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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That mesh is 1. an opening in a sieve screen [16]. 2. number of openings per inch [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for mapping (Keyword) returned 201 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 201
Transport and variability of fecal bacteria in carbonate conglomerate aquifers, , Goeppert N. , Goldscheider N.

Clastic sedimentary rocks are generally considered non-karstifiable and thus less vulnerable to pathogen contamination than karst aquifers. However, dissolution phenomena have been observed in clastic carbonate conglomerates of the Subalpine Molasse zone of the northern Alps and other regions of Europe, indicating karstification and high vulnerability, which is currently not considered for source protection zoning. Therefore, a research program was established at the Hochgrat site (Austria/Germany), as a demonstration that karst-like characteristics, flow behavior and high vulnerability to microbial contamination are possible in this type of aquifer. The study included geomorphologic mapping, comparative multi-tracer tests with fluorescent dyes and bacteria-sized fluorescent microspheres, and analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in spring waters during different seasons. Results demonstrate that (i) flow velocities in carbonate conglomerates are similar as in typical karst aquifers, often exceeding 100 m/h; (ii) microbial contaminants are rapidly transported towards springs; and (iii) the magnitude and seasonal pattern of FIB variability depends on the land use in the spring catchment and its altitude. Different ground water protection strategies than currently applied are consequently required in regions formed by karstified carbonatic clastic rocks, taking into account their high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability.

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Cave Maps and Mapping, 1947, Davies William, E.

Cave Mapping, 1950, Swinnerton, A. C.

A microwave radiometric study of buried karst topography, 1968, Kennedy J. M. ,
To prove the potential of microwave surveys in locating and mapping subsurface voids, a mobile laboratory was used to obtain in situ data. This unit is equipped with passive microwave radiometers operating at 13.4 GHz (2.22 cm), 37 GHz (8.1 mm), and 94 GHz (3.2 mm). An area near Cool, El Dorado County, California, is known to have well-developed subsurface karst and has been surveyed by the California Highway Department and the California Rock and Gravel Company. The microwave survey showed significant radiometric 'cold' anomalies associated with void-space beneath several tens of feet of soil cover. Detection was positive in almost all cases. Microwave systems may be used to greatly reduce surveying costs in the areas where caves have developed beneath cover

Stereogrpahic Cave Mapping, 1969, Goodchild, M. F.

Classification of groundwaters and rocks ? a basis for hydrogeologic mapping and regionalization (in Russian), 1971, Zaitzev I. K. , Tolstikhin N. I.

Hydrological Observations at the Junee Resurgence and a Brief Regional Description of the Junee Area, Tasmania, 1973, Goede, A.

The results are presented for one year of field measurement and analysis of water samples at the Junee resurgence, one of the largest karst risings in Tasmania. The water emerges from Junee Cave at an altitude of approximately 300m and forms the source of the Junee River at a point about 5km north-west of the township of Maydena. The resurgence drains a large area along the southern boundary of the Mt Field National Park and appears to be fed by a number of streamsinks, the nearest of which are at least 2km distant. The only underground drainage connection proved so far is with one of the largest of these stramsinks, Khazad-dum. This cave has been explored to a depth of 321m and is recorded as Australia's deepest cave system. The Junee area is located in central southern Tasmania and is centred on 146°40' East and 42°45' South. The Junee resurgence is the only significant rising in the area and is commonly thought to drain most of the Junee area. This opinion is based largely on the interpretation of the geological structure as shown in the geological sketch map of Hughes and Everard (Hughes 1957). However, a more detailed examination of the area on which Figure 1 is based, suggests that the western limit of underground drainage towards the Junee resurgence may be more or less coincident with the axis of the NNW plunging Nichols Spur anticline. Further mapping of the geological structure, and water tracing, will be required to confirm this.


Paleohydrology and Streamflow Simulation of three Karst Basins in Southeastern West Virginia, U.S.A., PhD Thesis, 1975, Coward, Julian Michael Henry

This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of karst hydrology. To do this, the present day hydrology and the paleohydrology were determined in three karst basins. The basins chosen were the Swago, Locust and Spring Creek basins in Pocahontas and Greenbrier Counties, West Virginia. A number of conventional field techniques were used successfully in this study, including the following: current meter and dye dilution gauging; dye and lycopodium stream tracing; geological and cave mapping; the setting up of stage recorders; geochemistry; and limestone erosion measurements. The climate of the region was investigated to obtain realistic precipitation, temperature and potential evaporation data over the study basins.
It was found that the mean precipitation over two of the basins was 30% higher than recorded data in the valleys. The karst development of the basins was found to take place in four major stages. These were: A) initial surficial flow, B) strike controlled drainage, C) major piracies from one sub-basin to another, and D) shortening of the flow routes. The major controls on the karst development were found to be: A) the Taggard shale, B) the strike direction, which controlled early basin development, and C) the hydraulic gradient from the sink to rising, which controlled later basin development.
To better assess the quantitative hydrology, and to assist in determining the type of unexplorable flow paths, a watershed model was developed. This modelled the streamflow from known climatic inputs using a number of measured or optimized parameters. The simulation model handled snowmelt, interception, infiltration, interflow, baseflow, overland flow, channel routing, and evaporation from the interception, soil water, ground water, snowpack and channel water. The modelled basin could be split up into 20 segments, each with different hydrological characteristics, but a maximum of 3 segments was used in this study.
A total of 29 parameters was used in the model although only 10 (other than those directly measurable) were found to be sensitive in the three basins. The simulated streamflow did not match the real flows very well due to errors in the data input and due to simplifications in the model. It was found, however, that as the proportion of the limestone in a segment increased the overland flow decreased, the interflow increased, the baseflow and interflow recessions were faster, the soil storages were smaller and the infiltration rate was higher, than in segments with a larger proportion of exposed clastics. The flow characteristics of the inaccessible conduits were inferred from the channel routing parameters and it was postulated that the majority of the underground flow in the karst basins was taking place under vadose conditions.


Geodetic measurements of the Bear-Cave (Jaskinia Nied?wiedzia). [in Polish], 1977, Caco? Stefan, G?zikiewicz Roman

Problems of engineering-geomorphological mapping on impermeable surface materials and in karst regions, 1979, Lang S. ,
The author outlines the type of information which should be presented on engineering-geomorphological maps, and stresses the need to show the relationship between this data and the possibility of natural catastrophes. For example, it is proposed that a system of maps covering areas where there is a high probability of landslipping should be devised, with priority to be given to populated tropical and equatorial regions. The mapping of other problem' areas (e.g. arid, polar, and karst regions) is also discussed. However, it is concluded that, in all areas, an overall evaluation of climatic, morphological, and lithological factors is essential for engineering-geomorphological mapping

Bungonia Caves and Gorge, A New View of Their Geology and Geomorphology, 1979, James Julia M. , Francis G. , Jennings J. N.

Work done at Bungonia since 1972 has filled gaps in our knowledge of this area. Water tracing has proven the earlier interference that the waters of all the major caves of the Lookdown Limestone and the uvula containing College Cave go to Efflux. Geological remapping shows that faulting allows these connections all to lie in limestone and accounts for the drainage of B4-5 away from the gorge. A 45m phreatic loop identified in Odyssey Cave, exceptionally large for south-eastern Australia, is also accounted for by the geological structure. Phoenix Cave has two successive cave levels similar to those of B4-5. The perched nature of the Efflux now finds a structural control in that the Folly Point Fault has interposed impervious beds between this spring and the gorge. Further analysis of the evidence relating the age of uplift and incision in the Shoalhaven and its tributaries strengthens the case for setting these in the lower Tertiary whereas most of the caves cannot be regarded as other than young. The geological remapping can partly account for the age discrepancy between underground and surface forms found at Bungonia.


Mapping and Measuring Caves: A Conceptual Analysis, 1981, Chabert Claude, Watson Richard A.

Exploration and Mapping of the Sinking Creek System, 1982, Wefer Fred L. , Nicholson I. Kennedy

Barbuda--an emerging reef and lagoon complex on the edge of the Lesser Antilles island are, 1985, Brasier M, Donahue J,
The Pliocene to Holocene limestones of Barbuda have formed on a wide, shallow, outlying bank of the Lesser Antilles island arc, some 50 km east of the older axis of the Limestone Caribbees and 100 km east of the newer axis of the active Volcanic Caribbees. Contrasts with neighbouring islands of similar size include the lack of exposed igneous basement or mid-Tertiary sediments, the dominance of younger flat-lying carbonates, and the greater frequency of earthquake shocks. The history of emergence of the island has been studied through aerial reconnaissance, mapping, logging, hand coring, facies and microfacies analysis. These show a pattern of progressively falling high sea level stands (from more than 50 m down to the present level) on which are superimposed at least three major phases of subaerial exposure, when sea levels were close to, or below, their present level. This sequence can be summarized as follows: 1, bank edge facies (early Pliocene Highlands Formation) deposited at not more than c. 50-100 m above the present sea level; 2, emergence with moderate upwarping in the north, associated with the Bat Hole subaerial phase forming widespread karst; 3, older Pleistocene transgression with fringing reefs and protected bays formed at l0 to l5 m high sea level stands (Beazer Formation); 4, Marl Pits subaerial phase with widespread karst and soil formation; 5, late Pleistocene transgression up to m high stand with fringing and barrier reefs, protected backreefs and bays (Codrington Formation Phase I); 6, gradual regression resulting in emergence of reefs, enclosure of lagoons, and progradation of beach ridges at heights falling from c. 5 m to below present sea level (Codrington Phase II); 7, Castle Bay subaerial phase produced karst, caliche and coastal dunes that built eastwards to below present sea level; and 8, Holocene transgression producing the present mosaic, with reefs, lagoons and prograding beach ridge complexes, with the present sea level reached before c. 4085 years BP. The evidence suggests that slight uplift took place in the north of the island after early Pliocene times. Subsequent shoreline fluctuations are consistent with glacio-eustatic changes in sea level, indicating that the island has not experienced significant uplift during the Quaternary

Report on hydrogeological maps of karstic terrains, 1985, Paloc H. , Margat J.

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