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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pseudokarren is these are karren appearing features that form mostly on insoluble, silicate rocks by means of weathering processes. they appear as a rounded type of rinnenkarren and less frequently as an atypical form of solution pan [3]. see also karren; rinnenkarren; solution pan.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for layers (Keyword) returned 184 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 184
Laboratory and field evidence for a vadose origin of foibe (domepits)., 1965, Reams Max W.
Foiba (plural, foibe) is a term derived from the northeastern Italian karst region. The word is here suggested for use in preference to other terms referring to vertical cavities in soluble rocks. Foiba is defined as a cavity in relatively soluble rock which is natural, solutional, tends toward a cylindrical shape, and possesses walls which normally approach verticality. In laboratory experiments, limestone blocks were treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, and cavities resembling foibe were produced. Vertical walls developed only when a less soluble layer capped the limestone block or when the acid source was stationary, allowing acid to drip to the area directly below. Water analyses from foibe in central Kentucky and Missouri indicate that the water has had less residence time in the zone of aeration than other waters percolating through the rocks and entering the caves. In central Kentucky, foibe seem to be developed by migrating underground waterfalls held up by less soluble layers or by water moving directly down joints below less soluble layers. In Missouri, foibe are formed by joint enlargement below chert layers. Those foibe in the ceilings of caves are complicated by the enlargement of the lower part of the joints by cave streams during fluctuating water table conditions. In limestone caves of Kansas, foibe are formed in a similar manner as in Missouri. The foibe of the gypsum caves of Kansas are formed mainly on the sides of steep collapse sinkholes and lack joint control although they form beneath less soluble layers in the gypsum. Dripping water is necessary for the development of vertical walls by solution. Less soluble layers seem to be the unique feature which allows water to drip and pour into foibe. The floors of foibe are formed by less soluble layers or near the water table. If foibe intersect previously formed cave passages, no floors may develop.

Ecology, systematics and distribution of two sympatric in North-Germany living Bathynella species (Crustacea, Syncarida)., 1968, Husmann Siegfried
The sympatric occurrence of two bathynellids previously considered races of Bathynella natans; natans and stammeri; is evaluated as a natural ecological-genetic experiment. Since no hybrids appear in mixed populations, these forms are proven to be full species: Bathynella natans Vejdovsky and Bathynella stammeri (Jakobi). Besides the form of the mandibles, which until now was the only taxonomically useful diagnostic character in the genus Bathynella, 7 additional, suitably applicable morphological characters have been found (Table 3). The Bathynella biotope investigated is assigned to the "eustygopsammal" subterranean life province (Husmann 1966), which is associated with the "Parastenocaris-Bathynella" biocoenosis (Husmann 1962). This particular biocoenosis is evidently resistant to organic pollution of ground water. The sympatric existence of Bathynella natans and B.stammeri can be explained by consideration of the geo-limnological developmental history of the interstitial zone of the North German low plain. Sands and gravels were widely deposited in the North German Basin by northward-retreating glaciers, creating microcavernous living space and passages for the interstitial fauna. This microfauna could find passages in layers of sand under and along the northward-flowing streams. Primitive Ice-Age streams (,,Urstromtler" of Keilhack) formed east-to-west cross-connections between the south-north distributional corridors. The great geographical expansion of the tributary river courses which reached the north German plain before, during, and after the Ice Age suggests that ground water habitats were temporarily separated and later rejoined by orogenic movements of the earth's surface. Such an orogenically caused, geomorphological isolation lasting for a sufficiently long geological period could have led to the result that species, originating in isolation from the same phylogenetic stock, subsequently were brought together again in the same biotope. This is particularly true for bathynellids, which as archaic types (Lebensformtypen) of the ancient, extreme "mesopsammal" biotope (Remane) are quite likely to have become sympatric in such a manner.

Ecology, systematics and distribution of two sympatric in North-Germany living Bathynella species (Crustacea, Syncarida)., 1968, Husmann Siegfried
The sympatric occurrence of two bathynellids previously considered races of Bathynella natans; natans and stammeri; is evaluated as a natural ecological-genetic experiment. Since no hybrids appear in mixed populations, these forms are proven to be full species: Bathynella natans Vejdovsky and Bathynella stammeri (Jakobi). Besides the form of the mandibles, which until now was the only taxonomically useful diagnostic character in the genus Bathynella, 7 additional, suitably applicable morphological characters have been found (Table 3). The Bathynella biotope investigated is assigned to the "eustygopsammal" subterranean life province (Husmann 1966), which is associated with the "Parastenocaris-Bathynella" biocoenosis (Husmann 1962). This particular biocoenosis is evidently resistant to organic pollution of ground water. The sympatric existence of Bathynella natans and B.stammeri can be explained by consideration of the geo-limnological developmental history of the interstitial zone of the North German low plain. Sands and gravels were widely deposited in the North German Basin by northward-retreating glaciers, creating microcavernous living space and passages for the interstitial fauna. This microfauna could find passages in layers of sand under and along the northward-flowing streams. Primitive Ice-Age streams (,,Urstromtler" of Keilhack) formed east-to-west cross-connections between the south-north distributional corridors. The great geographical expansion of the tributary river courses which reached the north German plain before, during, and after the Ice Age suggests that ground water habitats were temporarily separated and later rejoined by orogenic movements of the earth's surface. Such an orogenically caused, geomorphological isolation lasting for a sufficiently long geological period could have led to the result that species, originating in isolation from the same phylogenetic stock, subsequently were brought together again in the same biotope. This is particularly true for bathynellids, which as archaic types (Lebensformtypen) of the ancient, extreme "mesopsammal" biotope (Remane) are quite likely to have become sympatric in such a manner.

The distribution of the fauna in the interstitial habitats of the riverine sediments of the Danube and the Piesting (Austria)., 1976, Danielopol Dan L.
The interstitial fauna living in the riverine sediments of the Danube and Piesting have been investigated in Lower Austria. The nematodes, oligochaetes and cyclopoids are the most abundant groups (they represent up to 80% of the total fauna). The harpacticoids, the insect larvae, the isopods, the amphipods, the cladocera and the limnohalacarids are poorly represented (generally under 20% of the total fauna). The absence of hydrachnellids is striking. The vertical distribution of the interstitial fauna shows for several groups i.e. limnohalacarids, ostracods, isopods, harpacticoids, that the epigean species are quantitatively better represented in the upper sediment layers instead of the hypogean species which are more abundant in the deeper layers. At one of the sites where samples were taken down to 3 m, most of the interstitial fauna was concentrated in the upper 1.50 m. The occurrence of limnohalacarids in the wells from the Danube Valley and the Piesting area shows that the repartition of this group is not restricted to the rhitrostygal zone. The distribution of the interstitial fauna in connection with the pollution of the river is discussed. High pollution inside the interstitial habitat eliminates the hypogean fauna and the epigeans disappear mainly in those areas with marked chemical reducing conditions.

The vertical distribution of stygorhithral ciliates in the Fulda-River (Contribution to the knowledge of mesopsammal ciliates in running freshwater)., 1976, Lupkes Gunther
19 species of ciliates were found in interstitial biotopes of the Fulda Headwater. Two of these were new: Haplocaulus hengsti, n.sp. and Epistylis rotti, n.sp. (Peritrichida). The number of ciliate species decreases from the surface down so deeper layers; in a depth of 50 cm, only three species were found: Haplocaulus hengsti and Epistylis rotti and another small ciliate Trachelophyllum apiculatum. There was little detritus in this layer, and so, the abundance of the ciliates was low. On the other hand, there is little predation in deeper layers of stygorhithral sand and gravel. Small, long and thin ciliates seem so be specially adapted to life in deeper regions of the stygornithral Stygorhithral ciliates are related to custygal species with respect to several characteristics of their morphology and general biology.

The genesis and the age of Rudice layers in the Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia). [in Polish], 1978, Bosak, Pavel

Rpartition quantitative des phnomnes karstiques super-ficiels et souterrains en fonction de la lithologie sur le Causse Comtal (Aveyron, Fr .), 1983, Dodge, D.
QUANTITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SURFICIAL AND UNDERGROUND KARSTIC PHENOMENA ACCORDING TO LITHOLOGY ON THE CAUSSE COMTAL (AVEYRON, FRANCE) - The quantitative distribution of karst phenomena (dolines, karren, dry valleys, springs, sinkholes and caves) in the Causse Comtal aquifers is analysed. This distribution is dependent on lithology, topography, tectonics, and permeability of the aquifer layers and relative importance of underground drainage networks. The part played by each of these factors in the development of the observed phenomena is discussed. The relationship between superficial and deep karst features is examined.

Environmental Implications of Competitive Growth Fabrics in Stalactitic Carbonate., 1983, Broughton Paul L.
Competitive growth fabrics in stalactitic carbonate are not as widespread as commonly supposed. Most radial columnar crystals are attributed to the coalescence of a precursor crystallite mosaic comprised of syntaxial overgrowths. This secondary fabric is the consequence of carbonate precipitation from a thin water film. Competitive growth, however, is much rarer and arises from two contrasting environments: an influx of detritus interrupting carbonate precipitation, and cave flooding. Thick layers of impurities favour deposition of randomly oriented seed crystals on the growth surface. These result in competitive growth centres when the renewal of carbonate precipitation fails to have crystallographic allegience to the substrate. Competitive growth centres resulting in regularly spaced stellate arrays are favoured habits of fibrous aragonite. Competitive growth in calcite is more likely with conditions of cave flooding, when normal growth of syntaxial overgrowths is suppressed. This results in competitive growth between large terminations with planar faces.

Secondary Origin of the Radial Fabric in Stalactitic Carbonate., 1983, Broughton Paul L.
The growth surfaces of most stalactites are interpreted as numerous syntaxial overgrowth crystallites. These coalesce immediately behind the growth surface, often trapping portions of the water film as fluid-filled cavities. The fluid inclusions represent former inter-crystallite spaces and characterize the widely misinterpreted "growth ring". Complete crystallite coalescence generates inclusions-free calcite, whereas inhibition of lateral coalescence of the overgrowth crystallites generates layers of acicular calcite. It is generally only during periods of cave flooding that the crystallites merge and overgrow each other and precipitation eventually occurs upon large, planar crystal faces. Stalactitic carbonate growth is secondary, from a multi-crystalline precursor that is, in a sense, a largo skeletal crystal. The precursor crystallites are in lattice continuity with the substrate and with adjacent crystallites. Crystal boundaries arise from lateral lattice mismatch on the curved growth surface. It is not competitive growth as the secondary columnar crystals do not interfere with each other.

Palaeoenvironment of lateritic bauxites with vertical and lateral differentiation, 1983, Valeton Ida,
Formation of lateritic bauxites of the type described in this paper occurs world-wide in Cretaceous and Tertiary coastal plains. The bauxites form elongate belts, sometimes hundreds of kilometres long, parallel to Lower Tertiary shorelines in India and South America and their distribution is not related to a particular mineralogical composition of the parent rock. The lateral movement of the major elements Al, Si, Fe, Ti is dependent on a high level and flow of groundwater. Varying efficiency of subsurface drainage produces lateral facies variations. Interfingering of marine and continental facies indicate a sea-land transition zone where the type of sediments also varies with minor tectonic movements or sea-level changes. A typical sediment association is found in India, Africa, South and North America. It consists of (i) red beds rich in detrital and dissolved material of reworked laterites, (ii) lacustrine sediments and hypersaline precipitates, (iii) lignites intercalated with marine clays, layers of siderite, pyrite, marcasite and jarosite, and (iv) marine chemical sediments rich in oolitic iron ores or glauconite. A model is developed to account for element distributions in lateritic bauxites in terms of groundwater levels and flow. Finally it is shown that many high-level bauxites are formed in coastal plains and that they are subsequently uplifted to their present altitude

Shallow-marine carbonate facies and facies models, 1985, Tucker M. E. ,
Shallow-marine carbonate sediments occur in three settings: platforms, shelves and ramps. The facies patterns and sequences in these settings are distinctive. However, one type of setting can develop into another through sedimentational or tectonic processes and, in the geologic record, intermediate cases are common. Five major depositional mechanisms affect carbonate sediments, giving predictable facies sequences: (1) tidal flat progradation, (2) shelf-marginal reef progradation, (3) vertical accretion of subtidal carbonates, (4) migration of carbonate sand bodies and (5) resedimentation processes, especially shoreface sands to deeper subtidal environments by storms and off-shelf transport by slumps, debris flows and turbidity currents. Carbonate platforms are regionally extensive environments of shallow subtidal and intertidal sedimentation. Storms are the most important source of energy, moving sediment on to shoreline tidal flats, reworking shoreface sands and transporting them into areas of deeper water. Progradation of tidal flats, producing shallowing upward sequences is the dominant depositional process on platforms. Two basic types of tidal flat are distinguished: an active type, typical of shorelines of low sediment production rates and high meteorologic tidal range, characterized by tidal channels which rework the flats producing grainstone lenses and beds and shell lags, and prominent storm layers; and a passive type in areas of lower meteorologic tidal range and higher sediment production rates, characterized by an absence of channel deposits, much fenestral and cryptalgal peloidal micrite, few storm layers and possibly extensive mixing-zone dolomite. Fluctuations in sea-level strongly affect platform sedimentation. Shelves are relatively narrow depositional environments, characterized by a distinct break of slope at the shelf margin. Reefs and carbonate sand bodies typify the turbulent shelf margin and give way to a shelf lagoon, bordered by tidal flats and/or a beach-barrier system along the shoreline. Marginal reef complexes show a fore-reef--reef core--back reef facies arrangement, where there were organisms capable of producing a solid framework. There have been seven such phases through the Phanerozoic. Reef mounds, equivalent to modern patch reefs, are very variable in faunal composition, size and shape. They occur at shelf margins, but also within shelf lagoons and on platforms and ramps. Four stages of development can be distinguished, from little-solid reef with much skeletal debris through to an evolved reef-lagoon-debris halo system. Shelf-marginal carbonate sand bodies consist of skeletal and oolite grainstones. Windward, leeward and tide-dominated shelf margins have different types of carbonate sand body, giving distinctive facies models. Ramps slope gently from intertidal to basinal depths, with no major change in gradient. Nearshore, inner ramp carbonate sands of beach-barrier-tidal delta complexes and subtidal shoals give way to muddy sands and sandy muds of the outer ramp. The major depositional processes are seaward progradation of the inner sand belt and storm transport of shoreface sand out to the deep ramp. Most shallow-marine carbonate facies are represented throughout the geologic record. However, variations do occur and these are most clearly seen in shelf-margin facies, through the evolutionary pattern of frame-building organisms causing the erratic development of barrier reef complexes. There have been significant variations in the mineralogy of carbonate skeletons, ooids and syn-sedimentary cements through time, reflecting fluctuations in seawater chemistry, but the effect of these is largely in terms of diagenesis rather than facies

Chronology of Guitarrero Cave, Peru, 1985, Lynch Thomas F. , Gillespie R. , Gowlett John A. J. , Hedges R. E. M. ,
Dating by accelerator mass spectrometry of wooden artifacts, cord, and charcoal samples from Guitarrero Cave, Peru, supports the antiquity of South America's earliest textiles and other perishable remains. The new dates are consistent with those obtained from disintegration counters and leave little doubt about the integrity of the lower Preceramic layers and their early cultivars. Reevaluation of the mode of deposition suggests that most of the remains resulted from short-term use of the cave in the eighth millennium B.C., with a possible brief human visit as early as 12,560 years ago

Les phnomnes karstiques des quartzites d'Afrique du Sud, 1987, Martini, J.
KARST FEATURES IN QUARTZITE OF SOUTH AFRICA - The author describes karst features developed in quartzite and also, but to a lesser extent, in weathered diabase and in wad. In quartzite, the karst is due to weathering along joints and bedding planes, producing softer areanaceous boundaries. Later, vadose caves form by piping in the weathered material, starting at a spring and progressing upstream. The karst features include dolines, swallow-holes, and caves, grouped in very localised systems. Over most of the quartzite plateaus, however, real karst features are absent and the drainage remains superficial. The only ubiquitous features, reminiscent of lapies, consist of pinnacles left after erosion of sand. As most of the time they are not associated to deep karst systems, the author proposes that they should not be considered as karst features. Other caves are developed in weathered diabase and dolomite (wad), sandwiched between resistant quartzite layers. They result from the erosion of these soft layers. The author is of the opinion that the term karst rather than pseudokarst should be used to describe this morphology developed in silica and silicate rocks. The reason is that not only the features produced compare well with the ones observed in " soluble rocks " (limestone, gypsum, etc.), but that the genetical process is very similar. It is suggested that the term pseudokarst should be used only in cases were the genesis is different.

Diatom, contributors of coralloid speleothems, from Togawa-Sakaidani-Do cave in Miyazaki Prefecture, Central Kyushu, Japan, 1987, Irie Teruo, Kashima Naruhiko, Kinoshita Nobuhiro
Coralloid speleothems are commonly distributed in Togawa-Sakaidani-do Cave in Miyazaki Prefecture, Central Kyushu, but their speleological study has not heretofore been achieved. Light and scanning microscopes analyses revealed that coralloid speleothems consist of alternating layers of diatom colonies, detrital minerals and clay. Electron microprobe analysis shows coralloid speleothems to be silicious. This paper asserts that diatom (genus Melosira) is one of the important contributors to siliceous coralloid speleothems in the threshold zone at non-calcareous caves.

Le karst du massif des Calanques (Marseille Cassis), 1988, Blanc J. J. , Monjeau R.
THE KARST OF THE CALANQUES massif - Description of karstic morphology in relation to lithology and tectonic framework; actual hydrography. Sedimentary analysis applied to speleothems (calcitic deposits, hardened silts with rubefaction, upper stalagmitic layers, eolianites). Relations with some recent tectonic mechanisms. Hydrogeology: marine resurgences, subterranean rivers (Port-Miou and Le Bestouan).

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