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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That drainage system is a network of streams and tributaries [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for landfill (Keyword) returned 16 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 16
During the rainy season deterioration in the quality of water, supplied through dug wells and tube wells, near an abandoned limestone quarry was reported. The abandoned quarry is now being used as an urban waste disposal site. The problem was further complicated by hospitalization of several inhabitants who were using this water for domestic purposes. Looking into the consequences, chemical analysis of water from the quarry, dug wells and tube wells was carried out. The water was found to be contaminated. The transportation of pollutants from the quarry to the groundwater system was facilitated by karst features. Furthermore, four major sources domestic waste disposal, water conservation structures, landfills, and water wells contributing to pollution were identified. This case study is an attempt to provide an understanding of how the karst features facilitate groundwater contamination. It will help us answer a few questions such as why karst hydrogeology deserves special attention in urban expansion and what protective measures should be planned in view of rapid urbanization

Migration of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, MTBE and chlorinated solvents in a karstified limestone aquifer, Stamford, UK, 1998, Banks D,
Two incidents of hydrocarbon contamination to the Lincolnshire Limestone in east Stamford, UK, have been investigated. No evidence of LNAPL contamination of groundwater was observed, suggesting that the spills may largely have been retained in the unsaturated zone. Some groundwater contamination by dissolved hydrocarbons occurred, apparently especially at times of high recharge. Rapid flow paths were proven to nearby springs in the River Welland (with groundwater flow velocities of up to 240 m day-1), and dissolved hydrocarbon and MTBE contamination appears to have been flushed rapidly from these systems. MTBE contamination at Tallington Pumping Station (5 km east of the site) is not clearly linked to these incidents. Of potentially more concern was the discovery of dissolved chlorinated solvent contamination in the groundwater at the spill sites, possibly related to a landfilled quarry and/or a nearby engineering works. No direct evidence of DNAPL was observed. A conceptual model of solvent distribution suggests independent sources of TCE, PCE and TCA

Chemical composition of landfill leachate in a karst area with a Mediterranean climate (Marbella, southern Spain), 1999, Vadillo I. , Carrasco F. , Andreo B. , De Torres A. , Bosch C. ,

Geophysical surveys over karst recharge features, Illinois, USA, 2001, Carpenter Pj, Ahmed S,
Karst aquifers supply a significant fraction of the world's drinking water. These types of aquifers are also highly susceptible to pollution from the surface with recharge usually occurring through fractures and solution openings at the bedrock surface. Thickness of the protective soil cover, macropores and openings within the soil cover, and the nature of the weathered bedrock surface all influence infiltration. Recharge openings at the bedrock surface, however, are often covered by unconsolidated sediments, resulting in the inadvertent placement of landfills, unregulated dump sites, tailing piles, waste lagoons and septic systems over recharge zones. In these settings surface geophysical surveys, calibrated by a few soil cores, could be employed to identify these recharge openings, and qualitatively assess the protection afforded by the soil cover. In a test of this hypothesis, geophysical measurements accurately predicted the thickness of unconsolidated deposits overlying karstic dolomite at a site about 100 km south of Chicago, Illinois. Zones of elevated electrical conductivity and high ground-penetrating radar (GPR) attenuation within the sediments coincided with subcropping solutionally-enlarged hydraulically active bedrock fractures. These fractures extend to over 12-m depth, as shown by 2-D inverted resistivity sections and soil coring. Anomalous electromagnetic (EM) conductivity and GPR response may be due to higher soil moisture above these enlarged fractures. An epikarstal conduit at 2.5-m depth was directly identified through a GPR survey. These results suggest that surface geophysical surveys are a viable tool for assessing the susceptibility of shallow karst aquifers to contamination

Soil gas screening for chlorinated solvents at three contaminated karst sites in Tennessee, 2002, Wolfe W. J. , Williams S. D. ,
Soil gas was sampled using active sampling techniques and passive collectors at three sites in Tennessee to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques for locating chlorinated solvent sources and flowpaths in karst aquifers. Actively collected Soil gas samples were analyzed in the field with a portable gas chromatograph, and the passive soil gas collectors were analyzed in the lab with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results of the sampling indicate that the effectiveness of both techniques is highly dependent on the distribution of the contaminants in the subsurface, the geomorphic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the site, and, in one case, on seasonal conditions. Both active and passive techniques identified areas of elevated subsurface chlorinated solvent concentrations at a landfill site where contamination remains concentrated in the regolith. Neither technique detected chlorinated solvents known to be moving in the bedrock at a manufacturing site characterized by thick regolith and an absence of surficial karst features. Passive soil gas sampling had varied success detecting flowpaths for chloroform in the bedrock at a train derailment site characterized by shallow regolith and abundant surficial karst features. At the train derailment site, delineation of the contaminant flowpath through passive soil gas sampling was stronger and more detailed under winter conditions than summer

Application of electrical resistivity measurements to an evaluation of a potential landfill site in a karstic terrain, 2003, Smith , Randazzo ,

Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 2005, Beck B. F.

Conference Proceedings

Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst Contains over 70 papers addressing karst topography which impacts water resources, waste disposal, foundation stability, and a multitude of other geotechnical and environmental issues. These papers were presented at the 10th Multidisciplinary Conference held September 24-28, 2005 in San Antonio, Texas and Sponsored by the Geo-Institute of ASCE, P. E. LaMoreaux & Associates, Inc. and Edwards Aquifer Authority. The goal of this conference was to share knowledge and experience among disciplines by emphasizing practical applications and case studies. This proceedings will benefit environmental and geotechnical engineers, and others involved in water resources, water disposal, and foundation stability issues.


Application of Geophysical Logging Techniques for Multi-Channel Well Design and Installation in a Karst Aquifer (by Frank Bogle, ...)

Case Studies of Massive Flow Conduits in Karst Limestone (by Jim L. Lolcama)

A Case Study of the Samanalawewa Reservoir on the Walawe River in an Area of Karst in Sri Lanka (by K. Laksiri, ...)

Characterization and Water Balance of Internal Drainage Sinkholes (by Nico M. Hauwert, ...)

Characterization of Desert Karst Terrain in Kuwait and the Eastern Coastline of the Arabian Penninsula (by Waleed Abdullah, ...)

Characterization of a Sinkhole Prone Retention Pond Using Multiple Geophysical Surveys and Closely Spaced Borings (by Nick Hudyma, ...)

Combining Surface and Downhole Geophysical Methods to Identify Karst Conditions in North-Central Iowa (by J. E. Wedekind, ...)

Complexities of Flood Mapping in a Sinkhole Area (by C. Warren Campbell, P.E.)

Conceptualization and Simulation of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio Region, Texas (by R. J. Lindgren, ...)

Database Development and GIS Modeling to Develop a Karst Vulnerability Rating for I-66, Somerset to London, KY (by Michael A. Krokonko, ...)

Design and Construction of the Foundations for the Watauga Raw Water Intake Facility in Karstic Limestone near the City of Johnson City, TN (by Tony D. Canale, P.E., ...)

Detection of Three-Dimensional Voids in Karstic Ground (by Derek V. Morris, P.E., ...)

Development and Evolution of Epikarst in Mid-Continent US Carbonates (by Tony L. Cooley, P.E.)

Dye Tracing Sewage Lagoon Discharge in a Sandstone Karst, Askov, Minnesota (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr., ...)

The Effectiveness of GPR in Sinkhole Investigations (by E. D. Zisman, P.E., ...)

Effects of Anthropogenic Modification of Karst Soil Texture on the Water Balance of ?Alta Murgia? (Apulia, Italy) (by F. Canora, ...)

Environmental Isotope Study on Recharge and Groundwater Residence Time in a covered Ordovician Carbonate Rock (by Zhiyuan Ma, ...)

Error and Technique in Fluorescent dye Tracing (by Chris Smart)

Essential Elements of Estimating Engineering Properties of Karst for Foundation Design (by Ramanuja Chari Kannan, P.E., Fellow, ASCE)

Estimating Grout Quantities for Residential Repairs in Central Florida Karst (by Larry D. Madrid, P.E., ...)

Evaluation of Groundwater Residence Time in a Karstic Aquifer Using Environmental Tracers: Roswell Artesian Basin, New Mexico (by Lewis Land)

Experience of Regional Karst Hazard and Risk Assessment in Russia (by A. L. Ragozin, ...)

Experimental Study of Physical Models for Sinkhole Collapses in Wuhan, China (by Mingtang Lei, ...)

Fractal Scaling of Secondary Porosity in Karstic Exposures of the Edwards Aquifer (by Robert E. Mace, ...)

The Geological Characteristics of Buried Karst and Its Impact on Foundations in Hong Kong, China (by Steve H. M. Chan, ...)

Geophysical Identification of Evaporite Dissolution Structures Beneath a Highway Alignment (by M. L. Rucker, ...)

Geotechnical Analysis in Karst: The Interaction between Engineers and Hydrogeologists (by R. C. Bachus, P.E.)

The Gray Fossil Site: A Spectacular Example in Tennessee of Ancient Regolith Occurrences in Carbonate Terranes, Valley and Ridge Subpovince, South Appalachians U.S.A. (by G. Michael Clark, ...)

Ground-Water Basin Catchment Delineation by Bye Tracing, Water Table Mapping, Cave Mapping, and Geophysical Techniques: Bowling Green Kentucky (by Nicholas C. Crawford)

Groundwater Flow in the Edwards Aquifer: Comparison of Groundwater Modeling and Dye Trace Results (by Brian A. Smith, ...)

Grouting Program to Stop Water Flow through Karstic Limestone: A Major Case History (by D. M. Maciolek)

Highway Widening in Karst (by M. Zia Islam, P.E., ...)

How Karst Features Affect Recharge? Implication for Estimating Recharge to the Edwards Aquifer (by Yun Huang, ...)

Hydrogeologic Investigation of Leakage through Sinkholes in the Bed of Lake Seminole to Springs Located Downstream from Jim Woodruff Dam (by Nicholas C. Crawford, ...)

The Hydrologic Function of the soil and Bedrock System at Upland Sinkholes in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone of South-Central Texas (by A. L. Lindley)

An Integrated Geophysical Approach for a Karst Characterization of the Marshall Space Flight Center (by Lynn Yuhr, ...)

Integrated Geophysical Surveys Applied to Karstic Studies Over Transmission Lines in San Antonio, Texas (by Mustafa Saribudak, ...)

Judge Dillon and Karst: Limitations on Local Regulation of Karst Hazards (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr.)

Karst Groundwater Resource and Advantages of its Utilization in the Shaanbei Energy Base in Shaanxi Province, China (by Yaoguo Wu, ...)

Karst Hydrogeology and the Nature of Reality Revisited: Philosophical Musings of a Less Frustrated Curmudgeon (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr.)

Karst in Appalachia ? A Tangled Zone: Projects with Cave-Sized Voids and Sinkholes (by Clay Griffin, ...)

Karstic Features of Gachsaran Evaporites in the Region of Ramhormoz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwest Iran (by Arash Barjasteh)

Large Perennial Springs of Kentucky: Their Identification, Base Flow, Catchment, and Classification (by Joseph A. Ray, ...)

Large Plot Tracing of Subsurface Flow in the Edwards Aquifer Epikarst (by P. I. Taucer, ...)
Lithology as a Predictive Tool of Conduit Morphology and Hydrology in Environmental Impact Assessments (by George Veni)

Metadata Development for a Multi-State Karst Feature Database (by Yongli Gao, ...)

Micropiling in Karstic Rock: New CMFF Foundation Solution Applied at the Sanita Factory (by Marc Ballouz)

Modeling Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer Using MODFLOW-DCM (by Alexander Y. Sun, ...)

Multi-Level Monitoring Well Completion Technologies and Their Applicability in Karst Dolomite (by Todd Kafka, ...)

National-Scale Risk Assessment of sinkhole Hazard in China (by Xiaozhen Jiang, ...)

New Applications of Differential Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Time Domain Reflectometry to Modeling Infiltration and Soil Moisture in Agricultural Sinkholes (by B. F. Schwartz, ...)

Non-Regulatory Approaches to Development on Karst (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr., ...)

PA State Route 33 Over Bushkill Creek: Structure Failure and Replacement in an Active Sinkhole Environment (by Kerry W. Petrasic, P.E.)

Quantifying Recharge via Fractures in an Ashe Juniper Dominated Karst Landscape (by Lucas Gregory, ...)

Quantitative Groundwater Tracing and Effective Numerical Modeling in Karst: An Example from the Woodville Karst Plain of North Florida (by Todd R. Kincaid, ...)

Radial Groundwater Flow at Landfills in Karst (by J. E. Smith)

Residual Potential Mapping of Contaminant Transport Pathways in Karst Formations of Southern Texas (by D. Glaser, ...)

Resolving Sinkhole Issues: A State Government Perspective (by Sharon A. Hill)

Shallow Groundwater and DNAPL Movement within Slightly Dipping Limestone, Southwestern Kentucky (by Ralph O. Ewers, ...)

Sinkhole Case Study ? Is it or Isn?t it a Sinkhole? (by E. D. Zisman, P.E.)

Sinkhole Occurrence and Changes in Stream Morphology: An Example from the Lehigh Valley Pennsylvania (by William E. Kochanov)

Site Characterization and Geotechnical Roadway Design over Karst: Interstate 70, Frederick County, Maryland (by Walter G. Kutschke, P.E., ...)

Soil Stabilization of the Valley Creek Trunk Sewer Relief Tunnel (by Jeffrey J. Bean, P.E., ...)

Some New Approaches to Assessment of Collapse Risks in Covered Karsts (by Vladimir Tolmachev, ...)

Spectral Deconvolution and Quantification of Natural Organic Material and Fluorescent Tracer Dyes (by Scott C. Alexander)

Springshed Mapping in Support of Watershed Management (by Jeffrey A. Green, ...)

Sustainable Utilization of Karst Groundwater in Feicheng Basin, Shandong Province, China (by Yunfeng Li, ...)

Transport of Colloidal and Solute Tracers in Three Different Types of Alpine Karst Aquifers ? Examples from Southern Germany and Slovenia (by N. Göppert, ...)

Use of the Cone Penetration Test for Geotechnical Site Characterization in Clay-Mantled Karst (by T. C. Siegel, ...)

The Utility of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry in Monitoring Sinkhole Subsidence: Subsidence of the Devil?s Throat Sinkhole Area (Nevada, USA) (by Rana A. Al-Fares)

Void Evolution in Soluble Rocks Beneath Dams Under Limited Flow Condition (by Emmanuel S. Pepprah, ...)

Hydrogeological research as a basis for the preparation of the plan of monitoring groundwater contamination: A case study of the Stara vas landfill near Postojna (SW Slovenia), 2005, Petrič, Metka, Š, Ebela Stanka

For the present 9 landfills on karst are still active in Slovenia, among them also the Stara vas landfill near Postojna. As strong fissuration of the rock base and very good permeability is typical for karst areas, the waste waters from the landfills particularly endanger the groundwater. The capacity of natural filtration in karst is very low and the dimension of possible negative impact is very high. The actual legislation regulates the performance of operational monitoring, a part of which is also the measurement of parameters of contamination of groundwater by hazardous substances, if they are in the area of influence of the landfill. Preparation of the monitoring plan is based on adequate hydrogeological researches. Besides basic geological and hydrogeological data also the results of tracer tests were used in the case study of the Stara vas landfill. Additionally, the detailed tectonic-lithological mapping in the scale 1:5000 was performed in the narrow area of the landfill. Based on defined characteristics of underground water flow and in accordance with the regulations 3 monitoring points inside (Malenščica and Vipava springs, Fužina cave) and one point outside the area of influence of the landfill (Matijeva jama cave) were selected. The monitoring plan for the observation of water quality and capacity was suggested.

The Mala gora landfill near Ribnica is one of the nine still active landfills on Slovene karst. According to our legislation the monitoring of its impact on groundwater have to be performed, but this can only be effective when the characteristics of the underground water flow in the area of the landfill are well known. Therefore a tracer test was carried out on the Mala gora landfill and the main underground water connections towards the Tomin?ev studenec, Javornikov izvir, Debeljakov izvir and ?ica springs near the settlement Dvor in the Krka valley were proved. In lower concentrations the uranine was detected in the Podpe?ka jama and Kompoljska jama Caves, as well as in the ?ica near Mala Ra?na spring and both springs of the Krka river. At high waters the flow from the landfill towards the Globo?ec spring was proved also, but this important source of water supply is primary recharged from other parts of the karst aquifer. The appearance of tracer is forwarded by favourable hydrological conditions and increased concentrations of uranine were measured at all springs after more intensive precipitation events even one year after the injection. Obtained results were considered in the preparation of the monitoring plan.

Tracer Test in the Vadose Zone of the Trebiciano Abyss near an Uncontrolled Landfill, 2006, Rino Semeraro, Luciano Ballarin, Clarissa Brun, Sergio Dambrosi, Fulvio Forti
The present study concerns the results of a tracer test in the vadose zone of the Trebiciano Abyss in the Karst of Trieste, at the bottom of which the Timavo underground river flows. Two tracers were used: Uranine and Tinopal CBS-X, separately introduced in two dolines above the abyss, through artificial spills of water, simulating heavy rainy events. Inside the abyss, 350 m deep, four points were equipped in order to control and capture the percolation waters (S1, S2, S3, and S4), at different depths, where drainage is normally present. At each point daily sampling and flow measurements were carried out, at S2 at -250 m a fluorometer probe was also installed, to record the two tracers continuously. Refraction seismic survey characterized the epikarst, The Uranine was found at point S3 the same day as its injection, subsequently at point S2 (fluorometer probe recording). Tinopal CBS-X was found at point S2 the same day as its injection. The tracing test also proved, unmistakably, that in just a few hours, after a strong rainfall or an accidental spill the release of pollutants on the karst surface, infiltrating underground, is transferred further than 300 m of depth, flowing directly in the base flow with no chance of being stopped.

Evaluating the impact of quarrying on karst aquifers of Salento (southern Italy), 2007, Le Rose M. , Parise M. , Andriani G. F. ,
This paper describes a case study in the Salento karst (Apulia, southern Italy) in a site that has been intensively used to quarry limestones in the last 30 years. After quarrying activity had stopped, the site was transformed into legal and illegal landfills where solid and liquid wastes have been repeatedly dumped, with serious consequences for the groundwater resources. In this paper, through a geological, petrographical and hydrogeological approach, we attempt to assess the consequences of the anthropogenic activities on the local hydrogeology, with particular regard to the surficial aquifer that is contained in the Plio-Quaternary calcarenites cropping out in the area. Application of some well-known methods to assess the vulnerability of aquifer systems to contamination by human activities (DRASTIC, SINTACS, LeGrand and GOD) highlights the limits of such an approach in karst environment, and the necessity to include in the methods data strictly related to the peculiarity of karst. This is further evidenced by application of the EPIK method, specifically designed for karst areas. The final part of the paper focuses on the need of a thorough understanding of the hydrogeological setting for a better management and policy action of karst environments


The characteristics of flow from the landfill near Sežana in the area of Kras were studied by the use of tracer test. In well permeable fissure on the karren surface near the landfill the fluorescent dye uranine was injected in order to study the directions and velocities of its flow through the karst aquifer. Monitoring of tracer concentrations in the period of one year and a half enabled us to make some conclusions about the dynamics of groundwater flow in the directions towards the Timava, Brojnica and Sardoč springs. Detailed observations were organised also at the Klariči pumping station, which is the main source of drinking water for the Kras region. Increased concentrations of tracer were measured only during extremely high waters. Different explanations are possible, but we can not exclude the possibility of a weak, not permanent underground water connection with the landfill. Calculation of the amount of recovered tracer confirmed the main flow direction towards the Timava springs (recovery rate 93%) and a secondary direction with lower flow velocity towards the Brojnica and Sardoč springs. Outflow through the Klariči pumping is estimated to only 0.003% of injected uranine.

Solid waste disposal in the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2008, Travassos L. E. P, Sampaio J. L. D, GuimarÃ, Es R. L. , Kohler H. C.

The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has approximately 580,000 sq km. From this total, it?s believed that at about 29,000 sq km are composed by carbonatic rocks.With a total of 853 municipalities and some noticeable environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal. This work is intended to demonstrate the potential pollution of karst aquifers due to leachate?s percolation from improper waste disposal sites. In Brazil, it was established three categories to designate them. From the most environmentally incorrect sites for waste disposal to the better suitable for these activities it is possible to identify the waste dumps (lixões), controlled landfills (aterros controlados) and sanitary landfills (aterros sanitários). In each Brazilian State, around 80% of their municipalities have less than 20,000 inhabitants and no sufficient financial resources required to construct a sanitary landfill. It is also observed a certain degree of lack of political will from some municipal administrations to execute these projects. Unfortunately, some of these areas are located in karst terrains and therefore it is important to observe that an effective environmental control is not always made. The region of Lagoa Santa, State of Minas Gerais, is developed on metasediments of the Bambui Group, Sete Lagoas Formation (Upper Proterozoic). This rock Formation favors the development of expressive superficial and underground karst features. Moreover, the region presents great paleontological, archaeological, historical and speleological potential, which must also be protected from quarrying, pressures from population growth and uncontrolled touristic activities. In 1990 this scenario favored the creation of an Environmental Protected Area (Área de Proteção Ambiental - APA) to preserve local fauna and flora as well the physical environment. However, for many years the APA?s municipalities and its surroundings had installed waste dumps (lixões) since the end of the 70´s.With the State Guideline nº 52 (Deliberação Normativa nº 52) from December 2001, the State Government decreed the adequacy of such irregular dumps. The Guidelines clearly states that the waste must be deposit in a site with soil and/or low permeability rocks, with less than 30% steep angles, a minimum distance of 300m from water sources and 500m distant from core population. Furthermore, the standardization requires the municipalities to implement rainwater drainage systems around the site to reduce water percolation. The Document also obligates the municipality to compact and cover the waste cells at least three times a week, isolating the area to avoid human and animal access. In 2005, the state had registered 25 sanitary landfills, 199 controlled landfills and 549 waste dumps. In February 2007 the State Environmental Agency (FEAM) pointed out the same number of landfills, 207 controlled landfills and still a large amount of waste dumps: 519. Sadly, these inappropriate dumps (lixões) that were controlled in or near karst areas still poses as a threat to the environment since all the contamination comes from at least 25 years ago.

Tracer tests are one of the most useful research methods in karst hydrogeology and they have proved a valuable tool in various applied projects. In recent years we carried out a series of tracer tests, and their results were used as the bases for planning the monitoring of water quality in the influence areas of various pollution sources. In this paper, a case study of tracing at the landfill near Mozelj in southeastern Slovenia is described. The first goal was testing of the functioning of three monitoring boreholes, which were drilled at the margins of the landfill. As often happens in heterogeneous karst systems, they did not intersect the main flow paths from the landfill and are not suitable as monitoring points. On the other hand, the findings about the characteristics of tracer transport in the karst system and outflow through the karst springs were used for identifying the most suitable springs for monitoring and preparing an adequate sampling plan, which should be adapted to hydrological conditions.

Impact of chlorides, nitrates, sulfates and phosphates on increased limestone dissolution in the karst vadose zone (Postojna Cave, Slovenia) , 2011, Kogovek, Janja

Distinctive karst hydrology arises from a combination of high carbonate rock solubility and well developed secondary porosity
(fissures). Soil CO2 is the most important influence on solubility
of carbonate rock (Ford & Williams 2007). Human activity
on the karst surface results in pollution that has an important influence on water quality. Degradation of organic pollution (e.g. waste water, leachates from landfill sites) results in inorganic
acids too. These acids could have an important additional influence on dissolution of carbonate rocks in the vadose zone. In the framework of more than 20 years of research on precipitation
percolation and transfer of contaminants (direct outflow of waste water from a small military facility where about twenty troops were stationed) through the 100-m thick vadose zone of Postojna Cave, contaminated water was observed in drips and trickles in the cave (up to 60 mg Cl-/l, up to 180 mg NO3-/l, up to 2.8 mg PO43-/l, and up to 50 mg SO42-/l). At the same time the sum of calcium and magnesium (Ca+Mg) of trickles was up to two times larger than the Ca+Mg of either the uncontaminated
reference trickle or the input waste water. The amount of dissolved limestone carried by waste water to trickles and drips in the cave was directly proportional to the concentration
of contaminant anions present. This demonstrates that there is an accelerated widening of fissures below source points of wastewater. Water with contaminants can penetrate faster and deeper into the vadose zone along the increasingly permeable
fissures without losing its dissolving power, and thus significant dissolution occurs ever deeper in the vadose zone. This results in ever faster penetration of contaminants through the vadose zone. In the final phase of such development, which takes many decades or longer, relatively rapid transfer of contaminants
through the aquifer all the way to karst springs with minimal self-cleansing effects can be expected.

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