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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That simple hydrograph is a single peaked hydrograph [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for karst water resources (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
Role of public awareness in groundwater protection, 1997, Ekmekci M, Gunay G,
Scarcity of water, particularly in towns situated along the Mediterranean coast where the main aquifers are in karstic carbonate rocks, necessitates more thoroughness in exploiting and protecting the groundwater resources. Geomorphological and hydrogeological studies have revealed large quantities of the input and throughput features, such as sinkholes, dolines, uvalas and poljes in the recharge areas of many karst aquifers in Turkey. Naturally, recharge areas are generally located at higher elevations and regions remote from the urbanized areas. These features lead the local authorities and persons to utilize the karst features for their own purposes. Dolines and ponors are commonly utilized as injection points for wastewater, while uvalas and poljes are used as solid waste disposal sites. When doing this, the people are unconscious of the connection of such sites with the wells or springs that provide water for their supply. A number of occurrences in Turkey have demonstrated that, no matter how perfect the efficiency of the technical work, protection of the water resources-is primarily related to the consciousness of the local authorities. They must either take proper measures to protect the resources or to educate the public in this issue. To achieve this aim, it is very important to involve the public administrative sector and the technical sector in preparing guidelines for integrated environmental evaluation of karst water resources. The main phase of a study should include locating appropriate sites for disposal of wastewater and various liquid and solid wastes that will satisfy requirements by the administrators as well as providing a water supply of good quality for the public. This paper discusses the issue of how to overcome the public awareness problem. Some examples demonstrate how the technical, achievements failed to be effective and applicable due to the lack of contribution on the part of the local authorities and the public. Some suggestions are made concerning a revision of the currently insufficient regulations

The protection of karst water resources: the example of the Larzac karst plateau (south of France), 2001, Plagnes Val, Bakalowicz M. ,

Karst water resources investigations in Kazerun Area, southwest Iran Mohammad., 2001, Raeizi T.

Tracer technology - an important tool for the improvement of karst water resources management in semiarid regions with special regard to the mediterranean., 2001, Zojer H.

Characterisation of karst systems by simulating aquifer genesis and spring responses: model development and application to gypsum karst., 2002, Birk S.
Karst aquifers are important groundwater resources, which are highly vulnerable to contamination due to fast transport in solutionally enlarged conduits. Management and protection of karst water resources require an adequate aquifer characterisation at the catchment scale. Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of karst systems, this is not easily achieved by standard investigation techniques such as pumping tests. Therefore, a process-based numerical modelling tool is developed, designed to support the karst aquifer characterisation using two complementary approaches: Firstly, the simulation of conduit enlargement, which aims at predicting aquifer properties by forward modelling of long-term karst genesis; secondly, the simulation of heat and solute transport processes, which aims at inferring aquifer properties from short-term karst spring response after recharge events. Karst genesis modelling is applied to a conceptual setting based on field observations from the Western Ukraine, where the major part of known gypsum caves is found. Gypsum layers are typically supplied by artesian flow of aggressive water from insoluble aquifers underneath. Processes and parameters, controlling solutional enlargement of single conduits under artesian conditions, are identified in detailed sensitivity analyses. The development of conduit networks is examined in parameter studies, suggesting that the evolution of maze caves is predetermined by structural preferences such as laterally extended fissure networks beneath a horizon less prone to karstification. Without any structural preferences vertical shafts rather than maze caves are predicted to develop. The structure of the mature conduit system is found to be determined during early karstification, which is characterised by high hydraulic gradients and low flow rates in the gypsum layer. Short-term karst spring response after recharge events is firstly examined in parameter studies by forward modelling. The numerical simulations reveal that different controlling processes of heat and solute transport account for the different behaviour of water temperature and solute concentration frequently observed at karst springs. It is demonstrated that these differences may be employed to reduce the ambiguity in the aquifer characterisation. In order to test the feasibility of the corresponding inverse approach, which aims at inferring aquifer properties from the karst spring response, the model is applied to a field site in Southern Germany (Urenbrunnen spring, Vohringen). Data input is provided by both literature and own field work. Several models, which reproduce the results of a combined tracer and recharge test, are calibrated to spring discharges and solute concentrations measured after a recharge event. In order to validate the calibrated models, the measured spring water temperatures are simulated by heat transport modelling. The model application yields information on aquifer properties as well as flow and transport processes at the field site. Advection is identified as the dominant transport process, whereas the dissolution reaction of gypsum is found to be insignificant in this case. The application to gypsum aquifers demonstrates that both suggested approaches are suitable for the characterisation of karst systems. Model results, however, are highly sensitive to several input parameters, in particular in karst genesis modelling. Therefore, extensive field work is required to provide reliable data for site-specific model applications. In order to account for uncertainties, it is recommended to conduct parameter studies covering possible ranges of the most influential parameters.

Characterisation of karst systems by simulating aquifer genesis and spring responses: model development and application to gypsum karst, PhD thesis, 2002, Birk, S.

Karst aquifers are important groundwater resources, which are highly vulnerable to contamination due to fast transport in solutionally enlarged conduits. Management and protection of karst water resources require an adequate aquifer characterisation at the catchment scale. Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of karst systems, this is not easily achieved by standard investigation techniques such as pumping tests. Therefore, a process-based numerical modelling tool is developed, designed to support the karst aquifer characterisation using two complementary approaches: Firstly, the simulation of conduit enlargement, which aims at predicting aquifer properties by forward modelling of long-term karst genesis; secondly, the simulation of heat and solute transport processes, which aims at inferring aquifer properties from short-term karst spring response after recharge events.
Karst genesis modelling is applied to a conceptual setting based on field observations from the Western Ukraine, where the major part of known gypsum caves is found. Gypsum layers are typically supplied by artesian flow of aggressive water from insoluble aquifers underneath. Processes and parameters, controlling solutional enlargement of single conduits under artesian conditions, are identified in detailed sensitivity analyses. The development of conduit networks is examined in parameter studies, suggesting that the evolution of maze caves is predetermined by structural preferences such as laterally extended fissure networks beneath a horizon less prone to karstification. Without any structural preferences vertical shafts rather than maze caves are predicted to develop. The structure of the mature conduit system is found to be determined during early karstification, which is characterised by high hydraulic gradients and low flow rates in the gypsum layer.
Short-term karst spring response after recharge events is firstly examined in parameter studies by forward modelling. The numerical simulations reveal that different controlling processes of heat and solute transport account for the different behaviour of water temperature and solute concentration frequently observed at karst springs. It is demonstrated that these differences may be employed to reduce the ambiguity in the aquifer characterisation.
In order to test the feasibility of the corresponding inverse approach, which aims at inferring aquifer properties from the karst spring response, the model is applied to a field site in Southern Germany (Urenbrunnen spring, Vohringen). Data input is provided by both literature and own field work. Several models, which reproduce the results of a combined tracer and recharge test, are calibrated to spring discharges and solute concentrations measured after a recharge event. In order to validate the calibrated models, the measured spring water temperatures are simulated by heat transport modelling. The model application yields information on aquifer properties as well as flow and transport processes at the field site. Advection is identified as the dominant transport process, whereas the dissolution reaction of gypsum is found to be insignificant in this case.
The application to gypsum aquifers demonstrates that both suggested approaches are suitable for the characterisation of karst systems. Model results, however, are highly sensitive to several input parameters, in particular in karst genesis modelling. Therefore, extensive field work is required to provide reliable data for site-specific model applications. In order to account for uncertainties, it is recommended to conduct parameter studies covering possible ranges of the most influential parameters.


Karst types in Bulgaria, 2003, Angelova, Dora

The karst in Bulgaria occupies an area of 26 170 km2 or 22.7 % of the territory of the country. The karst water resources are estimated to be 2.3 billion m3 or 11.6 % of the total water resources of the country. The interest in karst in Bulgaria has become higher during the last years because there are a number of practical problems that have to be solved. Karst in Bulgaria is characterized by great diversity due to the complex combination of factors (geological, tectonic, geomorphologic, hydrological and hydrogeological, climatic, etc.) and to the geodynamic development of this part of Europe. This work presents a new zoning of karst in Bulgaria. The following types have been distinguished: plain karst (the Danubian Plain); marine and transformed marine karst into plain and plain-marine karst (Black Sea subaqual and subareal plain); plateau-like karst (the Fore Balkan) and mountainous karst. The karst wetlands and karst phenomena provoked by paleoearthquakes are separately outlined and sample models for the different karst types, genesis, dynamics, lithostructural control, relations, etc. are presented.


Karst Water Resources, 2004, Smart C. , Worthington S. R. H.

Drinking water supply from karst water resources (The example of the Kras plateau, SW Slovenia), 2004, Ravbar Nataš, A

In the past the biggest economic problem on the Kras plateau used to be drinking water supply, which has also been one of the reasons for sparsely populated Kras plateau. Today the Water Supply Company provides drinking water to households and industry on the Kras plateau and the quantity is sufficient to supply the coastal region in the summer months as well. Water supply is founded on effective karst groundwater pumping near Klariči. Some water is captured from karst springs under Nanos Mountain as well. In water supply planning in future, numerous other local water resources linked to traditional ways of water supply need to be considered. Eventual rainwater usage for garden irrigation or car washing, for communal activity (street washing) or for the needs of farming and purified wastewater usage for industry (as technological water) is not excluded.


Protection of Karst in the Philippines., 2006, Restificar S. D. F. , Day M. J. , Urich P. B.
The article presents an overview of the current status of karst protection in the Philippines. Prior studies indicate that of the 35,000km2 of karst landscape in the country, about 29% is protected . However, protection of karst has not to date been a priority of the Philippine government, and the country has no existing legislation that is directly decreed for protection and conservation of karstlands. Most contemporary karst protection is indirect, in that the karst is located within protected areas established for other, although often related reasons, such as ecological conservation, water supply protection and tourism. However, it appears that the Philippine government is gradually recognizing explicitly the need to protect karst landscapes. The establishment of the National Caves and Cave Resources Management and Protection Act in 2001 and the inclusion of karst water resources in the countrys National Action Plan (NAP) under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) are significant steps towards explicit protection of karst areas. Although the existing legislation only addresses specific facets of karst landscape, it may stimulate additional programs and legislation that will more broadly protect karst landscapes nationally. Philippines, karst, caves, protected areas, environmental legislation

Management of karst water resources in mining area: dewatering in mines and demand for water supply in the Dongshan Mine of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, North China, 2006, Wu Qiang, Zhou Wanfang, Li Duo, Di Zhiqiang, Miao Ying,

Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology, 2007, Ford D. , Williams P.
Originally published in 1989, Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology became the leading textbook on karst studies. This new textbook has been substantially revised and updated. The first half of the book is a systematic presentation of the dissolution kinetics, chemical equilibria and physical flow laws relating to karst environments. It includes details of the many environmental factors that complicate their chemical evolution, with a critique of measurement of karst erosion rates. The second half of the book looks at the classification system for cave systems and the influence of climate and climatic change on karst development. The book ends with chapters on karst water resource management and a look at the important issues of environmental management, including environmental impact assessment, environmental rehabilitation, tourism impacts and conservation values. Practical applications of karst studies are explained throughout the text. Contents: CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO KARST. CHAPTER 2. THE KARST ROCKS. CHAPTER 3. DISSOLUTION: CHEMICAL AND KINETIC BEHAVIOUR OF THE KARST ROCKS. CHAPTER 4. DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF KARST DENUDATION. CHAPTER 5. KARST HYDROLOGY. CHAPTER 6. ANALYSIS OF KARST DRAINAGE SYSTEMS. CHAPTER 7. SPELEOGENESIS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAVE SYSTEMS. CHAPTER 8. CAVE INTERIOR DEPOSITS. CHAPTER 9. KARST LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT IN HUMID REGIONS. CHAPTER 10.THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE, CLIMATIC CHANGE AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON KARST DEVELOPMENT. CHAPTER 11. KARST WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. CHAPTER 12. HUMAN IMPACTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION.

Drinking water supply from karst water resources (the example of the Pivka basin, SW Slovenia), 2008, Ravbar Nataa

GROUNDWATERS OF SERBIAN AND SLOVENIAN DINARIC KARST -COMPARISON OF CURRENT STATUS, USE, PROTECTION AND PERSPECTIVES, 2009, Mileni? Dejan & Petri? Metka
The Dinaric karst is the largest continuous karstland in Europe. With its outermost northwestern and eastern parts it extends to the territory of Slovenia and Serbia. Karst aquifers within it are very important sources of water supply in the two coun-tries. We therefore decided to compare the characteristics of karst water resources and the approaches to the exploitation and protection of karst aquifers with the aim of searching for the most convenient methods for their research and manage-ment. Different characteristics of the two compared areas were established, as well as differences and similarities in the appli-cation of various research methods and the management ap-proaches. The findings were summarized in the table which includes the most important parameters of karst water systems and research methods used for their study in the area of Dinaric karst in Serbia and Slovenia. As an example of good practice, two case studies are described in the article. For the Slovene part, vast experiences in the application of tracer tests with ar-tificial tracers are reviewed and the guidelines for its efficient use in the research of karst aquifers are summarized. For the Serbian part, described case study of the detection of the pol-lution source in the recharge area of an important water source and the preparation of remedial measures are presented as an efficient approach to solve such problems on karst areas.

RECENT RESULTS OF TRACER TESTS IN THE CATCHMENT OF THE UNICA RIVER (SW SLOVENIA), 2010, Gabrovek Franci, Kogovek Janja, Kova?i? Gregor, Petri? Metka, Ravbar Nataa & Turk Janez
In the catchment area of the Unica River two combined tracer tests with fluorescent dyes have been performed aiming to characterize the properties of groundwater flow and transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and well developed system of karst channels in the epiphreatic and phreatic zone in different hydrologic conditions. Tracers were injected directly into the ponors and to the oil collector outlet on the karst surface. Prior to tracing monitoring network has been set up, including precipitation, physical and chemical parameters of the springs and cave streams. Field fluorimeters were used to detect tracers in the underground river and conventional sampling techniques and laboratory analyses were used at the springs. Some of the results were quantitatively evaluated by QTRACER2 Program. During the first tracer test, when injection was followed by rain event, flow through the well conductive cave system was characterized by apparent dominant flow velocities of 88640 m/h. Breakthrough curves were continuous, uniform and single peaked, and almost complete recoveries were observed. During the second tracer test, when water level was in constant recession, the transport velocities through the well developed karst conduits were significantly slower (apparent maximal flow velocities being 24 times lower). Results also show lower dispersivity during the second tracer test, which corresponds to lower flow velocities. The tracer injected at the karst surface arrived with the expected delay (vdom around 9 m/h) and showed irregular and elongated breakthrough curves with secondary peaks. In this paper only tracer test results are presented, which are a part of a comprehensive study of groundwater flow through the complex karst aquifers aiming at improving karst water resources understanding, protection and management. The presented assessment will beyond be utilized for further detailed analysis, studies and modelling.

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