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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That surface seepage is surface discharge of ground water not important enough to form a rivulet [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst terrains (Keyword) returned 67 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 67
Quartzite Karst in Southeastern Venezuela, 1967, Haman Jon F. , Jefferson Gene L. , White William B.
Minor weathering forms on the Roraima Quartzite in the Carrao River Basin of Southeastern Venezuela have the appearance of the karren that form on limestone surfaces in karst terrains. Climatological and chemical evidence indicates that these forms were generated by a solutional mechanism and that this area thus exhibits a minor karst topography on quartzite.

The analysis of spatial characteristics of karst terrains, 1972, Williams P. W.

'Pseudokarst' and 'pseudokarst terrains'; problems of terminology, 1976, Otvos E. G. ,

Quelques aspects du karst en Chine, 1985, Tricart, J.
Some characteristic features of karst in China Karst terrain is widespread in China: some 2,000,000km2, corresponding to 20-25% of the whole surface of the country. It occurs at very different altitudes and under quite different climates, from the region of Zhoukoudian, where has been found the skull of the Pekin Man, to the Tibet Plateau, where there is presently permafrost conditions, and up to southern tropical moist China, near Canton and Guilin. Recent chinese investigations have proved that most karst features are old. In Southern China a tropical karst (tower-karst or "mogotes" karst) is associated with lacustrine deposits containing the well-known Hipparion Fauna, of Miocene age. Its predates the intensive uplift of the Himalaya and of the Tibet, which has begun during the Pliocene and has continued during all the Pleistocene. The same fossils have been found in this tropical karst in present permafrost areas, above 5,000m. In the region of Guilin (Guangxi Province), this tropical karst has been described. There is evidence for the former existence of a covered karst, where limestones and dolomitic limestones were covered by a thick layer of reddish residual clays, with limonite. This mantle has been stripped during different periods of drier and probably cooler climate, has suggested by pollen spectra. In some places, these residual products have been trapped into pits, cracks, and caves. We have observed a small quantity of red clay painting limestone stalactites and sinters (Chuanshan and Leng Yin Yen Caves, in the surroundings of Guilin). They present sometimes a mining interest and some extractive industries are presently active (limonite, cassierite, etc.). Many caves have been surveyed by the Institute of Karst geology, in Guilin. Some have been equiped for tourism, around Guilin. All these caves are old. Some radiocarbon dating of speleothems yield ages of 33,000 year BP. The famous carving of the Leng Yen Cave have not been affected by calcite deposition from dripping since at least 500 years. The large caves that have been surveyed should correspond to a long evolution span. Along the Lijiang River, at least two terraces can be observed. They are built with gravels and pebbles, covered with thinner sand and loam, suggesting climatic changes, also attested by the changes of fauna and vegetation. These past cooler periods are characterised by an opened vegetation, with the striping of the old weathering cover of the former tropical karst. These karst terrains have been investigated in China for management purposes. Groundwater oscillations have frequently resulted in land subsidences damaging buildings, and in dramatic collapses destroying fields, roads. Sometimes, underground collapse plugged caves and dammed underground rivers, resulting in floodings. The caves are frequently used as reservoirs for irrigation and power plants.

Water movement and storage in the unsaturated zone of a maturely karstified carbonate aquifer, Mendip Hills, England,, 1987, Smart P. L. , Friederich H.

Water-Formed Structures, 1989, Bloom Al,

Water-Formed Structures: Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains, 1989, Bloom Al,

FLOW PARAMETERS IN A SHALLOW CONDUIT-FLOW CARBONATE AQUIFER, INNER BLUEGRASS KARST REGION, KENTUCKY, USA, 1991, Thrailkill J. , Sullivan S. B. , Gouzie D. R. ,
In the carbonate aquifers which underlie most karst terrains, groundwater flow is through a dendritic system of solution conduits. In such aquifers, termed shallow conduit-flow aquifers. the methods used to mode) granular and fracture aquifers are not generally applicable. Investigations were conducted in the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky with the objective of developing methods of modeling shallow conduit-flow aquifers as well as obtaining quantitative information on a specific portion of the aquifer to assist in its management for water supply purposes. In the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region, groundwater basins are developed. in each of which there is an integrated system of solution conduits which conducts recharge to a major spring. One of the largest of these groundwater basins feeds Royal Spring, which serves as the principal water supply for the town of Georgetown. The basin extends over 15 km to the southeast and most of its flow is furnished by underground diversions of Cane Run, a surface stream with headwaters near the center of the City of Lexington. The principal objectives of the field investigation were to determine discharges at the spring and travel times to the spring from discrete recharge points within the basin, termed swallets. The spring is ungaged. and an attempt was made to obtain a continuous discharge record by the dilution of dye introduced at a swallet. Comparison of the dye-dilution discharge record with stage discharges at the spring revealed substantial discrepancies which are believed to be caused by as much as five-sixths of the low-flow discharge from the upper portion of the basin bypassing the spring. The dye-dilution method, therefore, provided significant insights into the geometry of the conduit system of the groundwater basin although it proved unsatisfactory as a method of determining discharges at the spring. Analysis of the travel times and stage discharges provided information on the conduit geometry by modeling the flow as open-channel flow in a rectangular channel. Flow in the system is rapid, ranging from 140 to 590 m h-1. Although the flow rate increases with discharge, the relationship is not simple owing to substantial increases in conduit cross-sectional area at higher discharges. Flow is turbulent and subcritical under all conditions. The most surprising result was the very low depth of flow calculated; less than 17 cm at even the highest discharge. Although this must be considered an 'equivalent' depth, it is believed to indicate that active flow in shallow conduit-flow aquifers is generally in a thin zone just beneath the water table

SUBTERRANEAN TRANSPORT OF RADON AND ELEVATED INDOOR RADON IN HILLY KARST TERRAINS, 1992, Gammage Rb, Dudney Cs, Wilson Dl, Saultz Rj, Bauer Bc,
Subterranean networks of cavities and fissures can present circulatory systems facilitating convective and advective transport of radon-bearing air. Evidence points to aerostatic pressure differentials being the principal driving force for subterranean transport of radon in some hilly limestone terrains of the southern Appalachians; differences between the underground and outside air temperatures, and the concomitant differences in air density, appear to be the dominant factor in producing the differences in aerostatic pressure. Examples are presented of houses experiencing elevated indoor levels as a consequence of being built on top of and apparently communicating with such subterranean systems. The location of a house near the upper or lower end of a subterranean circulatory system can result in amplification of indoor radon levels in winter or summer, respectively. These phenomena have been studied in and around houses located in the hilly karst areas of Huntsville, AL, and Oak Ridge, TN

VOID-FILLING DEPOSITS IN KARST TERRAINS OF ISOLATED OCEANIC ISLANDS - A CASE-STUDY FROM TERTIARY CARBONATES OF THE CAYMAN-ISLANDS, 1992, Jones B. ,
Caves, fossil mouldic cavities, sinkholes and solution-widened joints are common in the Cayman and Pedro Castle members of the Bluff Formation (Oligocene Miocene) on Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac because they have been subjected to repeated periods of karst development over the last 30 million years. Many voids contain a diverse array of sediments and/or precipitates derived from marine or terrestrial environs, mineral aerosols, and groundwater. Exogenic sediment was transported to the cavities by oceanic storm waves, transgressive seas, runoff following tropical rain storms and/or in groundwater. At least three periods of deposition were responsible for the occlusion of voids in the Cayman and Pedro Castle members. Voids in the Cayman Member were initially filled or partly filled during the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene. This was terminated with the deposition of the Pedro Castle Member in the Middle Miocene. Subsequent exposure led to further karst development and void-filling sedimentation in both the Cayman and Pedro Castle members. Speleothems are notably absent. The void-filling deposits formed during these two periods, which were predominantly marine in origin, were pervasively dolomitized along with the host rock 2 5 million years ago. The third period of void-filling deposition. after dolomitization of the Bluff Formation, produced limestone, various types of breccia, terra rossa, speleothemic calcite and terrestrial oncoids. Most of these deposits formed since the Sangamon highstand 125 000 years ago. Voids in the present day karst are commonly filled or partly filled with unconsolidated sediments. Study of the Bluff Formation of Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac shows that karst terrains on isolated oceanic islands are characterized by complex successions of void-filling deposits that include speleothems and a variety of sediment types. The heterogenetic nature of these void-filling deposits is related to changes in sea level and climatic conditions through time

HYDROLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF THE FLOW IN KARST - EXAMPLE OF THE CRNOJEVICA SPRING, 1993, Bonacci O, Zivaljevic R,
This paper deals with various methods of solving the complex problems of the hydrological transformation of rainfall into runoff in karst terrains. As an example of a typical karst catchment, the Crnojevica spring, located in deep Dinaric karst, is used to illustrate, explain and solve several hydrological problems in karst. The introduction deals with the geographical, geological and meteorological factors which conditioned a specific system of surface and underground flows, typical for karst terrains. The paper also explains some basic activities related to the identification of such a system. Special attention has been paid to the karst terrain of the Cetinje polje and its flooding, which occurred in February 1986. This flood initiated numerous intensive investigations which made it possible to define the catchment area of Crnojevica spring and the volume of the underground karst reservoir

Environmental change and human impact on karst in arid and semi-arid Australia, 1993, Gillieson D.

Effects of tourist development on caves and karst, 1993, Huppert G. , Burri E. , Forti P. , Cigna A.

Hydrology and denudation rates of halite karst, 1994, Frumkin A,
Salt karst terrains exist mainly in arid climates where rock salt outcrops may escape complete destruction by dissolution. Such is the case with Mount Sedom, on the SW shore of the Dead Sea, one of the most arid parts of Israel. Many small catchments developed over the relatively insoluble cap rock which overlies the highly soluble rock salt. The catchments were surveyed and classified. Some 57% of the surface area is drained by an underground karst system. Water samples from various points in the system were analysed, and water development was inferred. Waters in cave conduits do not reach saturation during flood flow, unless the water is ponded for at least several hours. Based on the available evidence, regional karst denudation is tentatively estimated to be about 0.5-0.75 mm year-1, occurring mainly within the rock salt

Regional mapping of karst terrains in order to avoid potential environmental problems, 1995, Johnson K. S. , Quinlan J. F.

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