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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That ground slope is the inclination of the land surface with the horizontal [16].?

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for mediterranean climate (Keyword) returned 14 results for the whole karstbase:
Paleoclimate and location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo-Arabian Desert as revealed by speleothems from the northern Negev Desert, Israel, , Vaks A. , Barmatthews M. , Ayalon A. , Matthews A. , Frumkin A. , Dayan U. , Halicz L. , Mogilabin A. , Schilman B. ,
Speleothem bearing karstic caves of the northern Negev Desert, southern Israel, provides an ideal site for reconstructing the paleoclimate and paleo-location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo-Arabian Desert. Major periods of speleothem deposition (representing humid periods) were determined by high resolution 230Th-U dating and corresponding studies of stable isotope composition were used to identify the source of rainfall during humid periods and the vegetation type. Major humid intervals occurred during glacials at 190-150[no-break space]ka, 76-25[no-break space]ka, 23-13[no-break space]ka and interglacials at 200-190[no-break space]ka, 137-123[no-break space]ka and 84-77[no-break space]ka. The dominant rainfall source was the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, with a possible small contribution from southern tropical sources during the interglacial periods. When the interglacial interval rainfall was of Eastern Mediterranean origin, the minimum annual rainfall was ~ 300-350[no-break space]mm; approximately twice than of the present-day. Lower minimum amounts of precipitation could have occurred during glacial periods, due to the cooler temperatures and reduced evaporation. Although during most of the humid periods the vegetation remained steppe with mixed C3 C4 vegetation, Mediterranean C3 type steppe-forest vegetation invaded southward for short periods, and the climate in the northern Negev became closer to Mediterranean type than at present. The climate was similar to present, or even more arid, during intervals when speleothem deposition did not occur: 150-144[no-break space]ka, 141-140[no-break space]ka, 117-96[no-break space]ka, 92-85[no-break space]ka, 25-23[no-break space]ka, and 13[no-break space]ka-present-day.Precipitation increase occurred in the northern Negev during the interglacial monsoonal intensity maxima at 198[no-break space]ka, 127[no-break space]ka, 83[no-break space]ka and glacial monsoonal maxima at 176[no-break space]ka, 151[no-break space]ka, 61[no-break space]ka and 33[no-break space]ka. However, during interglacial monsoonal maxima at 105[no-break space]ka and 11[no-break space]ka, the northern Negev was arid whereas during glacial monsoonal minima it was usually humid. This implies that there is not always synchroneity between monsoonal activity and humidity in the region.Oxygen isotopic values of the northern Negev speleothems are systematically lower than contemporaneous speleothems of central and northern Israel. This part is attributed to the increased rainout of the heavy isotopes by Rayleigh fractionation processes, possibly due to the farther distance from the Mediterranean coast

Prsentation splologique du massif des Fanges-Roc-Paradet (Aude/Pyrnes orientales), 1987, Ournie, B.
SPELEOLOGY OF THE FANGES-ROC PARADET MOUNTAIN KARST (AUDE /EASTERN PYRENEES, FRANCE) - The Fanges-Roc Paradet Mountain karst (S = 40 km2) contains a large underground cave, the " Cthulhu Dmoniaque-Puits de lEngoulevent " system (L = 13km, D = -302m). This region of Fenouilldes is characterized by a mediterranean climate and presents different surface karst features (pavements, depressions, dry valleys). Synthesis data are given in hydrogeology and speleology. The complexity of subterranean drainage and caves can be explained by an old karstification begun during the mio-pliocene uplift, from an eogene peneplain. The association Arkham co-ordinates the researches and prepares some publications.

THE VRANA LAKE HYDROLOGY (ISLAND OF CRES - CROATIA), 1993, Bonacci O,
The Vrana Lake on the island of Cres in the Adriatic Sea represents a specific phenomenon of karst hydrology. The island of Cres covers an area of 404.3 km2 with an average volume, of 220 x 10(6) m3 of fresh water in the lake. The island has an average rainfall of 1,063 mm, with a Mediterranean climate. The lake has a bottom reaching a depth of 62 m below mean sea level. The average water level is 14 m above mean sea level. The most probable theories on the origin of the lake and its hydrologic-hydrogeologic functioning state that it is a flooded polje in karst. The water budget method was used to define the lake catchment area at approximately 25 km2. During the last six years, there has been drastic decrease of about 3 m in the lake's water level. This phenomenon was analyzed and it was calculated that 53 percent of the water-level decline was caused by water discharges from the lake to satisfy water supply demands, and 47 percent was due to a period of low precipitation during the analyzed period

Agriculture, landscape and human impact in some karst areas of Italy, 1999, Burri Ezio, Castiglioni Benedetta, Sauro Ugo
Italy is made up for about 1/5 of its surface by soluble rocks, which represent the arena of karst environments. The karst morpho-units, some hundreds, are mainly distributed inside the alpine structure of the Mediterranean mountains. A very large number of rock formations are present, different in facies, lithology, age, etc. Among these, carbonate rocks prevail, followed by gypsum and salt. Most of the carbonate rocks are limestones sedimented in a platform environment and they show a wide range of porosity, frequency of fractures and bedding planes. The climatic processes, the expression of some different sub-types of Mediterranean climate (from the typical Mediterranean to sub-atlantic and sub-continental varieties), are the main control of the recent morphodynamics inside the karst morpho-units. In some areas the variability of precipitation is very high. The soil-water deficit during summer, together with the steep slopes, makes these environments highly vulnerable to human impact, especially in relation to soil use for grazing and agriculture. The soils, with enriched mineral contents from the fall of loess-like sediments or of volcanic ashes, were surely very appealing to the first farmers.

Chemical composition of landfill leachate in a karst area with a Mediterranean climate (Marbella, southern Spain), 1999, Vadillo I. , Carrasco F. , Andreo B. , De Torres A. , Bosch C. ,

Evaluation of terra rossa geochemical baselines from Croatian karst regions, 1999, Miko S. , Durn G. , Prohic E. ,
In karst regions of Croatia, regolith is the only favourable medium for geochemical mapping. Mediterranean climate and good drainage due to hard, fissured, permeable limestones and dolomites result in a spacious distribution of terra rossa (FAO-luvisols and cambisols) - a polygenetic type of soil. Samples of terra rossa from coastal and inland Croatian Dinaric karst terrains were collected during the initial studies for the Geochemical Map of Croatia at a density of 1 site/25 km(2). A total of 87 terra rossa soil samples taken from a depth of 5-25 cm together with 27 samples from deeper profiles (down to 850 cm) were analysed for total Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, La, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Na, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrations. A stoichiometric approach was applied by modeling of terra rossa baselines on the basis of Linear regressions of metals on Al and the calculation of enrichment factors (EF and CEFs) on the basis of soil standards. A noticeable enrichment of Pb was found in surface samples compared to the terra rossa deeper in the soil profile. Using these baseline relationships, an attempt is made to partition terra rossa metal concentrations into natural and anthropogenic fractions. Also, the models from both polluted and less polluted (uninhabited) karstic terrains improve the comparability of element contents through correction of variable background concentrations. A comparison of elemental concentrations revealed that due to contributions of bauxite debris, a number of studied samples is enriched in Cr and Ni (also with variable amounts of boehmite). The corrections will serve to reduce data variability and to increase the detection of spatial and temporal differences presented on the geochemical maps. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Histoire gologique et enregistrement karstique : exemple du massif de Siou Blanc et de ses abords (Var), 2001, Blanc, Jeanjoseph
Presentation about a middle-elevated karst (625-650 m) in a temperate mediterranean climate excaved into an important limestone and dolomitic sequence (500 m to 900 m), from Bathonian to Coniacian. Tectonic and pedological factors induced the deep drainages, dolines and ouvalas alignments, vertical vadose networks. The observations applied to doline fields give a discrimination of several epikarstic morphologies: little conic- shaped dolines, lobate, bucket, circular or elliptical dolines pits, asymetrical-falling dolines, collapsed-dolines, ouvalas elongated along the fault lines and megadolines. These states are the results of various processes from the Upper Miocene to actual time. Suspended and disconnected poljes (Limate, Valbelle) were at the origin induced by paleo-networks with an orientation from East to West, at the Miocene; then, these formations were slightly shifted by the reactivation of the fault displacement (Messinian) in relation to a volcanic event (Evenos). The karstification of Siou Blanc massif and its environments, after the bauxitic paleo-karst (Albian), shows an exceptional polygenic evolution in relation to the dynamic of the mediterranean margins.

Karst and caves of Israel, 2001, Frumkin, A.
Israel displays a gradient of karst features from the intensive karstification of Lebanon in the north to practically no karst in Elat region at the southern Negev desert (Gerson, 1976). This is attributed mainly to the climatological gradient from alpine-Mediterranean climate in the Lebanon - Hermon mountains in the north, with precipitation >1000 mm/year, to the extremely arid southern Negev, with <50 mm/year. Another factor is the southward decrease in carbonates/clastics ratio of the phanerozoic stratigraphic section, due to the increasing distance from the Tethys Sea which deposited the significant carbonates. Carbonate rocks outcrop in some 75% of the hilly regions of Israel. They are predominantly of Jurassic to Eocene age. However, much of the carbonates contain marls which inhibit extensive karst development, promoting the dominance of fluviokarst features. Another inhibiting factor is the abundance of faults in the Hermon, Galil and Shomeron regions. The faults are thought to constrain the temporal and spatial continuous underground flow, limiting the development of large caves in these regions. Most limestone caves are relict phreatic conduits and voids, which do not show any genetic relation to subaerial topography. Today these caves are either dry or experience vadose dripwater. These caves have possibly developed under moister conditions than predominate today. Some of them have been sealed from the surface until opened by recent construction activity. They may contain valuable paleoclimatic records (Frumkin, et al., 1994). Vadose caves are also common, and typically experience some water flow and active dissolution during the rainy season. These are mostly composed of vertical shafts with rare horizontal sections. The unique rock salt karst of Mount Sedom exhibits the largest salt caves known in the world. Some sea caves, attributed mainly to wave action with limited dissolution appear in the 'Kurkar' sandstone ridge along the Mediterranean coast. Paleokarst is common in the stratigraphic section, and is probably related to humid paleoclimates. Israel is especially rich in man made caves sustaining abundant fauna, but are beyond the scope of this review.

The Sahara-East Mediterranean dust and climate connection revealed by strontium and uranium isotopes in a Jerusalem speleothem, 2004, Frumkin A, Stein M,
This paper explores the potential of Sr and U isotope systems in speleothems as tracers of eolian dust transport and hydrological conditions. The study focuses on a speleothem from Jerusalem spanning the past 220 kyr. This speleothem provides a precisely dated record of dust flux from the Sahara to the East Mediterranean. Enhanced dust flux and Terra Rossa soil development are reflected by elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the speleothem (0.7082-0.7086), while lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios (~0.7078) indicate higher contribution of the local bedrock due to low dust flux and low soil accumulation. The strontium isotope system in the speleothem is a robust monitor of the Sahara monsoon-modulated climate, since dust uptake is related to development or reduction in vegetation cover of Sahara soil. The [234U/238U] activity ratios in the speleothem range between 1.12 and 1.0. The high activity values may indicate selective removal of 234U from the soil while the low values converge to the bedrock. The migration of 234U to the cave reflects mainly the regional hydrological conditions that are modulated by the North Atlantic-Mediterranean climate system. Thus, the speleothem provides a combined record of the monsoon-North Atlantic climatic systems. Long-term stability in glacial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70830.0001 over the past 220 kyr) suggests an overall similarity in eolian dust sources, and uniformity in the synoptic conditions that dominate the dust storm tracks during glacial periods

The Sahara - East Mediterranean dust and climate connection revealed by strontium and uranium isotopes in a Jerusalem speleothem, 2004, Frumkin, A. , And Stein, M.
This paper explores the potential of Sr and U isotope systems in speleothems as tracers of eolian dust transport and hydrological conditions. The study focuses on a speleothem from Jerusalem spanning the past 220 kyr. This speleothem provides a precisely dated record of dust flux from the Sahara to the East Mediterranean. Enhanced dust flux and Terra Rossa soil development is reflected by elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the speleothem (0.7082-6), while lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios (~0.7078) indicate higher contribution of the local bedrock due to low dust flux and low soil accumulation. The strontium isotope system in the speleothem is a robust monitor of the Sahara monsoon-modulated climate, since dust uptake is related to development or reduction in vegetation cover of Sahara soil. The [234U/238U] activity ratios in the speleothem range between 1.12 and 1.0. The high activity values may indicate selective removal of 234U from the soil while the low values converge to the bedrock. The migration of 234U to the cave reflects mainly the regional hydrological conditions that are modulated by the North Atlantic-Mediterranean climate system. Thus, the speleothem provides a combined record of the Monsoon - North Atlantic climatic systems. Long-term stability in glacial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70831 over the past 220 kyr) suggests an overall similarity in eolian dust-sources, and uniformity in the synoptic conditions that dominate the dust storm tracks during glacial periods.

Paleoclimate and location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo?Arabian Desert as revealed by speleothems from the northern Negev Desert, Israel, 2006, Vaks, A. , Barmatthews, M. , Ayalon, A. , Matthews, A. , Frumkin, A. , Dayan, U. , Halicz, L. , Almogilabin, A. , And Schilman, B.
Speleothem bearing karstic caves of the northern Negev Desert, southern Israel, provides an ideal site for reconstructing the paleoclimate and paleo-location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo?Arabian Desert. Major periods of speleothem deposition (representing humid periods) were determined by high resolution 230Th?U dating and corresponding studies of stable isotope compositionwere used to identify the source of rainfall during humid periods and the vegetation type.Major humid intervals occurred during glacials at 190?150 ka, 76?25 ka, 23?13 ka and interglacials at 200?190 ka, 137?123 ka and 84?77 ka. The dominant rainfall sourcewas the EasternMediterranean Sea, with a possible small contribution from southern tropical sources during the interglacial periods. When the interglacial interval rainfall was of Eastern Mediterranean origin, the minimum annual rainfall was ∼300?350 mm; approximately twice than of the present-day. Lowerminimum amounts of precipitation could have occurred during glacial periods, due to the cooler temperatures and reduced evaporation. Although during most of the humid periods the vegetation remained steppe withmixed C3+C4 vegetation,Mediterranean C3 type steppe-forest vegetation invaded southward for short periods, and the climate in the northern Negev became closer toMediterranean type than at present. The climate was similar to present, or even more arid, during intervals when speleothem deposition did not occur: 150?144 ka, 141?140 ka, 117?96 ka, 92?85 ka, 25?23 ka, and 13 ka?present-day. Precipitation increase occurred in the northern Negev during the interglacial monsoonal intensity maxima at 198 ka, 127 ka, 83 ka and glacial monsoonal maxima at 176 ka, 151 ka, 61 ka and 33 ka. However, during interglacial monsoonal maxima at 105 ka and 11 ka, the northern Negev was arid whereas during glacial monsoonal minima it was usually humid. This implies that there is not always synchroneity between monsoonal activity and humidity in the region. Oxygen isotopic values of the northern Negev speleothems are systematically lower than contemporaneous speleothems of central and northern Israel. This part is attributed to the increased rainout of the heavy isotopes byRayleigh fractionation processes, possibly due to the farther distance from the Mediterranean coast.

The Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean basin: A reassessment of the data and an integrated scenario, 2006, Rouchy Jean Marie, Caruso Antonio,
After a long period of controversial debate about the interpretation of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), a near consensus existed since the ODP Leg 42A for a model keeping the major lines of the deep basin-shallow water model initially proposed by Hsu et al. (1973). The knowledge of the crisis was improved since the 1995s by the availability of a very accurate astronomically calibrated timescale. The debate about its interpretation was then reactivated by several new scenarios that questioned most the major aspects of the previous classical models. The updated re-examination of the most salient features along with consideration of the hydrological requirements for evaporite deposition allow us to assess the viability of the new models. We propose an integrated scenario that revives the key points of the previous model with new statements about the chronology, depositional settings, hydrological mechanisms, consequences and correlations with the global changes. A model implying two main stages of evaporite deposition that affected successively the whole basin with a slight diachronism matches better the whole dataset. The distribution of the evaporites and their depositional timing were constrained by the high degree of paleogeographical differentiation and by the threshold effects that governed the water exchanges. It is assumed that the central Sicilian basin was a deep basin located in a marginal position with regard to the deepest central basins. The restriction of the Mediterranean was predominantly under a tectonic control, but the complex development of the evaporitic crisis implied the interplay of both glacio-eustatic changes and fluctuations of the circum-Mediterranean climate.The first evaporitic stage (lower evaporites) that includes the deposition of the thick homogeneous halite unit with K-Mg salt interbeds in the deepest basins is correlated with the major evaporative drawdown and higher aridity, and occurred during the glacial period recorded in the ocean sediments between 6.3 and 5.6 Ma. The deposition of the potash in Sicily is tentatively linked to the two major glacial peaks TG 20 and TG 22, while the end of this first stage is linked to the peak TG 12. The second stage (upper evaporites) correlates with the interval of warming and global sea level rise recorded in the ocean since 5.6-5.5 Ma onwards. During this second stage, freshwater contribution increased and culminated by the latest Messinian dilution, i.e. the Lago-Mare event, as the result of the worsened tectonically driven closure of the Atlantic gateways combined to an evolution towards wetter climate conditions at least on the mountainous peripheral areas. In fact, reduced inputs of seawater continued to enter at least episodically the basin through the MSC explaining the sporadic presence of marine organisms. These inputs reached their lowest value and practically ceased during the latest Messinian dilution, just before the abrupt restoration of stable open marine conditions at the beginning of the Zanclean.A polyphased erosional surface affected the Mediterranean margins during the MSC with several critical episodes. The major episode related to the greatest water level fall, more than 1000 m, occurred during the deposition of the lower evaporites, from the onset of the evaporite deposition till the end of the first stage. Erosional processes remained active during the second evaporitic stage especially whenever the basin dried-up and a last important event marked by the karstification of the evaporites developed during the latest Messinian dilution just before the Early Zanclean reflooding that filled the erosional morphology

Interactions hydrodynamiques surface/souterrain en milieu karstique [Surface water/Groundwater hydrodynamic interactions in karst watersheds], PhD Thesis, 2008, Baillycomte, Vincent

Ce travail de these s’inscrit dans la problematique generale de la caracterisation de l’alea inondation. Plus precisement, cette etude cherche a caracteriser l’influence des eaux souterraines sur la genese et la propagation des crues en surface dans les cas d’un bassin versant a forte composante karstique. Le site experimental du bassin versant du Coulazou, riviere temporaire qui traverse le massif karstique du Causse d’Aumelas a l’Ouest de Montpellier a ete retenu pour etudier de maniere approfondie les interactions entre les ecoulements de surface et les ecoulements souterrains en situation de crue.

L’etude hydrodynamique de ce systeme karst/riviere s’appuie sur un dispositif experimental adapte a l’observation des phenomenes hydrologiques (pluie, ruissellement) et hydrogeologiques (piezometrie en forage et dans les drains karstiques, suivi hydrodynamique des exutoires du systeme) tres rapides et tres intenses. La dynamique de ces ecoulements est liee au contexte climatique Mediterraneen mais aussi aux structures de drainage en surface et en souterrain qui permettent un transfert et un transit tres rapide des eaux au sein du systeme karst/riviere.

Une description hydrodynamique classique est completee par une approche fonctionnelle des echanges karst/riviere dans le but de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement hydrodynamique d’un tel systeme et de mettre en avant des indicateurs utilisables dans une demarche de modelisation des echanges surface/souterrain. Un premier modele est presente dans la derniere partie de ce document.

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This work aims at assessing the flooding hazard. More precisely, the study focuses on the influence of groundwater on the genesis and propagation of surface flows in the case of a highly karstified watershed. The experimental site of the Coulazou River, a temporary River which crosses the karstified formation of the Causse d’Aumelas (western Montpellier) has been selected to study hydrodynamic interactions between surface flows and groundwater flows during flood.

The hydrodynamic study of this karst/River system is based on a suitable experimental monitoring of both fast and intense hydrological (rain, runoff) and hydrogeological (water level in wells and karst drains, discharge measurements at the main outlets of the system) phenomenon. The specific hydrological response of this watershed is due to the Mediterranean climate but also to surface and underground drainage structures which allow very fast water flows within the karst/river system.

A common hydrodynamic description is followed by a functional approach of karst/river exchanges in order (i) to better understand the hydrodynamic behaviour of such a system and (ii) to highlight some indicators that can be used in a modelling approach. A first conceptual model of surface water/groundwater exchanges in karst terranes is presented in the latter part of the manuscript.
 


Importance of karst Sinkholes in Preserving Relict, Mountain, and Wet-Woodland Plant Species under Sub-Mediterranean Climate: A Case Study from Souther Hungary, 2012, Btori Z. , Krmczi L. , Erds L. , Zalatnai M. , Csiky J.

 

Species composition and the vegetation pattern of the understory were investigated in different sized solution sinkholes in a woodland area of the Mecsek Mountains (southern Hungary). Vegetation data together with topographic variables were collected along transects to reveal the vegetation patterns on the slopes, and a species list was compiled for each sinkhole. The results indicate that the vegetation pattern significantly correlates with sinkhole size. In smaller sinkholes, vegetation does not change substantially along the transects; in larger sinkholes, however, vegetation inversion is pronounced. We also found that sinkhole size clearly influences the number of vascular plant species, in accordance with the well-known relationship between species number and area. In the forest landscape, many medium-sized and large sinkholes have developed into excellent refuge areas for glacial relicts, mountain, and wet-woodland plant species.


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