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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That radionuclide is a radioisotope [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karstogenesis (Keyword) returned 23 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 23

The formation of the Oligocene « calcaires à Astéries » in the region of « Entre-deux-Mers » is affected by a karstification with subhorizontal caves that drained rivers from swallow-holes to resurgences. Observations in quarries show that ghost-rock alterites are present. This paper describes the ghost-rocks in the quarry of Piquepoche exploiting the Frontenac stone. We have studied horizontally developed ghost-rocks with vertical extensions still containing the residual alterite. They can be badly consolidated calcarenites up to soft material which has been sampled. Speleogenesis is reviewed in the frame of the mechanical erosion of the alterite of a horizontal ghost-rock followed by an incision by free-flowing waters which form a passage with promontories and potholes. Finally, we show that ceiling anastomoses can form by ghost-rock karstification.

Carte hydrogomorphologique, hydrogologie et hydrochimie du karst de Dorvan (Ain), 1983, Gibert J. , Laurent R. , Maire R.
PRESENTATION OF THE HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP AT 1/100,000 ON KARST OF DORVAN (SOUTHERN JURA, AIN, FRANCE. Main researches about hydrology and hydrochemistry on this karst - The Dorvan massif is a low mountain Jurassian karst with a wet temperate climate and a little nival influence. The surface relief is covered with important decalcification clay. The drainage of the karst is assumed by superimposed systems, according to the excavation of the Torcieu watergap. The flow of the main outlet (Pissoir) is a pluvial type, which presents an annual cycle with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. The specific discharge is 31.4 l/s/km2. The dissolution rate is high: 81 mm/ky. 50% of the corrosion interests the epikarst, 50% interests the endokarst. During the Pleistocene, the glaciations played a direct or indirect role on the evolution of the Dorvan karst: nivo-karst during the Wrm; fluvio-glacial up-building of the Torcieu watergap and correlated water logging of the lower karst during Wrm and Tardiglacial periods; probable direct action of glaciers during the Riss.

Un karst subalpin mditerranen : la rgion Audibergue-Mons (Alpes-Maritimes et Var), 1984, Julian M. , Nicod J.
THE KARSTIC AREA AUDIBERGUE-MONS (Prealps of Grasse, Maritime Alps and Var departments) - This area, very important for the karstic superficial features and the caves, is formed by the proximity of plateaus belonging to the structural system of Provence and the higher main subalpine unit of Audibergue. Three fields of sinkholes are especially characteristic: 1/ central Audibergue, controlled by shear fractures and under the influence of nival phenomena; 2/ Fort d'Esclapon, with more various forms and perhaps an older karstic evolution that explains the large inheritance of terra rossa; 3/ Biron that shows deep furrows and sinkholes. The study of the poljes, fluvio-karstic (Caille) or half-opened (Canaux), introduces the problem of the underground karstic hydrology. The dynamics of neotectonics and morphoclimatic systems, specially the old periglacial processes, is considered with reference to the main forms and deposits shown on the map.

Originalit karstique de l'Atlas atlantique marocain, 1985, Weisrock, A.
THE ATLANTIC ATLAS (MOROCCO): A DISTINCTLY KARSTIC REGION - The Atlantic Atlas is a semiarid mountain, which owes to its proximity of the ocean a winter moisture above 1000 m, with watersheets and at times perennial flows. The main karstic landforms are however inherited of damper tertiary and quaternary periods. These forms were developed in relation to particular structural conditions, because the Atlantic Atlas uplifted during a tertiary orogenesis, which folded the sedimentary jurassic and cretaceous material of an atlantic basin (basin of the Haha). Among the most original results of this evolution, we can find curious tower-like lands-cape of dolomitic high-plateaus, numerous cylindrical pits (ouggar), lines of funnel-shaped dolines (ouddirh) and underground karstic river systems, the longest in North-Africa known to day. On the greater part of the Maha Plateau, remnants of an ancient karstification are masked by plio-moghrebian deposits. The latter are also full of dolines and poljes. In the same way, littoral karstic forms and calcareous deposits (calcrests and travertines) show the continuation of limestone dissolution.

Apports des datations U/Th dans la karstogense de la Grande Moucherolle-Rochers de la Balme (Vercors), 1986, Delannoy J. J. , Holliger Ph.
234 U - 230 Th DATING OF SPELEOTHEMS AND KARSTOGENESIS OF THE "GRANDE MOUCHEROLLE-ROCHERS DE LA BALME" (VERCORS) - In this article, is presented a first geomorphological and speleological synthesis of the subalpine karst of the Grande Moucherolle (2285 m) - Rochers de Ia Balme. This area of Vercors (Alps), which has 8 caves deeper than 300m (Antre des Damns -720m; Clos de La Fure -580m...) is surely the most promising sector from a speleological point of view. Through the study of the glacio-karstic landforms and the distri-bution of the great caves, it seems that there is a real relation between these two parameters. In order to evaluate the contribution of quaternary glaciations in the genesis of caves, isotopic dating (234U-230Th) have been performed on underground carbonated deposits. After a presentation of the chronometric method 234U-230Th, the results are analysed according to their speleological environment. A paleogeographic reconstitution through the middle and recent Quaternary is proposed for the geosystem of the Grande Moucherolle - Rochers de la Balme.

Les cavits de la Sierra d'Aralar (Pays Basque espagnol), 1986, Ugarte, F. M.
CAVES OF THE SIERRA OF ARALAR (NAVARRA-GUIPUZCOA, SPAIN). CORRELATION BETWEEN UNDERGROUND FORMATIONS AND GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES - The study of numerous cavities of the Sierra of Aralar permits to give importance to: 1/ the relations between the subterranean morphology and the structural network; 2/ the relations with the actual morphoclimatic conditions of the middle-mountain exokarst; 3/ the part of the heritages of the Quaternary cold-periods. Following important speleological research carried out by the Aranzadi Society of Science (San Sebastian) in the central mountains of the sierra d'Aralar the majority of the PKH (Karst phenomenons) have been located and mapped (PKH = 2,78 km2). As a result of this work, we have attempted to correlate endokarstic landscape with geological structure

La karstification de l'le haute carbonate de Makatea (Polynsie franaise) et les cycles eustatiques et climatiques quaternaires, 1991, Dessay J. , Pouchan Y. , Girou A. , Humbert L. , Malezieux J.
THE KARST 0F MAKATEA ISLAND (FRENCH POLYNESIA) AND THE CLIMATIC AND GLACIO-EUSTATISM SETTING - Located in the Central Pacific, in the northwestern part of the Tuamotu Archipelago, Makatea island (148 15 W - 15 50 S) is an uplifted, karstic, carbonate construction of Early Miocene age, which reaches 113m in height. From 1906 to 1966, phosphate deposits were exploited on Makatea Island. These phosphate deposits (apatite) overlaid the Miocene series and filled the karstic cavities in the higher regions of the island. Several traces of ancient shorelines can be observed on Makatea: 1/ three different reef formations, which reach about +27m, +7m, +1m above the present mean sea level and respectively dated 400,000 100,000 yr BP, 140,000 30,000 yr BP, between 4,470 150 yr BP and 3,720 13O yr BP; 2/ four distinct marine notch lines on the Early Miocene cliff at about +1m, +7m, +27m and +56m (or +47m on the west coast caused by tilt) above the present mean sea level; 3/ two exposed marine platforms respectively at +29m and +7m above the present mean sea level. The ages of the former makatean shores are inferred by using: (1) the Pacific glacio-eustatic sea-level curve for the last 140,000 yr BP, (2) the Pacific oxygen isotope curve for the last 900,000 yr BP, and (3) a constant uplift rate during the Pleistocene. In this way, according to their age and elevation, the sea-level indicators at about +1m, +7m and +27m (+29m) above the present mean sea level can be respectively related to the Holocene transgression (Flandrian) dated between 6,000 and 1,500 yr BP, to the last Pleistocene interglacial period (Sangamon) dated between about 130,000 and 110,000 yr BP, and to a Middle Pleistocene interglacial period (Yarmouth) dated between about 315,000 and 485,000 yr BP. If we assume that a sea level similar to the present occurred during the Yarmouth inter-glacial period, the uplift rate is valued at 0.085 mm/yr to 0.056 mm/yr. Thus the sea-level associated with the marine notch at about +56m (+47m) may be about 650,000 yr to 1 M.y. old and can be associated with another Pleistocene interglacial period (Aftonian). Consequently, as indicated by the former shores, the sea level fluctuations can be related to the major glacio-eustatic quaternary events. This climatic and eustatic setting is used to explain the karst observed on the Makatea island. Carbonate dissolution and essentially vertical karst genesis were the result of the superposition of several cycles. Each cycle was initially composed of a solution of the carbonates during an interglacial period, followed by a drainage of the saturated solutions during the marine regression associated with the consecutive glacial period. Nevertheless, this scheme is not enough to explain the specific morphology of the makatean karstic cavities and we suggest using insular phosphatisation to explain this karst genesis. It is generally accepted that phosphate rock deposits on coral reef islands are the result of chemical reaction between seabird guano and reef limestone. Furthermore, petrographic and stable isotope studies suggest several generations of phosphorite formation and reworking episodes in the history of these deposits. The primary deposition of phosphates must have begun during a glacial period. This deposition was followed by some redistribution of phosphorites during the interglacial period and by additional precipitation of apatite from meteoric waters. This assumed process of phosphogenesis is consistent with both the field observations and the geodynamic evolution of Makatea. Thus, the particular morphology of the makatean karst can be the result of the dissolution of the carbonates caused by phosphoric acid etching. This acid is derived from the evolution of the phosphorites during the pleistocene interglacial periods.

Analyse des conditions de dveloppement de la karstification profonde, 1994, Fourneaux, J. C.
Karstification is a dissolving process which enlarges some channels clefts and fractures and eventually creates caves. The phenomenon Is only possible in deep areas located under the base level, if water flows easily. The analysis of the physical and chemical data accumulated at the beginning of the flood shows hotter and more mineralised waters once the flow starts accelerating. The hydrodynamic study of the phenomenon allows to build a model that explains the deep karstification process. The deep karstification process occurs when a very heterogenous distribution of pressures briefly takes place in the aquiferous system at the beginning of the recharge. This is due to the fact that the waters reach the karstic conduits at different times and therefore the refill and the eviction of waters do not occur uniformly in the saturated zone. Actually, the very mineralised waters located under the base level in the caves, conduits and other holes are evicted first. Then, these waters are replaced by aggressive waters, which are often with a high C02 concentration. As a result, the limestones dissolution process starts again in the area under the outlet point and the splits and bed ding joints keep on enlarging. The heterogeneous distribution of pressures also opens new splits through a corner effect and leads to the development in depth of the karstification process.

Les apports de lendokarst dans la reconstitution morphognique dun karst ; exemple de lAntre de Vnus (Vercors, France), 1998, Delannoy Jeanjacques, Caillault Serge
The whole of the informations which can be found in the endokarst gives a better knowledge of the hydrogeologic, geomorphologic, tectonic and climatic evolution of a calcareous mountain mass. However, the study of the cavities is not yet developed or integrated in the karst studies. The objective of the present work is to show the interest of such a proceeding by the study of a cavity in the northern Vercors : "Antre de Vnus". From the simple observation of the shapes, the deposits and their relation, a speleogenic reconstitution of this cavity and, mainly, of the environment, is proposed.

Karst and the evolution of rivers: a case study of Ardennes, 1999, Quinif Y. ,
In karstic areas, tectonic phenomena have two major influences. (i) By uplift, they give potential energy to karst and valley hollowing. (ii) An active tectonic regime is necessary for the development of karstification. The opposition between the development of valleys or karstic networks depends on the type of dissipated energy. Karstic systems in the Ardennes Massif are essentially between 5 and 15 m above the water table for the dry networks, and in the phreatic zone for the active parts. The structuration of the karstic systems is dependent on the uplift of Ardennes and an active tectonic regime is necessary for the genesis of large caves. It is during the Upper and Middle Pleistocene that the Ardennes area underwent tectonic activity; these karstic levels are more than 400 000 years old. (C) Elsevier, Paris

Karst et evolution des rivieres: le cas de l'Ardenne, 1999, Quinif Yves,
In karstic areas, tectonic phenomena have two major influences. (i) By uplift, they give potential energy to karst and valley hollowing. (ii) An active tectonic regime is necessary for the development of karstification. The opposition between the development of valleys or karstic networks depends on the type of dissipated energy. Karstic systems in the Ardennes Massif are essentially between 5 and 15 m above the water table for the dry networks, and in the phreatic zone for the active parts. The structuration of the karstic systems is dependent on the uplift of Ardennes and an active tectonic regime is necessary for the genesis of large caves. It is during the Upper and Middle Pleistocene that the Ardennes area underwent tectonic activity; these karstic levels are more than 400 000 years old.ResumeDans les regions karstiques comprenant des vallees epigenetiques, les phenomenes tectoniques ont deux influences majeures: a) la surrection donne de l'energie potentielle en creant des differences d'altitude, generant a la fois le creusement des vallees et celui du karst; b) une tectonique active est necessaire pour que le processus de karstification debute. L'opposition entre le developpement privilegie soit des vallees, soit des reseaux karstiques depend ainsi du type d'energie dissipee. Les reseaux karstiques de l'Ardenne se situent surtout entre 5 et 15 m au-dessus de la surface piezometrique pour les reseaux secs, et dans la zone saturee pour les parties actives. La structuration de ces reseaux karstiques est favorisee par un ralentissement de la surrection et une activite tectonique. Cette periode se situe dans le Pleistocene moyen et recent, d'apres les datations U/Th de speleothemes

La grotte de Montfat : un jalon dans lvolution de la valle de la Meuse, 2002, Quinif, Yves
Montfat cave as a stage in the entrenchment of Meuse Valley - Perched caves in the side of valleys are precious indicators for the speed of the rivers incision. Clastic and chemical deposits give informations about the sedimentation in relation with the tributary rivers. In particular, speleothems are younger than the drying of the galleries and give a limit age to the palaeotalweg situated at this altitude. Moreover, clastic deposits are also precious indicators about the processes linked to the incision. The cave grotte de Montfat in Dinant, along the belgian Meuse river, constitutes a part of an under talweg karst system and contains sedimentary witnesses which prove that the Meuse river has left the altitude of 45 meters above the present altitude before 400.000 years BP.

Mthodes et lments de cartographie dun palokarst. Lexemple de la Carrire du Clypot (Hainaut, Belgique), 2002, Quinif Yves, Quinif Gilles
Palaeokarsts have been often considered like geological objects different from the present karst systems, which can be explored partially by speleological ways. But it is obvious that their genesis have not been different from the genesis of the neogene karst systems, in same environmental conditions. The study of palaeokarsts has a great importance for the comparison with present systems. Moreover, they conserve continental sediments which generally disappear, but with possibility of dating by marine trangressive series which cover the palaeokarsts or by absolute dating like K-Ar or Ar-Ar on glauconite or ferriferous illite. We present here an interesting example of palaeokarstic features in a quarry where the works permit to map those features. This map constitutes the basis for future studies; it has shown different types of morphological features and deposits, their geometrical relations and their genetic links. We have (i) ghosts-rocks and pseudo-endokarsts, which result from the alteration in situ of the host-rock with formation of residual alterite. Those features organise like linear channels along tectonic fractures. Some channels can joint together in great pockets. At the summit of the limestone formation, (ii) palaeo-clints develop under the transgressive cover where we find pebbles and sands. Finally, (iii) endokarstic galleries can come from an autonomous hollowing (classical karst) or from old ghost-rocks, which become partially empty by a new hydrological activity.

Role of an extension of pre-Quaternary age for the evolution of the carbonate massifs in the occidental Betic Cordillera: The case of the Yunquera-Nieves massif (southern Spain), 2002, Pistre Severin, Linan Cristina, Andreo Bartolome, Carrasco Francisco, Drogue Claude, Martinalgarra Agustin,
A simultaneous analysis of the fracture geometry and paleo-stress fields of the karstic Yunquera-Nieves massif i n southern Spain (Malaga Province) has been carried out with microtectonic stations. It reveals polyphased t ec -tonics linked to the structural position of this carbonate domain in the western Betic Cordillera. Among the tectonic regimes described in this domain appears a distensive stage with a radial trend probably of post-Tortonian to Quaternary age. Todate, it has seldom been described and is absent from geodynamic models though it seems to have had a regional importance. Furthermore, it played a major role for the acquisition of the hydrodynamic properties of t he aquifer and its karstogenesis. This stage opened all fractures and allowed t he development of karstic drains with NW-SE and N-S directions. Finally, the karstic network was shaped by more recent climatic and tectonic events

Intrt de lapproche morphognique pour la comprhension globale dune grotte haute valeur patrimoniale, la grotte Chauvet (Ardche - France), 2004, Delannoy Jeanjacques, Perrette Yves, Debard Evelyne, Ferrier Catherine, Kervazo Bertrand, Perroux Annesophie, Jaillet Stphane, Quinif Yves
Interest of the morphogenesis approach to improve the knowledge of a high-value heritage: Chauvet cave (Ardche, France) - This paper describes the shapes and cave deposits of the Chauvet cave. Especially, the geomorphologic approach improves the global understanding of the Chauvet cave characteristics while Man and animal prehistoric occupancies. Access to the cave, painting location in the cave, and finally cave closing, are discussed on geomorphologic basis to answer the questions asked by prehistorians and archaeologists. The ultimate goal of this paper is to enhance the contribution of the geomorphologic high resolution mapping to the prehistoric investigations. To answer the three questions above, we used shapes and deposits to relate the past cave environments. Soil detailed map allows to describe deposits and shapes in a stratigraphic approach. Some U/Th dating complete the chronology especially during Man and animal occupancy; thus, the closing of the prehistoric entrance has been dated older than 15000 years. Also, this paper shows the interest of crossing the disciplinary approaches in the understanding of such a complex scientific object: the Chauvet cave, a high value Man heritage

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