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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That blowing cave is a cave out of which or into which a current of air flows intermittently [10].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for marine terrace (Keyword) returned 12 results for the whole karstbase:
Observations on the aquatic subterranean fauna of Cuba., 1973, Botosaneanu Lazare
A short account on some achievements of the cubano-romanian biospeleological expeditions to Cuba in the study of the aquatic subterranean faunas. The following divisions of the aquatic subterranean realm are reviewed together with their most characteristic faunal elements: "guano pools" and rimstone pools in the vadose zone of the caves; underground streams; water table (and other) lakes in the caves; "pozzos" carved in the limestone, and "grietas" which are vertical clefts in the limestone of marine terraces, giving access to fresh- or to brackish water; the interstitial of the marine beaches; the underflow of running waters. At present, thorough biospeleological research is being carried out almost everywhere in Central America; Cuba, which remained until recently rather poorly investigated, proves to be one of the most remarkable areas from this point of view. A few of the most interesting problems rose in the course of the study of the underground aquatic fauna of Cuba are listed. An interesting biogeographical problem is the following: some of the subterranean aquatic elements prove to be related to elements belonging to the fauna of the other Antilles and of Mexico, but not to the South-American fauna (as is the case for some terrestrial groups). The research undertaken will be a contribution to the problem of the divisions of the aquatic subterranean realm and of their reciprocal relations, in a warm and humid climate; it will also contribute an answer to the problem of the differences between temperate and tropical cave communities; finally, it allows one to perceive in its very progress the process of colonization of the subterranean freshwaters by elements of marine origin, either through the interstitial realm or through the fissures of the littoral limestones.

Observations on the aquatic subterranean fauna of Cuba., 1973, Botosaneanu Lazare
A short account on some achievements of the cubano-romanian biospeleological expeditions to Cuba in the study of the aquatic subterranean faunas. The following divisions of the aquatic subterranean realm are reviewed together with their most characteristic faunal elements: "guano pools" and rimstone pools in the vadose zone of the caves; underground streams; water table (and other) lakes in the caves; "pozzos" carved in the limestone, and "grietas" which are vertical clefts in the limestone of marine terraces, giving access to fresh- or to brackish water; the interstitial of the marine beaches; the underflow of running waters. At present, thorough biospeleological research is being carried out almost everywhere in Central America; Cuba, which remained until recently rather poorly investigated, proves to be one of the most remarkable areas from this point of view. A few of the most interesting problems rose in the course of the study of the underground aquatic fauna of Cuba are listed. An interesting biogeographical problem is the following: some of the subterranean aquatic elements prove to be related to elements belonging to the fauna of the other Antilles and of Mexico, but not to the South-American fauna (as is the case for some terrestrial groups). The research undertaken will be a contribution to the problem of the divisions of the aquatic subterranean realm and of their reciprocal relations, in a warm and humid climate; it will also contribute an answer to the problem of the differences between temperate and tropical cave communities; finally, it allows one to perceive in its very progress the process of colonization of the subterranean freshwaters by elements of marine origin, either through the interstitial realm or through the fissures of the littoral limestones.

Origin of the epeirogenic uplift of Pliocene-Pleistocene beach ridges in Florida and development of the Florida karst, 1984, Opdyke Neil D. , Spangler D. P. , Smith D. L. , Jones D. S. , Lindquist R. C. ,
Marine fossils of Pleistocene age are known to occur in beach ridges near the border of northern Florida and southern Georgia at elevations of between 42 and 49 m above mean sea level. No evidence exists for a massive melt-off of glacial ice, which would be required to raise sea level to these elevations. Florida, therefore, must have been uplifted epeirogenically during the Pleistocene. Measurement of dissolved solids in Florida's springs demonstrates that the karst area is losing a minimum of 1.2 X 10 6 m 3 /yr of limestone through spring flow, the equivalent of 1 m of surficial limestone every 38,000 yr. This loss has led to an isostatic uplift of the north-central part of the Florida peninsula of at least 36 m during the Pleistocene and Holocene, which agrees with observed elevations of marine terraces.--Modified journal abstract

Depositional history of the late Pleistocene limestones of the Kenya coast, 1984, Braithwaite Cjr,
The coastal limestones of Kenya extend approximately 180 km N-S from Malindi to the Tanzanian border. They are at least 20 m thick and may be subdivided into sedimentary units representing major periods of marine deposition punctuated by sub-aerial erosion. Their foundations are formed by thick fluvial and aeolian quartz sands but there is local evidence of marine deposition following these. In the main limestone unit, deposited about 240,000 years ago, initial high energy shallow-shelf deposition was replaced by quiet water sediments with scattered corals. Sea level stood about 8 m higher than at present. Quartzose sands were confined to western areas. A return to shallow water heralded a new phase of emergence and erosion, producing karst surfaces and sub-aerial sediments. These are overlain by herring-bone cross-bedded quartz-rich calcarenites which were the products of a tidally dominated shelf and, at Watamu and Wasini, pass upwards into aeolian dune deposits. However, these were also emersed and subject to karst erosion before deposition of a further widespread marine limestone. Within this, coral knolls are well developed. Much of the sediment accumulated in shallow water, but the ecological succession indicates that knolls were at times in deeper waters. These deposits formed about 125,000 years ago when sea level ultimately stood 15-20 m above its present position. More recently in the area sea level has again fallen. However, the descent was not continuous and pauses were marked by marine terrace formation and subsequent karst erosion with sub-aerial deposition. Brief reversals caused both terraces and sediments to be overlain by thin marine deposits. Sea level paused at its present position about 30,000 years ago when the present reef platform was probably defined. It continued to fall to a maximum of about-120 m before rising to its existing level 7000 years ago and beginning the current cycle of sediment accumulation

Climatostratigraphic scheme of the Black Sea pleistocene and its correlation with the oxygen-isotope scale and glacial events, 1988, Zubakov V. A. ,
New evidence from the Asov Sea-Black Sea region shows that after the Cobb Mountain magnetic event (1.1 myr) there were 8 saline water events, with Mediterranean molluscs penetrating into the Asov Sea (five times farther than the western Manych Strait), and 7 or 10 cold freshwater events. During the freshening phase, the Caspian Sea molluscan fauna penetrated into the Black Sea; each time the Caspian mollusc assemblage was characterized by a new species of Didacna. Thus, some 18-20 bioclimatostratigraphic units can be distinguished in the Asov Sea-Black Sea section for the last 1 myr. Their numerical age is estimated by some dozen thermoluminescence dates and 12 magnetic-polarity datum planes. The Karangatian s. lato corresponds to the interval 300,000-50,000 yr, the Uzunlarian to 580,000-300,000 yr, and the Chaudian to 1,100,000-600,000 yr. The Karangatian and Tyrrhenian marine terraces correspond to marine isotope stages 5 and 7, the Uzunlarian and Milazzian to stages 11-15, and the Chaudian and Sicilian to stages 16-28. The number and ages of glacial-interglacial cycles in continental Europe are identical to the climatic cycles in the Black Sea and Mediterranean

NUMERICAL-ANALYSIS OF MORPHOLOGY IN RELATION TO COASTLINE VARIATIONS AND KARSTIC PHENOMENA IN THE SOUTHEASTERN MURGE (APULIA, ITALY), 1995, Bruno G, Delgaudio V, Mascia U, Ruina G,
In the coastal karstic area of the southeastern Murge (Apulia, Italy) changes in sea level, due to vertical tectonic movement and/or global climatic phenomena, generated morphological effects both at the surface (marine terraces) and underground (variations of karstic base level), so by integrating and comparing observations of surface and subsurface morphology, a more reliable picture of the structural and palaeogeographical evolution was obtained. The calculation of topographic gradients and spectral analysis of the topographic surface was applied in order to identify the morphological remnants left by coastal terraces corresponding to palaeo coastlines. Using these methods it is possible to recognize small morphological scarps which otherwise would be masked by major structures. The results obtained were compared with the altimetric distribution of karstic cave bottom surfaces which were examined in order to determine karstic base levels. Some discrepancies between the two kinds of observations can be explained in terms of rate of sea level variation (produced by the tectonic tilting of the Apulian foreland). In some periods this rate was probably compatible with the rate of the surface processes but not with that of underground processes

Scuba observations of standstill levels in Elba Island (ltaly) and in Marie-Galante (West Indies). A worldwide sequence?, 1999, Collinagirard J,
Scuba observations (0 to -60 m) in Provence and Corsica and new data from Elba Island (Italy) indicate the bathymetric location of eustatic erosion levels in the Mediterranean Sea. A general sketch is given (standstill levels at-ii m, -17 m, -25 m, -35 m, -45 m, -50 m/55 m, -100 m). Isotopic data suggest contemporaneity of -100 m and -55 m levels with the two slow-down phases of Holocene transgression documented in Barbados and Tahiti coring (MWP-1A and 1B). Transgression acceleration after 14 000 BP explains the conservation of these littoral morphologies. Tectonics or isostasic movements (never more than 5 m) are prooved by differences observed in different areas of the world

Post-Miocene subtropical karst evolution, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida, 2000, Denizman C, Randazzo Af,
Morphometric characteristics of [~]25 000 karstic depressions suggest that the last phase of the post-Miocene karstic evolution within the lower Suwannee River basin of Florida has been controlled by the lower sea-level stands of the Pleistocene and the formation of the Suwannee River. During the Pleistocene, as interglacial seas retreated, marine terraces formed by sequential sea-level lowstands and the time period of subaerial exposure diminished toward the sea. Consequently, geomorphologically younger karst landforms formed as the elevation of marine terraces decreased. The evolutionary geomorphological development of this heavily karstified region produced more frequent and/or larger and more complex depressions at higher elevations. A geographic information system analysis of morphometric and spatial distribution parameters of the karstic depressions within the lower Suwannee River basin reveals that the Florida karst is represented by broad, shallow depressions with an average density of 6.07/km2 and an average pitting index of 14.5. Morphometric and spatial distribution parameters of karstic depressions show a great variation within the lower Suwannee River area and thus preclude a simple morphoclimatic classification of karst landforms. The Tertiary carbonate rocks of the subtropical Florida karst have relatively less joint frequency and significant primary porosity, and do not produce the extreme karst landforms observed in the massive limestones of the tropics

Diversit morpho-climatique et intrt des karsts japonais, 2003, Salomon, Jeannol
Morpho-climatic features of Japanese karst areas - The Japanese karsts are practically unknown in Europe because few karstologists from this continent have visited Japan, and the studies completed there have been written in Japanese. Still, Japan has numerous karstifiable terrains of various locations and ages (from the Primary era to Holocene) that are subject to significant climatic ranges. For this reason many caves exist and many have been sheltered through the ages (archeological) up until recent times (World War II). Some are sufficiently large and well decorated to have consequently generated tourist activities, added by mystic and religious aspects. The understanding of karsts has also allowed remarkable management of underground systems for surface irrigation. Finally, due to their recording abilities, karsts developed in uplifted marine terraces offer better prospects for understanding the local tectonic patterns which concern the Japanese. These reasons make the Japanese karsts interesting.

Tertiary-Quaternary faulting and uplift in the northern Oman Hajar Mountains, 2005, Kusky Timothy, Robinson Cordula, Elbaz Farouk,
Field mapping and remote sensing investigations reveal two new major fault sets cutting through Tertiary rocks, Quaternary terraces and a several-hundred-year-old irrigation canal system in the Hajar Mountains of northern Oman. They extend for tens of kilometres, forming fracture intensification zones several hundred metres wide. WNW- to NW-oriented faults run parallel to the mountain fronts in the plains adjoining the central Hajar range then obliquely crosscut the mountains in the north. Motion along these faults explains how Quaternary marine terraces became elevated 190 m above sea level. A second fault set strikes north to NNE. The associated juvenile topography suggests that they also accommodate recent uplift, subsidiary to the WNW-striking faults, with minor strike-slip and differential movement between various segments of the Hajar Mountains. Both fault systems, and the amount of Quaternary uplift (between 100 and 500 m), are similar to those in other active and ancient forebulge environments. Using the fracture patterns observed, it is proposed here that the Hajar range lies on the active forebulge of a collision zone between the NE margins of the Arabian plate, the Zagros fold belt and the Makran accretionary prism, which resulted in the recent uplift

Cave sediments as geologic tiltmeters, 2013, Stock, G. M.

Caves are sheltered environments that can preserve unique evidence of climatic and tectonic events. A variety of cave deposits, primarily calcite shelfstone formed along pool margins, delineate formerly level surfaces. In tectonically active areas, the orientation of these surfaces can be measured with respect to horizontal to determine the magnitude of local or regional tilt. In many cases, these deposits can also be dated by a variety of geochronologic methods, such as U–Th and 14C, allowing for calculation of tilting rates. This chapter reviews previous research using cave sediments as geologic tiltmeters, describes various approaches to the problem, and discusses potential future applications


PLEISTOCENE SEA LEVEL CHANGES AS REVEALED BY FLANK MARGIN CAVES IN TELOGENETIC LIMESTONES IN SICILY AND SARDINIA (ITALY), 2013, Dangeli I. M. , Waele J. D. , Ruggieri R. , Sanna L.

Coastal karst areas often host many indices of past sea level changes, such as marine terraces, fossiliferous sediments, tidal notches and coastal caves. Tectonic movements can then displace these ancient coastlines vertically. The interplay between rising or falling sea level and uplifting or subsidence can be very complex and difficult to unravel. The combination of a detailed knowledge of marine terraces and the study of some flank margin caves located at various altitudes have allowed to reconstruct the speleogenetic history of the coastal plain of Cornino-Custonaci (NW Sicily). Along the centraleastern coast of Sardinia, instead, the detailed study of the Fico Cave has allowed to recognise it as a flank margin cave developed on five levels, related to Pleistocene sea level highstands. These studies show that this type of mixing corrosion caves is much more widespread than previously thought also in telogenetic limestones. These caves, being excellent sea level markers, might help coastal geomorphologists to understand more on both sea level rise and fall and tectonic movements in coastal areas.


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