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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That moor is a wet peat bog [16].?

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for lar. (Keyword) returned 23 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 23
Karst development in Ordovician carbonates: Western Platform of Newfoundland, Master of Science (MS) Thesis, 1978, Karolyi, Marika Sarolta

The Appalachian fold belt system in Newfoundland is divided into three tectonic divisions: Western Platform; Central Mobile Belt; Avalon Platform Rocks of the Western Platform range in age from Precambrian to Carboniferous. Major karst areas are found there is Ordovician and Carboniferous rocks. Karst features of the study area (Goose Arm to Bonne Bay Big Pond) are in the Ordovician carbonates of the undivided St. George and Table Head Formations, covering a few hundred square kilometers. Features include karren, sinkholes, sinking streams, and karst springs, caves and other solutional and collapse features.
In the study area multiple fold and faulting episodes complicate the geology. Extensive and probably repeated glaciations have produced rugged terrane with U-shaped valleys and as much as 300m relief on the carbonates. There is variable but thick till cover. A class or classes of ice-scoured closed depressions with internal drainage are recognized. Postglacial karst forms are limited to varieties of karren (mainly littoral), small sinkholes, and cave systems that are inaccessively small in most instances. Distribution of all karst features is highly irregular.
Hydrologic patterns follow fluvial, fluviokarstic and holokarstic drainage. Large number of sinking ponds have seasonal overflow channels. The ground water drainage routes are generally short and shallow, with varied hydraulic gradients. Few instances of ground water route integration to regional springs is found.
The water chemistry of the area displays a tight normal distribution of hardness. This is attributed to the ponding effect. Seasonal trends show an overall increase in total hardness and other parameters, with some ponds showing linear increases and others cyclic variations.
Karst type and distribution is complex and irregular, but both glaciokarstic and karstiglacial development is present. The majority of karst forms point to karstiglacial development where previous karst forms have been modified by ice. Karstification is controlled by geology, rock lithology, hydraulic gradients and glacial scour and infill. Karstic processes continue to operate today, modifying the scoured basins and creating new karst forms.


Le lapiaz de Souroukoudinga (Burkina Faso), un karst micro-tourelles d'ge suppos quaternaire, 1986, Hugot G. , Carbonnel J. P.
THE SOUROUKOUDINGA LAPIAZ (BURKINA-FASO): A MICRO-TURRETED KARST SUPPOSEDLY FROM THE QUATERNARY ERA. - The very few karsts noted and described from West Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, Mali) are not particularly spectacular. However, one from Burkina-Faso is quite different and is no doubt the most atypical of West African karsts. The Souroukoudinga karst is located in sediments of marine origin, attributed to the Upper Precambrian, and forms the southern limit of the Taoudeni basin. This karst develops in dolomites of the schistic-sandstone-dolomitic level and in particular in a very fine Stromatolite algal structure. It takes up the form of micro-turreted karren which, due to its apparent freshness and the surrounding ferruginous cuirasses, suggests that its formation began in a very recent Quaternary period.

Les phnomnes karstiques des quartzites d'Afrique du Sud, 1987, Martini, J.
KARST FEATURES IN QUARTZITE OF SOUTH AFRICA - The author describes karst features developed in quartzite and also, but to a lesser extent, in weathered diabase and in wad. In quartzite, the karst is due to weathering along joints and bedding planes, producing softer areanaceous boundaries. Later, vadose caves form by piping in the weathered material, starting at a spring and progressing upstream. The karst features include dolines, swallow-holes, and caves, grouped in very localised systems. Over most of the quartzite plateaus, however, real karst features are absent and the drainage remains superficial. The only ubiquitous features, reminiscent of lapies, consist of pinnacles left after erosion of sand. As most of the time they are not associated to deep karst systems, the author proposes that they should not be considered as karst features. Other caves are developed in weathered diabase and dolomite (wad), sandwiched between resistant quartzite layers. They result from the erosion of these soft layers. The author is of the opinion that the term karst rather than pseudokarst should be used to describe this morphology developed in silica and silicate rocks. The reason is that not only the features produced compare well with the ones observed in " soluble rocks " (limestone, gypsum, etc.), but that the genetical process is very similar. It is suggested that the term pseudokarst should be used only in cases were the genesis is different.

Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology of Gunung Tempurung, Perak, Malaysia, 1995, Gilleson David , Holland Ernst , Davies Gareth

Gunung Tempurung is a 600-metre high limestone tower in the Kinta Valley located to the south of the city of Ipoh, Malaysia. The tower contains at least one extensive cave system, Gua Tempurung, which has a length of approximately 4800 metres and a vertical range of about 200 metres. The tower is an erosional remnant of a thick sequence of Silurian - Permian Limestones initially formed as a shelf deposit near an ancient coastline. The carbonate rocks lie adjacent to, and are laterally bounded by, Late Mesozoic granite plutoniic rocks emplaced by activity related to the Late Triassic uplift from plate boundary stresses along the western edge of the Malay Peninsular. The limestones have been folded and compressed between the granites and have been altered by contact metamorphism to marbles and skarn. Hydrothermal mineralisation of the limestone host rock has yeilded deposits of tin, with some tungsten minerals and other minor ores. In the central part of the karst tower a river-cave system, Gua Tempurung, developed from local damming of the north and south outlets of a small catchment derived from the granite upland area to the east. In several locations inside the dry upper chambers of the cave, vein deposits of tin (cassiterite) are evident in walls and ceilings. Additionally alluvial tin deposits derived from the Old Alluvium are present in the cave.


Mesozoic dissolution tectonics on the West Central Shelf, UK Central North Sea, 1999, Clark Ja, Cartwright Ja, Stewart Sa,
3-D seismic mapping of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation on the West Central Shelf in the Central North Sea reveals a complex fault array which is constrained by seismic interpretation and well control to be of late Jurassic/early Cretaceous age. Fault shapes in plan-view range from linear to circular. Linear fault lengths are 200-300 m to 5 km, the strongly curved and circular faults range in diameter from 100-1000 m. Fault trends are apparently random and display no correlation in location or trend with basement (sub-Zechstein) structures. There is, however, a strong link between this fault pattern and the structure of the top Zechstein (top salt) surface. Linear faults occur at the edges of elongate salt walls and the circular faults lie directly above structures which have been interpreted here as tall, steep-sided salt chimneys. The salt chimneys are present only in the thick, elongate minibasins of Triassic sediment which lie between the salt walls. It is argued that salt dissolution controls the timing, location, orientation and shape of the late Jurassic/early Cretaceous faults. A model is provided to account for the development of both salt walls and chimneys. We suggest that early Triassic karstification of the Zechstein evaporites led to development of an array of circular collapse features. During the ensuing episode of Triassic halokinesis which led to minibasin subsidence and salt wall growth, salt passively 'intruded' the circular collapse features within the subsiding minibasins to form narrow salt chimneys. The resulting array of salt walls and chimneys was subject to dissolution during subsequent subaerial exposure and the late Jurassic marine transgression of the basin (creating the observed fault array), prior to sealing of the salt from circulating groundwater by compaction of the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous shales which blanket the area. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Forme et rugosit des surfaces karstiques. Consquences pour une thorie spatiale et fractale de linterface terrestre, 2000, Martin, Philippe
This text proposes a theoretical, hypothetical and speculative approach of the transformation of earth's surfaces. This reflection is based on the notion of otherness. Our approach uses two oppositions: levelled/ roughness and karstic/ non karstic. The dimension of the roughness surfaces is understood between 2 and 3. The dimension of the surfaces of levelling is close to 2. Quantifications showed that massifs are limited by surfaces more or less irregular. In certain cases, the erosion transforms so a surface of levelling into rough surface. In that case initial shape is not preserved. The levellings on the karstic massifs (outliers often) seem better preserved (karstic immunity) than on the other rocks. This conservation would explain a weak value of the fractal dimension of air surfaces of karsts tested always with the same protocol (relation S PD). They were compared with the surfaces of reliefs of basal complex. Three ideas summarise obtained results: [1] The average of fractal dimensions of karsts are smaller than those of the relief of basal complex. [2] The dispersal of the mean values of surface of karst is lower to the dispersal of the mean values of basal complex. [3] Distance between minimal and maximal values for karsts is much bigger than distance between minimal and maximal values for basal complex. To explain the weak roughness of karsts we made three hypotheses: [a] These fragments would correspond to zones still not affected by the erosion (time problem) [b] In such a system some changes on a plan would prevent changes on the another plan (spatial problem) [c] Initial shape is replaced by a similar shape (Platon's Parmnide). The endokarst is described empirically and by analogy with the fractal model of Sierpinski's sponge as a unique surface infinitely folded up in a limited volume. So the growth of the karstic spaces in the endokarst, increases almost until the infinity, the size of the internal surface of the karst. To find a theoretical base at the roughness and at the extreme size of these surfaces, we studied the report between the growth of a volume and the growth of the surface, which limits this volume. Three theoretical models show that if surfaces do not change, volume to be affected by unity of surface grows strongly. Eroded volume depends on the size of the exposed surface. If the eroded volume depends on the size of the exposed surface, then time to erase a mountain could be, in theory, infinite. This is not acceptable because a massif can be erased in about 200 Ma. According to analogies with different morphogenesis (physical, biologic), we make the hypothesis that fractal character, of surfaces of the massifs corresponds to the necessity of increasing, as much as possible, the size of the surface subjected to the erosion so as to decrease the time of destruction of the relief. This is coherent with the idea of a system far from the balance, which tends to join the state of balance as quickly as possible by developing specific morphologies. Distance between the relief and the lower limit of the potential of erosion is then introduced as a factor being able to explain the small roughness of high continental surfaces. The reduction of the volume by erosion is cause (and not consequence) of the decrease of the roughness. The surface can become less rough because volume decreases. The surface of levelling constitutes the final morphology, which is transformed only very slowly. In this perspective the dynamics allows only the fulfillment of spatial rules. In the case of the karst, because of the existence of the subterranean part of the karstic surface and its roughness, it is not useful that air part becomes very rough. Levellings would be preserved by geometrical uselessness to destroy them. They would not correspond to forms in respite as implies him the temporal analysis (hypothesis [a]), but to forms corresponding to a particular balance (hypothesis [b]) who would even be locally transformed (karstic levelling) into the same shape (hypothesis [c]). This theoretical plan supplies with more an explanation on the visible contradiction between the speed of the karstic erosion and the durability of levellings.

Lithological and structural controls of cave development, 2000, Klimchouk A. , Ford D.
This Chapter summarizes the important general controls that lithology and geologic structure impose on most cave genesis: rock purity, the presence of interbedded clastic rocks and adjacent or interbedded sequences of sulfates and carbonates, and various kinds of initial porosity, fissures in particular. Lithological and structural conditions for speleogenesis evolve throughout sedimentation, eogenesis, mesogenesis and telogenesis and change drastically between these stages. Inheritance in the evolution of different kinds of pre-speleogenetic porosity causes increasing heterogeneity in their distribution and parameters, which reaches the highest degree at the stage of rock emergence to the shallow subsurface and the surface after burial. The importance of fabric-selective porosity and stratigraphical elements diminishes with time in favor of fissure network porosity. Fissures evolve at different stages of the rock evolution. Networks are composed of complex planar and curvilinear surfaces interconnecting in three dimensions, constructed from fissures of various origins, generations and ages. The initial structural conditions for speleogenesis thus can be very varied depending on which particular stage speleogenesis commences. Conditions in deep-seated settings favor uniform speleogenetic development, while in shallow settings increased heterogeneity in fissure parameters can favor selective development. Modeling of conduit initiation and early development needs to take into account a great variability of initial permeability structures between common geological environments and evolutionary stages, especially rather dynamic non-dissolutional changes of these structures in shallow settings.

Speleogenesis: Evolution of Karst Aquifers., 2000,
The aim of this book is to present advances made in recent decades in our understanding of the formation of dissolutional caves, and to illustrate the role of cave genetic ( speleogenetic ) processes in the development of karst aquifers. From the perspective of hydrogeology, karst ground water flow is a distinct kind of fluid circulation system, one that is capable of self-organization and self-development due to its capacity to dissolve significant amounts of the host rock and transport them out of the system. Fluid circulation in soluble rocks becomes more efficiently organized by creating, enlarging and modifying patterns of cave conduits, the process of speleogenesis. We can assert that karst ground water flow is a function of speleogenesis and vice versa . The advances in cave science are poorly appreciated in what may be termed ?mainstream hydrogeology?, which retains a child-like faith in flow models developed in the sand box. Many karst students also will not be aware of all emerging concepts of cave origin because discussions of them are scattered through journals and books in different disciplines and languages, including publications with small circulation. An understanding of principles of speleogenesis and its most important controls is indispensable for proper comprehension of the evolution of the karst system in general and of karst aquifers in particular. We hope this book will be useful for both karst and cave scientists, and for general hydrogeologists dealing with karst terranes. This book is a pioneer attempt by an international group of cave scientists to summarize modern knowledge about cave origin in various settings, and to examine the variety of approaches that have been adopted. Selected contributions from 44 authors in 15 nations are combined in an integrated volume, prepared between 1994 and 1998 as an initiative of the Commission of Karst Hydrogeology and Speleogenesis, International Speleological Union. Despite a desire to produce an integrated book, rather than a mere collection of papers, the editors' policy has not been directed toward unifying all views. Along with some well-established theories and approaches, the book contains new concepts and ideas emerging in recent years. We hope that this approach will stimulate further development and exchange of ideas in cave studies and karst hydrogeology. Following this Introduction, (Part 1), the book is organized in seven different parts, each with sub-chapters. Part 2 gives a history of speleogenetic studies, tracing the development of the most important ideas from previous centuries (Shaw, Chapter 2.1) through the early modern period in the first half of this century (Lowe, Chapter 2.2) to the threshold of modern times (W.White, Chapter 2.3). The present state of the art is best illustrated by the entire content of this book. Part 3 overviews the principal geologic and hydrogeologic variables that either control or significantly influence the differing styles of cave development that are found. In Chapter 3.1 Klimchouk and Ford introduce an evolutionary approach to the typology of karst settings, which is a taken as a base line for the book. Extrinsic factors and intrinsic mechanisms of cave development change regularly and substantially during the general cycle of geological evolution of a soluble rock and , more specifically, within the hydrogeologic cycle. The evolutionary typology of karst presented in this chapter considers the entire life cycle of a soluble formation, from deposition (syngenetic karst) through deep burial, to exposure and denudation. It helps to differentiate between karst types which may concurrently represent different stages of karst development, and is also a means of adequately classifying speleogenetic settings. The different types of karst are marked by characteristic associations of the structural prerequisites for groundwater flow and speleogenesis, flow regime, recharge mode and recharge/discharge configurations, groundwater chemistry and degree of inheritance from earlier conditions. Consequently, these associations make a convenient basis to view both the factors that control cave genesis and the particular types of caves. Lithological and structural controls of speleogenesis are reviewed in general terms in Chapters 3.2 (Klimchouk and Ford). Lowe in Chapter 3.3 discusses the role of stratigraphic elements and the speleo-inception concept. Palmer in Chapter 3.4 overviews the hydrogeologic controls of cave patterns and demonstrates that hydrogeologic factors, the recharge mode and type of flow in particular, impose the most powerful controls on the formation of the gross geometry of cave systems. Hence, analysis of cave patterns is especially useful in the reconstruction of environments from paleokarst and in the prediction and interpretation of groundwater flow patterns and contaminant migration. Any opportunity to relate cave patterns to the nature of their host aquifers will assist in these applied studies as well. Osborne (Chapter 3.7) examines the significance of paleokarst in speleogenesis. More specific issues are treated by Klimchouk (The nature of epikarst and its role in vadose speleogenesis, Chapter 3.5) and by V.Dublyansky and Y.Dublyansky (The role of condensation processes, Chapter 3.6). Part 4 outlines the fundamental physics and chemistry of the speleogenetic processes (Chapter 4.1) and presents a variety of different approaches to modeling cave conduit development (Chapter 4.2). In Chapter 4.1, the chemical reactions during the dissolution of the common soluble minerals, calcite, gypsum, salt and quartz, are discussed with the basic physical and chemical mechanisms that determine their dissolution rates. As limestone is the most common karst rock and its dissolution is the most complex in many respects, it receives the greatest attention. Dreybrodt (Section 4.1.1) and Dreybrodt and Eisenlohr (Section 4.1.2) provide advanced discussion and report the most recent experimental data, which are used to obtain realistic dissolution rates for a variety of hydrogeologic conditions and as input for modeling the evolution of conduits. Although direct comparisons between theoretical or analytical dissolution rates and those derived from field measurements is difficult, a very useful comparison is provided by W.White (Section 4.1.3). The bulk removal of carbonate rock from karst drainage basins can be evaluated either by direct measurement of rock surface retreat or by mass balance within known drainage basins. All of these approaches make sense and give roughly accurate results that are consistent with theoretical expectations. It is well recognized today that the earliest, incipient, phases of speleogenesis are crucial in building up the pattern of conduits that evolve into explorable cave systems. It is difficult to establish the major controls on these initial stages by purely analytical or intuitive methods, so that modeling becomes particularly important. Various approaches are presented in Chapter 4.2. Ford, Ewers and Lauritzen present the results of systematic study of the propagation of conduits between input and output points in an anisotropic fissure, using a variety of hardware and software models, in series representing the "single input", "multiple inputs in one rank", and "multiple inputs in multiple ranks" cases (Section 4.2.1). The results indicate important details of the competitive development of proto-conduits and help to explain branching cave patterns. In the competition between inputs, some principal tubes in near ranks first link ("breakthrough") to an output boundary. This re-orients the flowfields of failed nearby competitors, which then extend to join the principal via their closest secondaries. The process extends outwards and to the rear, linking up all inputs in a "cascading system". The exploding growth of computer capability during the last two decades has greatly enhanced possibilities for digital modeling of early conduit development. Investigating the growth of a single conduit is a logical first step in understanding the evolution of caves, realized here by Dreybrodt and Gabrov?ek in the form of a simple mathematical model (Section 4.2.2) and by Palmer by numerical finite-difference modeling (Section 4.2.3). The models show that positive feedback loops operate; widening a fracture causes increasing flow through it, therefore dissolution rates increase along it and so on, until finally a dramatic increase of flow rates permits a dramatic enhancement of the widening. This breakthrough event terminates the initial stage of conduit evolution. From then on the water is able to pass through the entire conduit while maintaining sufficient undersaturation to preserve low-order kinetics, so the growth rate is very rapid, at least from a geological standpoint -- usually about 0.001-0.1 cm/yr. The initiation ("breakthrough") time depends critically on the length and the initial width of the fracture and, for the majority of realistic cases, it covers a time range from a few thousand years to ten million years in limestones. The modeling results give a clear explanation of the operation of selectivity in cave genesis. In a typical unconfined karst aquifer there is a great range of enlargement rates along the competing flow routes, and only a few conduits will grow to enterable size. The modeling also provides one starting point (others are discussed in Chapter 5.2) to explain uniform maze patterns, which will be favored by enlargement of all openings at comparable rates where the discharge/length ratio is great enough. Single-conduit modeling has the virtue of revealing how the cave-forming variables relate to each other in the simplest possible way. Although it is more difficult to extend this approach to two dimensions, many have done so (e.g. Groves & Howard, 1994; Howard & Groves, 1995; in this volume ? Ford, Ewers and Lauritzen, Section 4.2.1; Dreybrodt and Siemers, Section 4.2.4, and Sauter and Liedl, Section 4.2.5). The modeling performed by Dreybrodt and Siemers shows that the main principles of breakthrough derived from one-dimensional models remain valid. The evolution of karst aquifers has been modeled for a variety of different geological settings, including also variation in lithology with respect to the dissolution kinetics. Sauter and Liedl simulate the development of conduits at a catchment scale for fissured carbonate rocks with rather large initial openings (about 1 mm). The approach is based upon hydraulic coupling of a pipe network to matrix continuum in order to represent the well-known duality of karst aquifer flow systems. It is also shown how understanding of the genesis of karst aquifers and modeling of their development can assist in characterization of the conduit system, which dominates flow and transport in karst aquifers. An important point that has emerged from cave studies of the last three decades is that no single speleogenetic model applies to all geologic and hydrologic settings. Given that settings may also change systematically during the evolutionary geological cycles outlined above (Chapter 3.1), an evolutionary approach is called for. This is attempted in Part 5, which is organized to give extended accounts of speleogenesis in the three most important settings that we recognize: coastal and oceanic (Chapter 5.1), deep-seated and confined (Chapter 5.2) and unconfined (Chapter 5.3). Each Chapter begins with a review of modern ideas on cave development in the setting, followed by representative case studies. The latter include new accounts of some "classic" caves as well as descriptions of other, little-known cave systems and areas. Readers may determine for themselves how well the real field examples fit the general models presented in the introductory sections. Mylroie and Carew in Chapter 5.1 summarize specific features of cave and karst development in young rocks in coastal and island settings that result from the chemical interactions between fresh and salt waters, and the effects of fluctuating sea level during the Quaternary. The case studies include a review of syngenetic karst in coastal dune limestones, Australia (S.White, 5.1.1) and an example of speleogenesis on tectonically active carbonate islands (Gunn and Lowe, 5.1.2). Klimchouk in Chapter 5.2 reviews conditions and mechanisms of speleogenesis in deep-seated and confined settings, one of the most controversial but exciting topics in modern cave research. Conventional karst/speleogenetic theories are concerned chiefly with shallow, unconfined geologic settings, supposing that the karstification found there is intimately related to surface conditions of input and output, with the dissolution being driven by downward meteoric water recharge. The possibility of hypogenic karstification in deeper environments has been neglected for a long time, and the quite numerous instances of karst features found at significant depths have usually been interpreted as buried paleokarst. However, the last decade has seen a growing recognition of the variety and importance of hypogene dissolution processes and of speleogenesis under confined settings which often precedes unconfined development (Hill, 1987, 1995; Klimchouk, 1994, 1996, 1997; Lowe, 1992; Lowe & Gunn, 1995; Mazzullo & Harris, 1991, 1992; Palmer, 1991, 1995; Smart & Whitaker, 1991; Worthington, 1991, 1994; Worthington & Ford, 1995). Confined (artesian) settings were commonly ignored as sites for cave origin because the classic concept of artesian flow implies long lateral travel distances for groundwater within a soluble unit, resulting in a low capacity to generate caves in the confined area. However, the recognition of non-classical features in artesian flow, namely the occurrence of cross-formation hydraulic communication within artesian basins, the concepts of transverse speleogenesis and of the inversion of hydrogeologic function of beds in a sequence, allows for a revision of the theory of artesian speleogenesis and of views on the origin of many caves. It is proposed that artesian speleogenesis is immensely important to speleo-inception and also accounts for the development of some of the largest known caves in the world. Typical conditions of recharge, the flow pattern through the soluble rocks, and groundwater aggressiveness favor uniform, rather than competing, development of conduits, resulting in maze caves where the structural prerequisites exist. Cross-formational flow favors a variety of dissolution mechanisms that commonly involve mixing. Hydrogeochemical mechanisms of speleogenesis are particularly diverse and potent where carbonate and sulfate beds alternate and within or adjacent to hydrocarbon-bearing sedimentary basins. Hypogene speleogenesis occurs in rocks of varied lithology and can involve a variety of dissolution mechanisms that operate under different physical constraints but create similar cave features. Case studies include the great gypsum mazes of the Western Ukraine (Klimchouk, Section 5.2.1), great maze caves in limestones in Black Hills, South Dakota (Palmer, Section 5.2.2) and Siberia (Filippov, Section 5.2.3), karstification in the Redwall aquifer, Arizona (Huntoon, Section 5.2.4), hydrothermal caves in Hungary (Y.Dublyansky, Section 5.2.6), and sulfuric acid speleogenesis (Lowe, Bottrell and Gunn, Section 5.2.7, and Hill, Section 5.2.8). Y.Dublyansky summarizes the peculiar features of hydrothermal speleogenesis (Section 5.2.5), and V.Dublyansky describes an outstanding example of a hydrothermal cavity, in fact the largest ever recorded by volume, in the Rhodope Mountains (Section 5.2.9). Recognition of the scale and importance of deep-seated speleogenesis and of the hydraulic continuity and cross-formational communications between aquifers in artesian basins is indispensable for the correct interpretation of evolution of karst aquifers, speleogenetic processes and associated phenomena, regional karst water-resource evaluations, and the genesis of certain karst-related mineral deposits. These and other theoretical and practical implications still have to be developed and evaluated, which offers a wide field for further research efforts. Ford in Chapter 5.3 reviews theory of speleogenesis that occurs where normal meteoric waters sink underground through the epikarst or dolines and stream sinks, etc. and circulate in the limestone or other soluble rocks without any major artesian confinement. These are termed common caves (Ford & Williams, 1989) because they probably account for 90% or more of the explored and mapped dissolutional caves that are longer than a few hundred meters. This estimate reflects the bias in exploration; caves formed in unconfined settings and genetically related to surface recharge are the most readily accessible and hence form the bulk of documented caves. Common caves display chiefly the branchwork forms where the dissolutional conduits occupy only a tiny proportion of the total length or area of penetrable fissures that is available to the groundwaters. The rules that govern the selection of the successful linkages that will be enlarged into the branchwork pattern are supported in the models presented in Chapter 4.2. In the long section caves may be divided into deep phreatic, multi-loop, mixed loop and water table, and ideal water table types, with drawdown vadose caves or invasion vadose caves above them. Many large systems display a mixture of the types. The concepts of plan pattern construction, phreatic, water table or vadose state, and multi-phase development of common caves are illustrated in the case studies that follow the introduction. They are organized broadly to begin with examples of comparatively simple deep phreatic and multi-loop systems (El Abra, Mexico, Ford, Section 5.3.1 and Castleguard Cave, Canada, Ford, Lauritzen and Worthington, Section 5.3.2), proceeding to large and complex multi-phase systems such as the North of Thun System, Switzerland (Jeannin, Bitterly and Hauselmann, Section 5.3.3) and Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (Palmer, Section 5.3.8), to representatives of mixed vadose and phreatic development in mountainous regions (the Alps, Audra, Section 5.3.4; the Pyrenees, Fernandez, Calaforra and Rossi, Section 5.3.5; Mexico, Hose, Section 5.3.6) and where there is strong lithologic or structural control (Folded Appalachians, W.White, Section 5.3.7; gypsum caves in the South of Spain, Calaforra and Pulido-Bosch, Section 5.3.10). Two special topics are considered by W.White in Section 5.3.9 (Speleogenesis of vertical shafts in the eastern US) and Palmer (Maze origin by diffuse recharge through overlying formation). The set concludes with two instances of nearly ideal water table cave development (in Belize and Hungary, Ford, Section 5.3.12), and a review of the latest models of speleogenesis from the region where modern karst studies in the West began, the Classical Karst of Slovenia and Trieste (?u?ter?ic, Section 5.3.13). In Parts 2-5 attention is directed primarily on how the gross geometry of a cave system is established. Part 6 switches focus to the forms at meso- and micro- scales, which can be created during enlargement of the cave. Lauritzen and Lundberg in Chapter 6.1 summarize the great variety of erosional forms ( speleogenetic facies ) that can be created by a wide range of speleogenetic agents operating in the phreatic or vadose zones. Some forms of cave passages have been subject to intensive research and may be interpreted by means of simple physical and chemical principles, but many others are polygenetic and hence difficult to decipher with certainty. However, in addition to the analysis of cave patterns (see Chapter 3.4), each morphological element is a potential tool that can aid our inferences on the origin of caves and on major characteristics of respective past hydrogeological settings. In Chapter 6.2 E.White and W.White review breakdown morphology in caves, generalizing that the processes are most active during the enlargement and decay phases of cave development. Early in the process breakdown occurs when the flow regime shifts from pipe-full conditions to open channel conditions (i.e. when the roof first loses buoyant support) and later in the process breakdown becomes part of the overall degradation of the karst system. The chapter addresses the mechanism of breakdown formation, the geological triggers that initiate breakdown, and the role that breakdown plays in the development of caves. As the great majority of both theoretical considerations and case studies in this book deal with speleogenesis in carbonate rocks, it is useful to provide a special forum to examine dissolution cave genesis in other rocks. This is the goal of Part 7. Klimchouk (7.1) provides a review of speleogenesis in gypsum. This appears to be a useful playground for testing the validity and limitations of certain general speleogenetic concepts. Differences in solution kinetics between gypsum and calcite impose some limitations and peculiar features on the early evolution of conduits in gypsum. These peculiarities appear to be an extreme and more obvious illustration of some rules of speleogenetic development devised from conceptual and digital modeling of early conduit growth in limestones. For instance, it is shown (e.g. Palmer, 1984, 1991; Dreybrodt, 1996; see also Chapter 3.4 and Section 4.2.2) that initiation of early, narrow and long pathways does not seem feasible under linear dissolution rate laws (n=1) due to exponential decrease of the dissolution rates. Although the dissolution kinetics of gypsum are not well known close to equilibrium it is generally assumed that they are controlled entirely by diffusion and therefore linear. If dissolution of gypsum is solely diffusion-controlled, with no change in the kinetic order, conduit initiation could not occur in phreatic settings or by lateral flow through gypsum from distant recharge areas in artesian settings. Hence, the fact that maze caves are common in gypsum in artesian conditions (see Section 5.2.1) gives strong support to a general model of "transverse" artesian speleogenesis where gypsum beds are underlain by, or sandwiched between, insoluble or low-solubility aquifers (Chapter 5.2), and suggests that it may be applicable to cave development in carbonates. In unconfined settings, speleogenesis in gypsum occurs along fissures wide enough to support undersaturated flow throughout their length. Linear or crudely branching caves overwhelmingly predominate, which rapidly adjust to the contemporary geomorphic setting and to the maximum available recharge. Also, if considerable conduit porosity has been created in deep-seated settings, it provides ready paths for more intense groundwater circulation and further cave development when uplift brings the gypsum into the shallow subsurface. Speleogenesis in salt, reviewed in general and exemplified by the Monte Sedom case in Israel (Frumkin, Chapter 7.2), has been documented only in open, unconfined settings, where it provides a model for simple vadose cave development. Chapter 7.3 deals with speleogenesis in quartzites, illustrated by case studies from southeastern Minas Gerais, Brasil (Correa Neto, 7.3.1) and South Africa (Martini, 7.3.2). The process involves initial chemical weathering of the quartzite to create zones of friable rocks (sanding, or arenisation) which then are removed by piping, with further conduit enlargement due to mechanical erosion by flowing water. Part 8 combines the theoretical with some applied aspects of speleogenetic studies. Worthington, Ford and Beddows (8.1) show the important implications of what might be termed "speleogenetic wisdom" when studying ground water behaviour in karst. They examine some standard hydrogeological concepts in the light of knowledge of caves and their patterns, considering a range of case studies to identify the characteristic enhancement of porosity and permeability due to speleogenesis that occurs in carbonate rocks. The chapter focuses on unconfined carbonate aquifers as these are the most studied from the speleological perspective and most important for water supplies. Four aquifers, differing in rock type, recharge type (allogenic and autogenic), and age (Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic), are described in detail to demonstrate the extent of dissolutional enhancement of porosity and permeability. It is shown that all four cases are similar in hydraulic function, despite the fact that some of them were previously characterized as different end members of a "karst ? non-karst" spectrum. Enhancement of porosity by dissolution is relatively minor: enhancement of permeability is considerable because dissolution has created dendritic networks of channels able to convey 94% or more of all flow in the aquifer, with fractures providing a small proportion and the matrix a negligible amount. These conclusions may be viewed as a warning to hydrogeologists working in carbonate terranes: probably the majority of unconfined aquifers function in a similar manner. Sampling is a major problem in their analysis because boreholes (the conventional exploration tool in hydrogeology) are unlikely to intersect the major channels that are conveying most of the flow and any contaminants in it. It is estimated, using examples of comprehensively mapped caves, that the probability of a borehole intersecting a conduit ranges from 1 in 50 to 1 in 1000 or more. Boreholes simply cannot be relied upon to detect the presence of caves or to ?characterise? the hydrologic functioning of cavernous aquifers. Wherever comprehensive evidence has been collected in unconfined carbonate aquifers (cave mapping plus boreholes plus lab analysis of core samples) it suggests that dissolution inexorably results in a similar structure, with channel networks providing most of the permeability of the aquifer, yet occupying a very minor fraction of its volume (Worthington, Ford and Beddows). Lowe (Chapter 8.2) focuses on developments in understanding the vital role played by karstic porosity, (broadly viewed as being the product of speleogenesis), in the migration of mineralizing fluids (or hydrocarbons) and in their deposition (or storage), and comments on the potential role of new speleogenetic concepts in developing greater understanding in the future. Although some early workers were clearly aware of actual evidence for some kind of relationship, and others noted its theoretical likelihood, it has been ignored by many until relatively recent times. This shortfall has gradually been redressed; new understanding of the extent and variety of karst processes is ensuring that new relationships are being recognized and new interpretations and models are being derived. The chapter does not pretend to give a comprehensive account of the topic but clearly demonstrates the wide applicability of speleogenetic knowledge to issues in economic geology. In Chapter 8.3 Aley provides an overview of the water and land-use problems that occur in areas with conduit aquifers. He stresses that sound land management must be premised on an understanding that karst is a three-dimensional landscape where the surface and subsurface are intimately and integrally connected. Failure to recognize that activity at the surface affects the subsurface, and the converse, has long been the root cause of many of the problems of water and land use in karst regions. Karst areas have unique natural resource problems, whose management can have major economic consequences. Although there is an extensive literature on the nature of particular problems, resource protection and hazard minimization strategies in karst, it rarely displays an advanced understanding of the processes of the conduit formation and their characteristics yet these will always be involved. This book does not pretend to be a definitive text on speleogenesis. However, it is hoped that readers will find it to be a valuable reference source, that it will stimulate new ideas and approaches to develop and resolve some of the remaining problems, and that it will promote an appreciation of the importance of speleogenetic studies in karst hydrogeology and applied environmental sciences. Acknowledgements: We sincerely thank all contributors for their willing cooperation in the long and difficult process of preparing this book, for their participation in developing its logic and methodology and their cheerful response to numerous requests. We thank all colleagues who discussed the work with us and encouraged it in many ways, even though not contributing to its content as authors. We are particularly grateful to Margaret Palmer for invaluable help in editing the English in many contributions, to Nataly Yablokova for her help in performing many technical tasks and to Elizabeth White who prepared comprehensive index. Our thanks are due to Dr. David Drew, Dr. Philip LaMoreaux, Dr. George Moore and Prof. Marian Pulina for reviewing the manuscript and producing constructive notes and comments on improvement of the final product. The organizational costs and correspondence related to the preparation of the book were partially sponsored by the National Speleological Society, the publisher. We thank David McClurg, the Chair of the NSS Special Publication Committee, for his extensive technical and organizational support in the preparation and publishing processes.

Karst groundwater connections in the valley of the Seven Triglav Lakes, 2000, Brancelj Anton, Urbanc Janko

Results of a tracing test in the high mountain lake of Jezero v Ledvici (Triglav Lakes area) are presented. The tracing experiment proved hydraulic connections between lakes Jezero v Ledvici, Močivec and Dvojno jezero. The article also deals with a comparison of the faunistic and floristic characteristics of the Triglav lakes. The occurrence of biotic species in different lakes is not very similar. No clear explanation for this phenomenon was found up to now, so further investigations of this system are proposed.


The first discovery of a complete skeleton of a fossil orang-utan in a cave of the Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam, 2001, Bacon Am, Long Vt,
Here we provide a description of the first complete adult fossil orang-utan skeleton from the Asian mainland. This specimen, and remains of a juvenile orang, were collected in a late Pleistocene cavern in the Hoa Binh Province of The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The results confirm the suggestions by Hooijer (1948) Zool. Meded. Leiden 29, 175-301 and later by Schwartz et al. (1995) Anthrop. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. I-list. 76, 1-24, that ancient orang-utans had bigger teeth than those of modem Pongo pygmaeus (P. p. pygmaeus and P. p. abelii), while the dental morphology is similar. Body proportions of the adult individual of Hoa Binh show a large skull with very large teeth but proportionally a small body. This individual is also singular in having high intermembral. and brachial indices, in comparison with those of modem subspecies.

Possibilities of geoelectrical and seismo-electrical monitoring in investigations of the karst phenomena, 2002, Bogolubov An, Kamshilin An, Volkova En,
One of the main problems of modern karst investigations is to forecast a place and time of possible depression formation, A solution to this problem requires investigations of karst dynamics by different methods, including geophysical methods. Karst dynamics is determined, in general, by movement of underground waters. At the same time, it is known that electric fields and electric properties of rocks are very sensitive to variations of fluid amounts and their characteristics. Thus, geoelectrical methods of monitoring are useful for investigation of karst dynamics in general and for forecasting karst depressions in particular. Authors have introduced two methods of geophysical monitoring: geoelectrical and seismo-electrical. The main features of instruments and methods of measurement are explained, and the results of the field investigations are shown. The possibilities of the application of these methods to karst dynamics investigations are discussed

Structural Features of Cultural Landscape in the Karst Area (landscape in transition), 2003, Anič, Ić, Branka, Perica Draž, En

During a long historical continuity in the karst area a specific landscape type has evolved due to varied climatic, geomorphological, topographic as well as socio-economic conditions. This is characterized by great typological diversity based on authentic features both of natural and cultural origin. These have occurred as a consequence of balanced economic land-uses from early periods on. The main quality of these landscapes is derived from unique agricultural land-use patterns, which constitute one of the most valuable spatial heritages in the entire Mediterranean. However, the recent evolution, mainly in the socio-economic sphere, generated far-reaching impacts in the rural areas which largely affect the integrity and traditional harmony the karst countryside in general and the landscape in particular. The basic intention of the paper is to outline these transformations as a serious threat and immense loss of the national cultural heritage and to emphasize the great responsibility of this generation in these processes.


Le paysage karstique du versant sud de la montagne de Lure (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France), 2004, Dandurand, Grgory
Karstic landscape on the south face of Lure range (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France) - The karstic landscape of the Montagne de Lure seems neither attractive nor spectacular. Karstic forms are badly developed; sinks are small and filled in with red clays. Caves are narrow and their size doesnt enable man to visit them. Only the aven des Cdres reaches 172 m deep. Still, its a major contradiction that surface runoff observed in the area are thin and as poor as karstic shapes. Infiltration and subterranean water flow are fast. Nor exhaustive inventory, neither precise study about Lure ranges karsts have been published yet. Perhaps due to the mediocrity of their superficial and subterranean shapes, or perhaps in the benefit of the more spectacular karstic landscapes of the Plateau d Albion , to the west part of studied area! Still, the main problem about Lure range is the question of the relation with the Fontaine de Vaucluse and maybe with any others springs in Durance valley. Finally, the progression of woods at the end of 19th century and at the beginning of 20th century, then the increase of population since 1970s, created a lot of environmental dysfunctions, which require a specific management. But karstic shapes are unexploited; protection or valorisation plans dont exist, when interrogation about the future of biological and landscape diversity is at the top. These reasons give a particular interest to the karst landscape of the south face of the Montagne de Lure .

A mineralogical and phytolith study of the middle stone age hearths in Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2004, Schiegl S. , Stockhammer P. , Scott C. , Wadley L. ,
Sediments from Middle Stone Age hearths and burnt deposits in Sibudu Cave (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analysed for their mineral and phytolith contents. The mineral compositions were determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. The phytoliths were classified and counted by transmitted polarized light microscopy. Burning experiments using wood and grasses from species native to the cave's environment yielded the reference ashes. The visible hearths and ash dumps contain phytolith assemblages characteristic of wood fuel. A significant portion of the phytoliths of hearths and ash layers display morphologies related to intense heating. This finding is suggestive of long-burning wood fires and/or reuse of the same fireplace. The heat-altered phytoliths are useful in tracing fires, especially if hearth structures are not preserved and ash deposits have been diagenetically and heavily altered. The phytolith contents and mineralogical composition of the ash deposits and the surrounding sedimentary matrix are very similar. This feature suggests that the sedimentary matrix originally contained fireplaces and ash deposits, whose structures were destroyed shortly after deposition, presumably by trampling.(21) The intact circular hearths are most likely the product of intense fires. Similar results from hearths and their surrounding matrix have been reported from Middle Palaeolithic cave sites in Israel

Investigation of the groundwater residence time distribution in the Aladag (Kayseri-Adana, Turkey) karstic aquifer. PhD Thesis, 2004, Ozyurt, N. Nur

The Aladað karstic aquifer of Eastern Taurids Range extends between 400m and 3750m elevations and, covers an area of 1900 km2 within Adana-Kayseri-Niðde provinces. The study covers the Kapuzbaþý, Göksu shallow circulation and Yerköprü 1, Yerköprü 2 and Yerköprü 3 deep circulation springs that extend from recharge area to the Zamanti river.
The system is fed by precipitation of Mediterranean origin and total precipitation input, evapo-transpiration, net recharge and its volumetric equivalent are found to be 1113 mm, 451 mm, 879 mm and 939 106 m3. Mean annual discharges of Yerköprü 3, Yerköprü 1 and 2, Göksu and, Kapuzbaþý and Barazama springs are 449 106 m3, 82 106 m3, 299 106 m3 and 146 106 m3. Noble gas ( 20Ne, 40Ar, 84Kr) and 18O isotopes suggest recharge area elevation and temperature ranges of 1700-2100m and 2-6 oC. The helium (He) content of groundwater increases with increasing circulation depth. Year round biweekly-monthly samples’ electrical conductivity, tritium ( 3H) and 18O content reveal that Kapuzbaþý and Göksu springs and, Yerköprü 1 and Yerköprü 2 springs behave similarly among themselves.
The “CFC model ages” of the springs where, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) contents increased from 1997 to 2002, range between 10 to 20 years and 20 to 30 years in the shallow and deep circulation parts, respectively. The 3H/3He* absolute age of groundwater from springs is around 20 +/- 2.5 years. In the computer code LUMPEDUS that was developed for unsteady state lumped parameter modeling applications, 3H, tritiogenic helium-3 ( 3He*), CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and 18O were used as environmental tracers. Serially connected plug-exponential flow model applied to all springs. All models were calibrated for observed outflux and their forecasted 3H, 3He* and 18O time series were found to be in good agreement with the observations. Mean residence times found by models are in agreement with 3H/3He* ages. According to residence time distribution suggested by models, most of the discharges comprise recharges that occurred within last 20 to 30 years. Sixty per cent of discharge comprises recharges of the last 3 to 4 years. The active reservoir volumes of Yerköprü 1-2, Kapuzbaþý, Göksu and Yerköprü 3 springs are found to be 1604 106 m3, 2808 106 m3, 5728 106 m3 and 8609 106 m3 , respectively. According to well established linear relationship between reservoir volumes and discharge elevations, an active volume increases 50 106 m3 per 1m decrease in elevation. Cumulative active reservoir volume is found to be 18749 106 m3 at 450 m elevation where Yerköprü 3 spring is located. Uppermost elevation of active reservoir is located at 836m. Groundwater’s velocity ranges from 2.09 m/day to 5.57 m/day and the corresponding hydraulic conductivities for different reservoirs are between 41.8 m/day and 212.2 m/day. The ordering of hydraulic conductivity among springs ( > > > ) seems to be related to their time of formation. Based on an assumption of 1500m of maximum hydraulic head at the recharge area, the effective porosity of the system is estimated to be 0.86 per cent.


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