic paradigm of karst and cave science.


Important directions of karst and speleological researches and tasks of their development in Ukraine, 2008, Klimchouk A. B.

The end of the XX Century has seen a remarkable growth of significance of speleology among modern Earth sciences. The paper provides a brief overview of recent advances and trends in geospeleology and karstology. It is shown that knowledge on cave origin has attained a status of a full-fledged theory, and that the speleogenetic theory took a central place in karst hydrogeology and dramatically improved understanding of karst aquifers evolution and functioning. Other areas of considerable advances and great significance for adjacent disciplines are paleo-reconstructions from karst/cave records and speleogenetic implications for assessment of karst subsidence hazard. The modern speleology has an obvious interdisciplinary character. The establishment in 2006 of the Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology is grounded on considerable achievements of Ukrainian scientists in this field and opens new perspectives for further development of speleology and karstology in Ukraine.


Karst features in the vicinity of the Ordynskaya Cave (Perm Region, Russia), 2009, Kadebskaya O. I. , Maximovich N. G. , Zhakova U. V

The paper presents describes underground and surface karst features in the area of the Ordynsky Cave, the longest underwater cave in gypsum.  Geomorphology and tectonics of the area are also described, and subsidence hazard is assessed.


The questions of engineering karstology in the works of professor Jerzy Liszkowski (1936-2005), 2010, Andreychouk V. . , Tolmachov V. V.

Jerzy Lishkovsky belongs to a very colorful figures of the Polish geological science in recent decades. Among his scientific works karst engineering issues occupy a prominent place.  He has published over 30 papers in this area including studies on the formation of collapse dolines and karst deformations, on the mechanisms of collapse of underground cavities arch, on assessment of karst subsidence hazard. His works do not lose their value till nowadays.


Hypogene Speleogenesis, 2013, Klimchouk, A. B.

Recognition of the wide occurrence, significance, and specific characteristics of hypogene speleogenesis during last twodecades signifies a major paradigm shift in karst science, previously overwhelmingly dominated by epigene concepts and models. Hypogene karst is one of the fundamental categories of karst, at least of equal importance with more familiar epigenic karst. Hypogene and epigenic karst systems are regularly associated with different types, patterns, and segments off low systems, which are characterized by distinct hydrokinetic, chemical, and thermal conditions. Hypogene speleogenesis is the formation of solution-enlarged permeability structures by water that recharges thecavernous zone from below, independent of recharge from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. It develops mainly in leaky confined conditions, although it may continue through unconfined ones. Hydraulic communication along cross-formational flow paths, across lithological boundaries, different porosity systems, and flow regimes allows deeper ground waters in regional or intermediate flow systems to interact with shallower and more local systems, permittinga variety of dissolution mechanisms to operate. A specific hydrogeologic mechanism acting in hypogenic transverse speleogenesis (restricted input/output) suppresses the positive flow-dissolution feedback and speleogenetic competition seen in the epigenic development. Hypogenic caves occur in different soluble rocks in a wide range of geological and tectonic settings, basinal throughorogenic. Overall patterns of cave systems are strongly guided by the spatial distribution of the initial (prespeleogenetic) permeability features and hydrostratigraphic barriers and interfaces within the soluble and adjacent units, by the mode of water input to, and output from, cave-forming zones and by the overall recharge–discharge configuration in the multiple aquifer system. Because of their transverse nature, hypogene caves have a clustered distribution in plan view, althoughinitial clusters may merge laterally across considerable areas. Hypogene caves display remarkable similarity in their pattern sand mesomorphology, strongly suggesting that the type of flow system is the primary control. The rapidly evolving understanding of hypogene speleogenesis has broad implications for many applied fields such asprospecting and characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, groundwater management, geological engineering, and mineral resources industries


Evolution of Intrastratal Karst and Caves in Gypsum, 2013, Klimchouk, A. B.

The term ‘intrastratal karst’ denotes a series of evolutionary karst types corresponding to successive stages of karst developmentin a soluble rock while it moves back to exposure after being buried by younger strata. The major boundaryconditions, the overall circulation pattern, and extrinsic factors and intrinsic mechanisms of karst development appear tochange considerably between the stages, resulting in characteristic styles of cave development and surface karst morphology,particularly distinct in case of gypsum karst.As gypsum is much more soluble than carbonates, it does not survive long in outcrops beyond arid areas. Wheregypsum is exposed to the surface with no substantial karstification formed during various stages of reburial, the developmentof epigene solution porosity in this rock is hindered due to the fast dissolution, being limited to flow paths in whichthe breakthrough conditions can be attained quickly. However, karst processes in gypsum develop extensively in intrastratalkarst settings, with inheritance from the deep-seated stage through the denuded one. Karstification may commence in anystage of intrastratal development, and during the next successive stage, the process, although in changed conditions, will beaffected significantly by the preformed solution porosity. Speleogenesis in deep-seated gypsum karst is exclusively hypogene.In subjacent karst, both hypogene and epigene speleogenesis may operate depending on the locally prevailing flowregime, but hypogene speleogenesis still dominates. In entrenched and denuded karst types, speleogenesis is overwhelminglyepigenic, but it is greatly facilitated by the presence of solution porosity inherited from the previous stages.Diverse and expressive karst landforms related to subsurface conduits evolve through different stages of the intrastratal karstdevelopment.The subsidence hazard in regions underlain by gypsum differs substantially between the karst types, so that one canobtain a kind of integrated general hazard assessment by classifying a given individual karst according to its evolution state.In general, various types of intrastratal karst, subjacent karst in particular, are the most potent in generating subsidence problems, whereas exposed karst types, particularly open karst, are the least prone to subsidence


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