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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That glaciofluvial is pertaining to the meltwater streams flowing from wasting glacier ice and especially to the deposits and landforms produced by such streams [6].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for morocco (Keyword) returned 23 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 23
Two new Pseudoscorpion-species from Moroccan caves., 1976, Mahnert Volker
Chthonius (E.) longesetosus n. sp. (1 female) collected in the cave of Sidi Mejbur Tazas, and Allochernes maroccanus n. sp. (4 males 1 female 4 Tritonympha), collected in the cave of Caid ( Ifri et Caid), Ait Mohammed, are described and figured. It is the first record of cave dwelling pseudoscorpions in Morocco aside from the publication of a Chthonius sp. from a cave near Taza.

Magniezia gardei n.sp. (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota): a Stenasellid from the underground waters of Southeastern Morocco., 1978, Magniez Guy
This new species has been discovered in the waters of Kef Aziza Cave, on the Saharian slopes of the High Atlas Range, Southeastern Morocco. Magniezia gardei n.sp. belongs to the same Genus as four species previously described from the phreatic waters of the Guinean area. So, it is assumed that this Moroccan species should be a relict of the ancient aquatic hypogean fauna of the entire West Africa, nowadays protected by the development of an arid climate.

Originalit karstique de l'Atlas atlantique marocain, 1985, Weisrock, A.
THE ATLANTIC ATLAS (MOROCCO): A DISTINCTLY KARSTIC REGION - The Atlantic Atlas is a semiarid mountain, which owes to its proximity of the ocean a winter moisture above 1000 m, with watersheets and at times perennial flows. The main karstic landforms are however inherited of damper tertiary and quaternary periods. These forms were developed in relation to particular structural conditions, because the Atlantic Atlas uplifted during a tertiary orogenesis, which folded the sedimentary jurassic and cretaceous material of an atlantic basin (basin of the Haha). Among the most original results of this evolution, we can find curious tower-like lands-cape of dolomitic high-plateaus, numerous cylindrical pits (ouggar), lines of funnel-shaped dolines (ouddirh) and underground karstic river systems, the longest in North-Africa known to day. On the greater part of the Maha Plateau, remnants of an ancient karstification are masked by plio-moghrebian deposits. The latter are also full of dolines and poljes. In the same way, littoral karstic forms and calcareous deposits (calcrests and travertines) show the continuation of limestone dissolution.

Polydesmide et Craspedosomides cavernicoles nouveaux de France et du Maroc (Myriapoda; Diplopoda)., 1985, Mauris Jean Paul
This is a description of the affinities and biogeographic significance of three new cavernicolous species of Diplopoda from France and Morocco. One species apparently belongs to the Polydesmida (family Paradoxosomidae) and the other two to Craspedosomida (families Caratosphydae and Chordeumidae). 1) Eviulisoma abadi n.sp. is distinguished from other species of this genus by total depigmentation, by the characters of the gonopodial orifice and the male gonopods, by the low number of segments (19) and by its geographic isolation (Morocco) and ecology (Kef Aziza cave). This justifies the establishment of a new sub-genus, Jeekelosoma. The other species of this genus are found in equatorial Africa and the east. E. abadi is the first paleoarctic species of this genus and is the second paleoarctic species of the tribe Eviulisomidi after Boreviulisoma liouvillei Brol.). It is also the first known from a cave. Like the two other known species of Paradoxosomidae known from the southwest of the paleoarctic zone, Boreviulisoma liouvillei Brol. and Oranmorpha guerinii (Gerv.) the new species is indicative of originating in the Ethiopian region at a time when the Sahara was not a barren desert. 2) Ceratosphys maroccana n.sp. from Gouffre Friouato (Morocco) probably is not an epigean troglophile; it is the southernmost species of this genus which is normally found in France and Spain. This is apparently a remnant of a small group of species from the south of Spain that constitute a sub-genus Proceratosphys Mau. and Vincente. 3) Orthochordeumella leclerci n.sp. (caves of Ardche, France) manifest the presence unique in this genus of cavernicolous characters including depigmentation and extreme length of antennae and is the only truly troglobitic species of this genus. Other characters are less distinctive but it is possible to distinguish this species by sexual characteristics from other species, notably that from the neighbouring geographic area, O. cebennica (known only from the Ardche region) which is troglophilic. The other three species are found in epigean forest habitats, one in the Pyrenees, the other two in the Tyrol, the Swiss Jura, Baden and the northeast of France and Belgium.

Evidence for karstic mechanisms involved in the evolution the Moroccon hamadas., 1986, Castellani Vittorio, Dragoni Walter
Underground tubular karst features, observed in an arid envinronment of southern Morocco, are described. On the basis of various evidences, it is suggested that such features were originated mainly by condensation water. A computation of the time necessary for their formation supports this hypothesis.

Le karst pliocne de la rgion de Safi (Maroc atlantique), 1987, Weisrock A. , Lunski S.
POST-PLIOCENE KARST OF SAFI AREA (ATLANTIC MOROCCO) - The karst of Safi area is developed in bioclastic calcarenites of Plio-Moghrebian upon Mesozoic limestones, marls and gypsum. Dolines, uvalas and poljes are found along faults N170-N195, N040-N070, N080-N115, which are mainly " Mesetian " and " Atlasic " tectonic directions of Atlantic Morocco. Two points are developed upon this karst genesis: 1/ the relations between post-pliocene karstic landforms and paleokarst in limestones and gypsum; 2/ the recent karstic developments occur during the periods wetter than today (310 mm/y), for example Upper Pleistocene, as it is showed by dating of charcoal in dolines filling.

Le karst en vagues des At Abdi (Haut-Atlas central, Maroc), 1996, Perritaz, L.
The At Abdi plateau (2200-3000 m, 160 km2) is located in the calcareous High Atlas (32? N). It consists of massive Bajocian limestones, which form a large brachysyncline and overlie the clastic Toarcian-Aalenian forming the regional aquiclude and the top of the half captive Middle Liassic aquifer. The rainfall comprises only 500 to 700 mm/yr and the effective evapotranspiration is about 400 mm/yr with a snow coefficient of 60 % and an infiltration rate of 40 %. This means that the recharge of the aquifer mainly occurs during snow melting. The morphology of this nival karst consists in a succession of little parallel and asymmetric dry valleys forming some "waves" ("karst en vagues"). The role of wind and snow in the genesis of these forms is predominant. An old cave system with vertical shafts occluded lower down is proof of ancient more humid climatic conditions. U-Th dating methods on speleothems indicate ages between 3,200 and 220,000 yrs, or more than 400,000 yrs. The horizontal transfer is made by an interstrata network, ancient and dry in the upper part, or recent and phreatic at the base, near the regional aquiclude, attesting three karstification phases.

Ground-water silicifications in the calcareous facies of the Tertiary piedmont deposits of the Atlas Mountain (Hamada du Guir, Morocco), 1997, Thiry M. , Benbrahim M. ,
The Tertiary piedmont deposits (Hamada Formations), on the southern edge of the Haut-Atlas mountains, form extensive tablelands in the Boudenib area. They consist of two main sedimentary sequences, the Hamada de Boudenib and the Hamada du Guir, of Eocene and Miocene age. Both sequences show elastic facies at their base (conglomerates, calcareous sandstones, silty clays) and end with thick lacustrine limestones and pedogenic calcretes are characterised by rather confined facies, palygorskite-rich, with some gypsum in the second sequence. The recent evolution of the region is marked by the dissection of the tableland that is lined with high cliffs. The water flaw is mainly through wide karst features as there is no major river on the tableland. Silicifications which affect the different facies, form pods of various shape and size, and show an erratic spatial distribution. In the calcareous sandstones, there are irregularly shaped tubules of about 5 cm in diameter, more planar bodies from 5 to 50 cm thick, which frequently display voids lined with translucent silica concretions. The conglomerates display relatively few silicifications, the more characteristic ones consist of a silica cortex on some Limestone pebble and silica plates fitting closely the base of the pebbles. The lacustrine limestones and the calcretes from the upper part of the formation show frequently well developed silicifications. These show very variable shapes; horizontally stretching layers, interconnected or isolated amoeba-like bodies, thin slabs, karst micro-breccia, with frequent concretionnary structures, and quartz crystallisations. Limestone nodules remain often included in these silicifications. The more argillaceous facies display either small tubules or thin plates formed of translucent concretionnary silica. As a rule, the importance of the voids and related structures (concretions, drusy crystals) has to be noticed in all these silicifications, sometimes they are also linked with fractures or karst pipes. Petrography of the silica minerals, their relation with the primary structures. their distribution and their succession, give invaluable information on the silicification processes. Microcrystalline and fibrous quartz are the most common silica minerals, including minor amounts of opal and euhedral quartz. But micrographic arrangements show clearly that primary opal deposits have been more extensive and have recrystallized into chalcedony, microcrystalline quartz, or even ''flame-like'' quartz. Silica deposits in voids make up an important part of the silica pods. The tubules and thin plates of translucent silica of the argillaceous facies are formed of laminar chalcedony deposited around voids. Silica deposits in voids are also particularly obvious in the sandstones. The pores between the quartz grains are then cemented by fibrous quartz and little opal. Some samples show very large cemented voids that cannot be related to the primary porosity of the sandstone. These large voids correspond to the dissolution of the primary calcareous cement, which even led to the collapse of the sandstone fabric. In the limestones, there are silicified micro-karst breccia with a very high primary porosity cemented by quartz crystals, and even in the large microcrystalline quartz zones there are numerous void fillings, the primary porosity often exceeding 50%. There is obviously the alternation of silica deposits and calcite dissolution. Beside the void filling, silicifications comprise also matrix epigenesis, that is replacement of the carbonate by silica with preservation of most of the limestone structures, without development of voids. Nevertheless, the epigenesis of the limestone matrix is restricted to the vicinity of the voids. The silicifications relate to diagenetic processes. The main part of the silica is formed of void deposits and matrix replacement (epigenesis) on the edge of the voids. These void deposits give evidence of the feeding solutions. The regularity of the deposits all around the voids point out to a hydrologic regime characterised by a ground-water our now. Silica originates most probably from alteration of the magnesian clay minerals along the ground-water path. Regarding the low solubility of silica in surficial waters, high flows are needed in order to renew continuously the silica precipitated from solution. This points to a relatively humid climate at time of silicification, and to relief and incised landscapes to bring about these high flows

Palaeogeomorphology and evolution of some karstic massifs of the Maghreb in arid border (Morocco and Algeria), after recent works. [in French], 1998, Nicod, Jean

Environmental vulnerability and agriculture in the karstic domain: landscape indicators and cases in the Atlas Highlands, Morocco, 1999, Akdim Brahim, Amyay Mohammed
After the brief presentation of the major karstic areas in Morocco, the article focused essentially on the Atlas mountains to investigate the impact of the agriculture on the natural systems equilibrium. Socio-economic changes (demographic pressure, escalation of the landscape use, utilisation of new techniques in water harvesting, etc...) have sometimes fathered mechanisms of degradation. Many indicators seem to reflect these mechanisms. The pedologic indicators, soil erosion, the hydrologic and geomorphic indicators, are apprehended to demonstrate existent correlation between different variables and the often negative impacts of land over-use in the karstic domain of the Middle Atlas.

Vein and Karst Barite Deposits in the Western Jebilet of Morocco: Fluid Inclusion and Isotope (S, O, Sr) Evidence for Regional Fluid Mixing Related to Central Atlantic Rifting, 2000, Valenza Katia, Moritz Robert, Mouttaqi Abdellah, Fontignie Denis, Sharp Zachary,
Numerous vein and karst barite deposits are hosted by Hercynian basement and Triassic rocks of the western Jebilet in Morocco. Sulfur, oxygen, and strontium isotope analyses of barite, combined with fluid inclusion microthermometry on barite, quartz, and calcite were used to reveal the nature and source of the ore-forming fluids and constrain the age of mineralization. The{delta} 34S values of barite between 8.9 and 14.7 per mil are intermediate between the sulfur isotope signatures of Triassic evaporites and Triassic-Jurassic seawater and lighter [IMG]f1.gif' BORDER='0'>, probably derived from the oxidation of dissolved H2S and leaching of sulfides in the Hercynian basement. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of barite between 0.7093 and 0.7130 range between the radiogenic strontium isotope compositions of micaceous shale and sandstone and the nonradiogenic isotopic signature of Triassic to Jurassic seawater and Cambrian limestone. The{delta} 18O values of barite between 11 and 15 per mil (SMOW) support mixing between two or more fluids, including Late Triassic to Jurassic seawater or a water dissolving Triassic evaporites along its flow path, hot basinal, or metamorphic fluids with{delta} 18O values higher than 0 per mil and/or meteoric fluids with{delta} 18O values lower than 0 per mil. The general trend of decreasing homogenization temperatures and initial ice melting temperatures with increasing salinities of H2O-NaCl {} CaCl2 fluid inclusions trapped in barite, quartz, and calcite indicates that a deep and hot basinal fluid with salinities lower than 6 wt percent NaCl equiv might have mixed with a cooler surficial solution with a mean salinity of 20 wt percent NaCl equiv. Calcium was leached from the Cambrian limestone and the clastic and mafic volcanic rocks of the Hercynian basement. Alkali feldspars and micas contained in the Cambrain sandstones provided most of the Ba to the hydrothermal system. Vein and karst deposits are modeled as a two-component mixing process in which the temperature and the S and Sr isotope composition of the end members changed during the 220 to 155 Ma interval. The hot basinal fluid remained volumetrically dominant during the entire mineralization process. Differences in mean S, O, and Sr isotope compositions among the barite families are interpreted as reflecting differences in mineralization age. Most barite deposits formed before the Kimmeridgian, except for north-south-oriented vein barite, karst barite, and barite cement in the conglomeratic Upper Jurassic, which were deposited later, possibly around 155 Ma. Similar genetic processes have been described for late Paleozoic to Mesozoic F-Ba vein deposits in western Europe. The vein and karst barite in the western Jebilet of Morocco reveals a wide-scale regional mineralization event related to Central Atlantic rifting

Les dolines deffondrement et les dolines-lacs des Causses du sud-ouest du Moyen-Atlas (Maroc) : des dpressions lies un contexte hydro-morphologique particulier (p. 19-24), 2001, Elkhalki Yahia, Akdim Brahim
The karstic geosystems of the Causses in the Middle Atlas present a number of old and present karstic landforms. The interference between karstic geomorphology and the process of deep karstification find expression in an important development of sinkholes and collapse zones. Inventory and spatial distribution of these superficial karstic landforms show a very close relationship with the apparition of saline springs. Water chemistry and the exported rock tonnage are analysed and point out the importance of caverning, which takes place in gypsum and salt Triassic formations.

The sedimentary records in Mediterranean rockshelters and caves: Archives of environmental change, 2001, Woodward J. C. , Goldberg P. ,
It is important to develop rigorous methods and robust conceptual models for the interpretation of rockshelter and cave sediment records so that the cultural sequences they contain can be considered in their proper environmental context. Much of what we know about the prehistory of the Mediterranean region and adjacent areas has largely been pieced together from materials excavated from sedimentary sequences in these environments. The rockshelters and caves of the region form important environmental and sedimentary archives. Recent work has begun to consider if the remarkable climatic variability evident in the high resolution lacustrine and ice core records is manifest in the rockshelter and cave sediment records of the area, In this context, the two main characteristics of a rockshelter or cave site which control its usefulness as an archive of environmental change are the temporal resolution of the sedimentary record and the environmental sensitivity of the site. Many rockshelters and caves can be described as either Active Karst Settings (AKS) or Passive Karst Settings (PKS) and site type is an important influence on climatic sensitivity with a direct influence upon the usefulness of the sedimentary sequence as a proxy record of climate change. It is now clear that some sites may preserve detailed paleoclimatic records and the climatic signal may be represented by distinctive suites of micromorphological features, by variations in the input of allogenic sediment, or by fluctuations in the mineral magnetic properties of the fine sediment fraction. It can be argued that data derived from the analysis of bulk coarse-grained samples often lacks the stratigraphic resolution and environmental sensitivity that can be obtained from other approaches. The most favorable sites for detailed paleoclimatic reconstruction appear to be in active karst settings such as Theopetra Cave (Greece) and Pigeon Cave (Morocco) where micromorphological analyses offer insights into the stratigraphic record that are not otherwise obtainable. The temporal resolution of a site can only be established through a rigorous stratigraphic analysis and a comprehensive dating program. These are fundamental considerations in the study of rockshelter sediment records, especially when attempting to correlate between sites and draw comparisons with other proxy records of environmental change derived from sedimentary environments with rather different characteristics. Rockshelters and caves are part of a wider sediment system, and their investigation must be accompanied by detailed geomorphological, sedimentological, paleoecological, and geochronological studies of the off-site Quaternary record.

Turbidit, indicateur du fonctionnement perturb du gosystme karstique de lAtlas de Beni Mellal (Moyen Atlas mridional, Maroc), 2002, Elkhalki Yahia, Hafid Abdellatif
Turbidity, as an indicator of perturbed functioning of karst geosystem of Beni Mellal Atlas (Southern Middle Atlas, Morocco) - The turbidity of karst springs is a general phenomenon of anthropized Mediterranean limestone mountains. But actually we note that it has been somewhat neglected by karstologists. In other respects, it represents a pertinent indicator of the dysfunctioning of karst geosystems which have undergone a strong impact of human action. Cloudy waters distinguish Asserdoune spring, as the main outlet of Liassic aquifer. After dry periods, followed by brutal storms, water turbidity can exceed 2000 JTU (Jackson Turbidity Unit). Three factors are united to favour the turbidity water: 1) The climate: autumn rain storms which follow a long dry season, fall on soils that are dry and badly protected by vegetation. They cause an important mobilisation of fine particles, which infiltrate the epikarst.2) Inner karst structure: the advance of cloudy water toward An Asserdoune spring is made easier by developed drains. Dye tracings have shown that the time of transit waters is comprised between 24 and 72 hours.3) Human impact: the agriculture modernisation of Tadla plain (140 000 ha irrigated) was accompanied with a violent action on forest resources of Beni Mellal Atlas. Clearings induced a large stripping of soils, which caused the excavation of covered karrens. Furthermore, the dysfunctioning of the karst geosystem of Beni Mellal Atlas is translated by the hindrance of present travertinisation at the downstream of springs.

Turbidity mechanism of water from a karstic spring: example of the Ain Asserdoune spring (Beni Mellal Atlas, Morocco)., 2002, Bouchaou L. , Mangin A. , Chauve P.

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