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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That sediment transport is the transport of eroded rock material by moving water or wind [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for land subsidence (Keyword) returned 14 results for the whole karstbase:
Quelques aspects du karst en Chine, 1985, Tricart, J.
Some characteristic features of karst in China Karst terrain is widespread in China: some 2,000,000km2, corresponding to 20-25% of the whole surface of the country. It occurs at very different altitudes and under quite different climates, from the region of Zhoukoudian, where has been found the skull of the Pekin Man, to the Tibet Plateau, where there is presently permafrost conditions, and up to southern tropical moist China, near Canton and Guilin. Recent chinese investigations have proved that most karst features are old. In Southern China a tropical karst (tower-karst or "mogotes" karst) is associated with lacustrine deposits containing the well-known Hipparion Fauna, of Miocene age. Its predates the intensive uplift of the Himalaya and of the Tibet, which has begun during the Pliocene and has continued during all the Pleistocene. The same fossils have been found in this tropical karst in present permafrost areas, above 5,000m. In the region of Guilin (Guangxi Province), this tropical karst has been described. There is evidence for the former existence of a covered karst, where limestones and dolomitic limestones were covered by a thick layer of reddish residual clays, with limonite. This mantle has been stripped during different periods of drier and probably cooler climate, has suggested by pollen spectra. In some places, these residual products have been trapped into pits, cracks, and caves. We have observed a small quantity of red clay painting limestone stalactites and sinters (Chuanshan and Leng Yin Yen Caves, in the surroundings of Guilin). They present sometimes a mining interest and some extractive industries are presently active (limonite, cassierite, etc.). Many caves have been surveyed by the Institute of Karst geology, in Guilin. Some have been equiped for tourism, around Guilin. All these caves are old. Some radiocarbon dating of speleothems yield ages of 33,000 year BP. The famous carving of the Leng Yen Cave have not been affected by calcite deposition from dripping since at least 500 years. The large caves that have been surveyed should correspond to a long evolution span. Along the Lijiang River, at least two terraces can be observed. They are built with gravels and pebbles, covered with thinner sand and loam, suggesting climatic changes, also attested by the changes of fauna and vegetation. These past cooler periods are characterised by an opened vegetation, with the striping of the old weathering cover of the former tropical karst. These karst terrains have been investigated in China for management purposes. Groundwater oscillations have frequently resulted in land subsidences damaging buildings, and in dramatic collapses destroying fields, roads. Sometimes, underground collapse plugged caves and dammed underground rivers, resulting in floodings. The caves are frequently used as reservoirs for irrigation and power plants.

Land subsidence in the AI-Dahr residential area in Kuwait: a case history study, 1990, Airifaiy Ia,
Four cylindrical sinkholes occurred between April 1988 and June 1989 in a residential area located 27 km south of Kuwait City. The physiographic and geological conditions of their development and the methods of survey followed to detect potential subsurface cavities in the area are discussed. The major sinkhole is 15 m in diameter and 31 m deep; the others are a few metres in size. A mechanism of migrating sinkholes is suggested, where the upper elastic sediments have been moved down into cavities of the underlying Dammam Limestone. Such movement could have been triggered by garden irrigation and urbanization. A conceptual model is introduced to explain the mechanism of this subsidence. Microgravity techniques were applied using a La Coste Model-D gravimeter to detect areas of subsurface weakness. Negative anomalies in the order of 80 microgals were recorded and considered to indicate underground cavities or zones of contrasted mass-deficiencies representing high risk areas. Moderate anomalies were also recorded and attributed to poor compaction of the ground prior to construction

LAND SUBSIDENCE, SINKHOLE COLLAPSE SAND EARTH FISSURE OCCURRENCE AND CONTROL IN CHINA, 1994, Deng As, Ju Jh,
There are many varieties of geological hazard in China which are widely dispersed. Land subsidence is one such hazard and occurs mainly in the coastal cities of east China. Sinkhole collapses are mainly found near those cities of east and middle China that have karst water and karst water-impregnated ore deposits. Earth fissures also occur in east and middle China. All these geological hazards have a great influence upon the construction of engineering works. Though the causes of the hazards may be different, a major contributor is human economic activity. Therefore, a major countermeasure is to control human economic development

Gypsum karst of the Baltic republics., 1996, Narbutas Vytautas, Paukstys Bernardas
The Baltic Republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have karst areas developed in both carbonate and gypsiferous rocks. In the north, within the Republic of Estonia, Ordovician and Silurian limestones and dolomites crop out, or are covered by glacial Quaternary sediments. To the south, in Latvia and Lithuania, gypsum karst is actively developing in evaporites of Late Devonian (Frasnian) age. Although gypsum and mixed sulphate-carbonate karst only occupy small areas in the Baltic countries, they have important engineering and geo-ecological consequences. Due to the rapid dissolution of gypsum, the evolution of gypsum karst causes not only geological hazards such as subsidence, but it also has a highly adverse effect on groundwater quality. The karst territory of the Baltic states lies along the western side of the area, called the Great Devonian Field that form part of the Russian Plain. Within southern Latvia and northern Lithuania there is an area, exceeding 1000 sq. km, where mature gypsum karst occurs at the land surface and in the subsurface. This karst area is referred to here as the Gypsum Karst Region of the Baltic States. Here the surface karst forms include sinkholes, karst shafts, land subsidence, lakes and dolines. In Lithuania the maximum density of sinkholes is 200 per sq. km; in Latvia they reach 138 units per sq. km. Caves, enlarged dissolution voids and cavities are uncommon in both areas.

Evaporite karst in the United States, 1997, Johnson K. S. ,
Evaporites, including gypsum (or anhydrite) and salt, are the most soluble of common rocks; they are dissolved readily to form caves, sinkholes, disappearing streams, and other karst features that typically are found in limestones and dolomites. The four basic requirements for evaporite karst to develop are: (1) a deposit of gypsum or salt; (2) water, unsaturated with CaSO4 or NaCl; (3) an outlet for escape of dissolving water; and(4) energy to cause water to now through the system Evaporites are present in 32 of the 48 contiguous states, and they underlie about 35-40% of the land area; they are reported in rocks of every geologic system from the Precambrian through the Quatemary. Evaporite karst is known at least locally (and sometimes quite extensively) in almost all areas underlain by evaporites. The most widespread and pronounced examples of both gypsum and salt karst are in the Permian basin of the southwestern United States, but many other areas are also significant. Human activities have caused some evaporite-karst development, primarily in salt deposits. Boreholes may enable (either intentionally or inadvertently) unsaturated water to now through or against salt deposits, thus allowing development of small to large dissolution cavities. If the dissolution cavity is large enough and shallow enough, successive roof failures above the cavity can cause land subsidence or catastrophic collapse

Causes of land subsidence in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1997, Amin A, Bankher K,
The occurrence of land subsidence in the Kingdom Saudi Arabia is either natural or manmade. Natural land subsidence occurs due to the development of subterranean voids by a solution of host rocks in carbonate and evaporite terrains, over many areas of Saudi Arabia. Man-induced land subsidence is either due to the removal of groundwater in the agricultural areas or to wetting of unstable soils. Therefore, earth fissures and a lowering of the ground surface in unconsolidated sediments took place in alluvial plains and volcanic vent terrains. Unstable soils include Sabkha soils and loess sediments. These types of soils occur in coastal plains, desert areas and volcanic terrains. When this soil is wetted either during agricultural activities, waste disposal or even during a rain storm, subsidence takes place due to either the removal of salts from the Sabkha soil or the rearrangement of soil particles in loess sediments

Planning for gypsum geohazards in Lithuania and England, 1999, Paukstys B. , Cooper A. H. , Arustiene J. ,
The rapid underground dissolution of gypsum, and the evolution of the gypsum karst in Lithuania and England, results in subsidence problems which can make construction difficult. The natural dissolution yields sulphate-rich groundwater of poor quality and the karst is susceptible to the rapid transmission of pollutants. In the north of Lithuania gypsum karst is developed in Devonian gypsum. Here the towns of Birai, Pasvalys and the surrounding countryside suffer subsidence and some buildings have been damaged. The majority of the potable water in these areas is derived from groundwater extracted from sandstone sequences that underlie the gypsum. In Lithuania conservation measures have been introduced to control agriculture and prevent pollution of the gypsum karst. These measures include environmentally-friendly farming, restrictions on land use and exclusion zones around subsidence hollows. In England subsidence caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum has caused severe problems in the vicinity of the town of Ripen. Numerous buildings have been damaged and new sites are difficult to develop. Here formal planning regulations have recently been introduced to help to protect against the worst effects of subsidence resulting from gypsum dissolution. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Buoyancy-driven dissolution enhancement in rock fractures, 2000, Dijk Pe, Berkowitz B,
The structures of geological formations, as well as flow and chemical transport patterns within them, are profoundly affected by chemical dissolution and precipitation processes (i.e., the interactions among flow, chemical transport, buoyancy, and dissolution and precipitation reactions). These processes are intrinsically hard to measure, and therefore are not well understood. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is applied to study the dynamic behavior of coupled flow and dissolution in natural rock fractures. Our findings reveal that flow and transport in evolving fractures are far more unpredictable than commonly assumed, due to complex interactions among fracture morphology, flow, dissolution, and buoyancy. This can explain physical processes causing catastrophic collapse and subsurface structural instabilities, such as sinkholes and land subsidence

Buoyancy-driven dissolution enhancement in rock fractures, 2000, Dijk, P. E. , Berkowitz, B.

The structures of geological formations, as well as flow and chemical transport patterns within them, are profoundly affected by chemical dissolution and precipitation processes (i.e., the interactions among flow, chemical transport, buoyancy, and dissolution and precipitation reactions). These processes are intrinsically hard to measure, and therefore are not well understood. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is applied to study the dynamic behavior of coupled flow and dissolution in natural rock fractures. Our findings reveal that flow and transport in evolving fractures are far more unpredictable than commonly assumed, due to complex interactions among fracture morphology, flow, dissolution, and buoyancy. This can explain physical processes causing catastrophic collapse and subsurface structural instabilities, such as sinkholes and land subsidence.


Karst in evaporite rocks of the United States., 2001, Johnson K. S.
Evaporites are the most soluble of common rocks; they are dissolved readily to form the same range of karst features that typically are found in limestones and dolomites. Evaporites, including gypsum (or anhydrite) and salt, are present in 32 of the 48 contiguous United States, and they underlie about 35-40% of the land area. Evaporite outcrops typically contain sinkholes, caves, disappearing streams, and springs. Other evidence of active karst in evaporites includes surface-collapse features and saline springs or saline plumes that result from dissolution of salt. Many evaporites, including some in the deeper subsurface, also contain evidence of paleokarst that is no longer active; this evidence includes dissolution breccias, breccia pipes, slumped beds, and collapse structures. Evaporites occur in 24 separate structural basins or geographic districts in the United States, and either local or extensive evaporite karst is known in almost all of these basins or districts. Human activities also have caused development of evaporite karst, primarily in salt deposits. Boreholes or underground mines may enable (either intentionally or inadvertently) unsaturated water to flow through or against salt deposits, thus allowing development of small to large dissolution cavities. If the dissolution cavity is large enough and shallow enough, successive roof failures can cause land subsidence or catastrophic, collapse. Evaporite karst, both natural and human-induced, is far more prevalent than commonly believed.

Karst subsidence in South-Central Apulia, Southern Italy, 2002, Delle Rose Marco, Parise Mario
Subsidence in the karst of Apulia (Southern Italy), one of the classical karst areas of Italy, is described in this paper. The carbonate rocks that make up the geological structure of the Apulia region are affected by subsidence, which is of different type and intensity depending upon geological, topographical, and hydrogeological conditions. In particular, we discriminate between inland subsidence and coastal subsidence. Inland subsidence is generally restricted to the presence of individual cavities, either empty or partly or totally filled with deposits produced by dissolution of soluble rocks underground. Locally, such subsidence can cause severe effects on anthropogenic structures above. The coastal plains of Apulia, particularly the southernmost part (Salento Peninsula), show interesting karst subsidence. Here the main feature is the development of compound sinks extending for several thousands of square metres, or the formation of individual, mostly circular, dolines along the coastline. Occurrence of one or the other of the above features seems to depend upon topographical conditions, and also upon their relationship with sea level oscillations.

Karst in evaporite rocks of the United States, 2002, Johnson K. S. ,
Evaporites are the most soluble of common rocks; they are dissolved readily to form the same range of karst features that typically are found in limestones and dolomites. Evaporites, including gypsum (or anhydrite) and salt, are present in 32 of the 48 contiguous United States, and they underlie about 35-40% of the land area. Evaporite outcrops typically contain sinkholes, caves, disappearing streams, and springs. Other evidence of active karst in evaporites includes surface-collapse features and saline springs or saline plumes that result from dissolution of salt. Many evaporites, including some in the deeper subsurface, also contain evidence of paleokarst that is no longer active; this evidence includes dissolution breccias, breccia pipes, slumped beds, and collapse structures. Evaporites occur in 24 separate structural basins or geographic districts in the United States, and either local or extensive evaporite karst is known in almost all of these basins or districts. Human activities also have caused development of evaporite karst, primarily in salt deposits. Boreholes or underground mines may enable (either intentionally or inadvertently) unsaturated water to flow through or against salt deposits, thus allowing development of small to large dissolution cavities. If the dissolution cavity is large enough and shallow enough, successive roof failures can cause land subsidence or catastrophic collapse. Evaporite karst, both natural and human-induced, is far more prevalent than commonly believed

Legal impediments to utilizing groundwater as a municipal water supply source in karst terrain in the United States, 2002, Richardson J. J. ,
Many jurisdictions presently utilize, or are now considering the utilization of, high-volume wells as a municipal water supply source. Withdrawal of groundwater in karst regions implicates rights to use groundwater and possible interference with other rights of nearby landowners. Drought conditions and increased population contribute to an increased incidence of legal disputes over the use of groundwater as a municipal water supply source in karst regions. High-volume pumping of groundwater may cause land subsidence, including sinkholes, drying of springs and/or streams and loss in value of nearby land. This paper examines the legal causes of action available to landowners adversely affected by high-volume groundwater pumping: groundwater rights, 'loss of lateral and subjacent support', nuisance, and 'takings'. The author concludes that the law fails to include environmental and geoscience considerations. State legislatures should consider legislative changes to unify legal and scientific principles

Analysis of the geomorphology and environmental geological problems of Huzhou on the Yangtze River delta, 2004, Jiang Y. H. , Wang J. D. , Yuan X. Y. , Wang R. H. ,
Geomorphically, Huzhou, which is on the Yangtze River delta is characterized mainly by plains, with small hills. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the environmental geological hazards both natural and those incurred by human activities in different morphologic units. The authors point out that most of the regional environmental geological problems in the natural geologic-morphologic conditions, such as crustal stability, foundation of soft soil, soil waterlogging and soil erosion, have insignificant effects to the society, or related countermeasures of prevention and control have been adopted. But environmental geological problems incurred by human being's economic activities become more and more severe, for example, water and soil pollution and land subsidence in plain areas resulting from overexploitation of groundwater, and landslides, karst collapses and water and soil loss etc. caused by quarrying in hilly areas

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