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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That anthropocentric definitions is definitions of caves or parts of caves that include accessibility by human explorers as one of their limiting conditions. most well known among these is the definition published by the international speleological union, that 'a cave is a natural underground opening in rock that is large enough for human entry' (see proto-caves) [9].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for karst system (Keyword) returned 347 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 347
Copepod distribution as an indicator of epikarst system connectivity, , Tanja Pipan, David C. Culver,

Significance and origin of very large regulating power of some karst aquifers in the Middle East. Implication on karst aquifer classification, , Elhakim M, Bakalowicz M,
SummaryKarst aquifers are the main groundwater resource in Lebanon as well as in most Mediterranean countries. Most of them are not exploited in a sustainable way, partly because their characteristics remain unknown. Karst aquifers are so complex that the assessment of their resource and their exploitable storage requires an analysis of their whole functioning, particularly by analysing the spring hydrograph. Among all various methods, the method proposed by Mangin aims to characterize at the same time the recharge conditions and the storage and recession of the saturated zone by analyzing the spring hydrograph. This method defines two parameters, the infiltration delay i, and the regulating power k which are the roots of a classification of karst systems. This classification makes the distinction between karst and porous aquifers considering the value of the regulating power. k is assumed to be lower than 0.5 in karst, and between 0.5 and 1 for all other aquifers, 1 being the upper limit.The study of karst aquifers in Lebanon shows values of k > 0.5, and even 1; former data from the literature show that other karst springs in Middle East have comparable characteristics. In fact, what is not considered by Mangin and others, k is equivalent to a mean residence time in years of water in the saturated zone. So long residence times are normally observed in poorly karstified aquifers, or containing abandoned, not functioning karstification. The geological framework in which the studied springs are located in fact shows that these aquifers have been subject to a long, complex evolution, as a consequence of the base level rising. This rising produced the flooding of the successive karst drainage network, which does not really function anymore and provides a large storage capacity to the aquifer. The very interesting properties of these aquifers make them prime targets for fulfilling the increasing needs of water

The Aggitis karst system, Eastern Macedonia, Greece: Hydrologic functioning and development of the karst structure, , Novel Jean Paul, Dimadi Agoro, Zervopoulou Anna, Bakalowicz Michel,
SummaryThe Aggitis karst system developed in the marbles of the Rhodope massif. The conditions of the development of its karst drainage network are determined from the geological and geomorphologic settings by means of a microstructural analysis, following Eraso's method. This analysis shows that the karst conduit network intensely developed in the western part of the mountain Falakro where the majority of the open fractures oriented in the same direction as the hydraulic gradient, while the two directions are perpendicular in its eastern part drained by the spring of Drama.The behaviour of the system was analysed by means of hydrodynamic and water geochemical techniques. Despite the extension of the cave system and of the favourable development conditions of conduits, the functioning appears complex, with a significant storage, and a slow infiltration as well as an easy drainage. On the contrary the Drama karst system, characterised by a low variability in its hydrological and geochemical characteristics does not show any karst functioning.In the Aggitis karst system the initial groundwater flow conditions in combination with the aperture planes of which the directions are in agreement with the hydraulic gradient, favoured the rapid development of a drainage network system. The recharge from a large surface catchment area on non-karstic rocks, through swallow holes in a wide polje contributed to increase the groundwater flow through the karst part of the system, facilitating the development of the conduits

Assessing the importance of conduit geometry and physical parameters in karst systems using the storm water management model (SWMM), , Peterson Eric W. , Wicks Carol M. ,
SummaryQuestions about the importance of conduit geometry and about the values of hydraulic parameters in controlling ground-water flow and solute transport through karstic aquifers have remained largely speculative. One goal of this project was to assess the role that the conduit geometry and the hydraulic parameters have on controlling transport dynamics within karstic aquifers. The storm water management model (SWMM) was applied to the Devil's Icebox-Connor's Cave System in central Missouri, USA. Simulations with incremental changes to conduit geometry or hydraulic parameters were performed with the output compared to a calibrated baseline model. Ten percent changes in the length or width of a conduit produced statistically significant different fluid flow responses. The model exhibited minimal sensitivity to slope and infiltration rates; however, slight changes in Manning's roughness coefficient can highly alter the simulated output.Traditionally, the difference in flow dynamics between karstified aquifers and porous media aquifers has led to the idea that modeling of karst aquifers is more difficult and less precise than modeling of porous media aquifers. When evaluated against models for porous media aquifers, SWMM produced results that were as accurate (10% error compared to basecase). In addition, SWMM has the advantage of providing data about local flow. While SWMM may be an appropriate modeling technique for some karstic aquifers, SWMM should not be viewed as a universal solution to modeling karst systems

Anomalous behaviour of specific electrical conductivity at a karst spring induced by variable catchment boundaries: the case of the Podstenjšek spring, Slovenia, , Ravbar, N. , Engelhardt, I. , Goldscheider, N.

Anomalous behaviour of specific electrical conductivity (SEC) was observed at a karst spring in Slovenia during 26 high-flow events in an 18-month monitoring period. A conceptual model explaining this anomalous SEC variability is presented and reproduced by numerical modelling, and the practical relevance for source protection zoning is discussed. After storm rainfall, discharge increases rapidly, which is typical for karst springs. SEC displays a first maximum during the rising limb of the spring hydrograph, followed by a minimum indicating the arrival of freshly infiltrated water, often confirmed by increased levels of total organic carbon (TOC). The anomalous behaviour starts after this SEC minimum, when SEC rises again and remains elevated during the entire high-flow period, typically 20–40 µS/cm above the baseflow value. This is explained by variable catchment boundaries: When the water level in the aquifer rises, the catchment expands, incorporating zones of groundwater with higher SEC, caused by higher unsaturated zone thickness and subtle lithologic changes. This conceptual model has been checked by numerical investigations. A generalized finite-difference model including high-conductivity cells representing the conduit network (“discrete-continuum approach”) was set up to simulate the observed behaviour of the karst system. The model reproduces the shifting groundwater divide and the nearly simultaneous increase of discharge and SEC during high-flow periods. The observed behaviour is relevant for groundwater source protection zoning, which requires reliable delineation of catchment areas. Anomalous behaviour of SEC can point to variable catchment boundaries that can be checked by tracer tests during different hydrologic conditions.

Observations on the evolution of caves., 1964, Cavaille Albert
In this note, which results from a paper published in France, the author defines the "karst system" formed by several successive levels, at the heart of a limestone mass: joints of surface feeding, vertical chimneys, galleries which are alternatively dry and full of water according to the season, a network of continually drowned clefts. He then studies modifications in this system resulting from internal causes, corrosion, filling and sedimentation, concretion. Then he shows how this evolution of the karst system may be modified by general conditions: geology, tectonics, geography with the losses, resurgences and the role of surface formations. The deepening of the river level may create a structure of differing levels in the various karst system, but their positioning is always slower than the streams erosion and it comes about later. In any case, the caves in a dried karst system undergo an evolution on their own. Finally, the author gives the definition of the terms used to explain the evolution in the karst system: "embryonic galleries" in the network of clefts, "young galleries" in the zone which is alternately wet and dry, "mature galleries" where the concretion and the erosion are balanced, "old galleries" where the concretion is becoming more and more important, "dead galleries" where the cave is completely filled by the deposits and concretions. This classification will easily replace the inexact terms of "active galleries" and "fossilized galleries" which are too vague and lead to confusion.

The Coxco Deposit; a Proterozoic mississippi valley-type deposit in the McArthur River District, Northern Territory, Australia, 1983, Walker R. N. , Gulson B. , Smith J. ,
Strata-bound dolomite-hosted lead-zinc deposit. Crusts of colloform sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and marcasite (stage I mineralization) were deposited on the surfaces of the karst-produced solution cavities. Reduced sulfur was produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria within the karst system. A second stage of mineralization consisting of coarsely crystalline sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and marcasite occurs in veins and as the matrix for dolomite breccias.--Modified journal abstract

Alpine karst systems at Crowsnest Pass, Alberta-British Columbia, 1983, Ford. D. C.

Les phnomnes karstiques des quartzites d'Afrique du Sud, 1987, Martini, J.
KARST FEATURES IN QUARTZITE OF SOUTH AFRICA - The author describes karst features developed in quartzite and also, but to a lesser extent, in weathered diabase and in wad. In quartzite, the karst is due to weathering along joints and bedding planes, producing softer areanaceous boundaries. Later, vadose caves form by piping in the weathered material, starting at a spring and progressing upstream. The karst features include dolines, swallow-holes, and caves, grouped in very localised systems. Over most of the quartzite plateaus, however, real karst features are absent and the drainage remains superficial. The only ubiquitous features, reminiscent of lapies, consist of pinnacles left after erosion of sand. As most of the time they are not associated to deep karst systems, the author proposes that they should not be considered as karst features. Other caves are developed in weathered diabase and dolomite (wad), sandwiched between resistant quartzite layers. They result from the erosion of these soft layers. The author is of the opinion that the term karst rather than pseudokarst should be used to describe this morphology developed in silica and silicate rocks. The reason is that not only the features produced compare well with the ones observed in " soluble rocks " (limestone, gypsum, etc.), but that the genetical process is very similar. It is suggested that the term pseudokarst should be used only in cases were the genesis is different.

Les rgions karstiques du Costa Rica, 1987, Mora, S.
KARST LOCALITIES IN COSTA RICA AND THEIR GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND - Several karst localities in Costa Rica and some of their geological background have been already known by means of regional stratigraphic preview. However, a detailed exploration has not been accomplished yet, with only a few partial exceptions. Information on geological conditions, geomorphology, speleology, ecology and hydrogeology is only available from Barra Honda karst. General development of karst systems in Costa Rica has reached young to moderately mature maximum stage with the occurrence of classic features. Further studies are necessary to obtain a better idea of this kind of phenomena which shows a good potential as a water source and for tourism, ecology and industry. A brief description of the geology of Costa Rica, with relation to the development of karst, is also offered in this text.

Relationships between the internal and external evolution of the Monte Cucco Karst Complex. Umbria, Central Italy., 1987, Guzzetti Fausto
The relationships between the internal and external evolution of the Mt. Cucco karst complex are studied. A classic set of equations, involving the oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, originated at depth in an evaporitic formation, is used to explain the presence of massive gypsum deposits in the Mt. Cucco and the Faggeto Tondo caves. The distribution and the morphology of more than 30 caves in the system, the presence of gypsum, always located along faults, and the presence of broken stalactites and columns, suggest that the evolution of the karst system has been controlled by tectonic movements. Relationships between the development of the caves and the geomorphic evolution of the area are proposed.

A reconnaissance isotope study of waters in the karst of the Western Tatra mountains, 1988, Rozanski K. , Dulinski M. ,
Presented are results of isotope investigations of waters collected in the karstic area of the Western Tatra Mts. Altogether 35 groundwater samples have been analysed (tritium content, [delta]D, [delta]18O). They represent groundwaters collected on the earth surface (springs, streams, exurgences) as well as waters found in caves. Parallel, systematic isotope analyses of monthly precipitation collected at the Ornak station located in the center of the investigated area were also carried out. The results of isotope investigations fully confirm earlier suggestions that the karst system of the Western Tatra Mts consists of separate independent subsystems exhibiting weak (if any) hydraulic interconnections. Tritium data allow a semi-quantitative assessment of the mean residence time of the baseflow component in the investigated system. It is equal to at least 7/8 years. Eventual further measurements of tritium content should allow a more precise determination of this parameter. [delta]D and [delta]18O analyses of the investigated waters provide a basis for assessment of the Is/I ratio i.e. the ratio of infiltration originating from summer precipitation to the total yearly infiltration. It appears that groundwaters collected in caves exhibit on the average significantly higher D and 18O content compared to groundwaters collected on the surface. Possible reasons of this effect are discussed thoroughly in the paper

Processes in Karst Systems, 1988, Dreybrodt W.

Prsentation des principales cavites du Causse de Laissac-Sverac (Aveyron), 1990, Rigal, C.
PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN CAVES OF THE CAUSSE OF LAISSAC-SEVERAC (AVEYRON, FRANCE) - The causse of Laissac-Severac is situated between "Grands Causses" and "Causse of Sauveterre" (Aveyron), in limestones and dolomites of Lias and Middle Jurassic. This speleological area presents two kinds of karst systems: losses and resurgences at the contact of the crystalline massif (Levezou) on the south part (Clos del Pous = 3km), and caves with numerous sumps under the Causse of Severac on the north part (plateau with large depressions (Tantayrou = 3.1km). These caves are post-Miocene because of the dated volcanism; they cut an eogene paleokarst, which is characterised by ferralitic paleosoils (ferruginous sandstone called "Siderolithique") from the alteration of crystalline massif.

Le karst alpin des Mts. Retezat (Carpathes mridionales, Roumanie), 1991, Badescu, D.
THE ALPINE KARST 0F RETEZAT M0UNTAINS (ROMANIA) - The limestone area of the Retezat Mountains (2079 m), in the Carpathian range (Transylvania), is the principal alpine karst of Romania. It is formed by a syncline structure of jurassic limestone covering a crystalline precambrian basement. The mountain climate is wet (1400 mm/year) and continental. The glacio-karstic morphology (glacial cirque, dry valleys) is developed on a tertiary polygenic surface folded and uplifted since the Oligocene and Neogene. The catchment basin (85 km2) feeds the Izvorul Cernei karst spring (0,5-10 m3/s), the most important of Romania. Water tracings (s = 55 m/h) and statistical studies on caves suggest the development of a complex karst system. 50% of underground waters come from the running off on the precambrian basement and explain the rate of sodium. The majority of the potholes and glacires are situated above 1700m; the deepest is Stna Tomii cave (-136m) with a 115m direct pit.

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