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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That slocker is local term used in the eastern mendip hills, england for a swallet or stream sink [9].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for new zealand (Keyword) returned 35 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 35
Speleology in New Zealand, 1961, May, David V.

Morphology of New Zealand Limestone Caves , 1963, Laird, M. G.

Limestone caves in New Zealand can be divided into two distinct groups : those developed in the nearby flat-lying limestone of Oligocene age, and those formed in the strongly folded Mt. Arthur Marble of Upper Ordovician age. Caves formed in Oligocene limestone are typically horizontal in development, often having passages at several levels, and are frequently of considerable length. Those formed in Mt. Arthur Marble have mainly vertical development, some reaching a depth of several hundred feet. Previous research into the formation and geological history of New Zealand cave systems is discussed briefly, and the need for further work is emphasised.


Movements of Rhaphidophoridae (Orthoptera) In Caves At Waitomo, New Zealand, 1965, Richards, Aola M.

Cavernicolous Rhaphidophoridae are very active insects, in spite of their immobile appearance on the walls of caves. Movement is continuous to a greater or lesser degree throughout the 24 hour period of each day. Through marking a representative sample of the total adult population of two species of Rhaphidophoridae in limestone caves in New Zealand, it was shown that several different types of movement occurred; that home ranges had no well-defined limits; and that there was no evidence of territorial behaviour. The technique of marking Rhaphidophoridae is discussed in some detail.


Tasmanian Cave Fauna: Character and Distribution, 1967, Goede, A.

The geology and nature of the caves is discussed. Cave development has been affected by glacial outwash and periglacial conditions which must be taken into account when considering the development and distribution of cave fauna. The food supply in the caves is limited by the absence of cave-inhabiting bats. Floods while adding to the food supply must be destructive to some forms of terrestrial cave life. The cave fauna consists entirely of invertebrates. The carab genus Idacarabus Lea contains the only troglobites found in Tasmania. A common troglophile throughout the island is Hickmania troglodytes (Higgins and Petterd) which belongs to a very small group of relict spiders. Five species of cave crickets are known from Tasmania and Flinders Island. Three species belong to the genus Micropathus Richards and show an interesting distribution pattern. A single species of glow-worm, Arachnocampa (Arachnocampa) tasmaniensis Ferguson occurs in a number of Tasmanian caves. It is more closely related to the New Zealand species than to glow worms found on the Australian mainland. Other terrestrial cave life is briefly discussed. Aquatic cave life is poorly known. The syncarid Anaspides tasmaniae (Thomson) has been recorded from several caves. It differs from epigean forms in reduction of pigment.


Morphometric analysis of surface depressions in the Mangapu karst. MSc thesis University of Auckland, New Zealand, 1973, Pringle J. M.

Karst hydrology and solution in the Waitomo District, New Zealand. Auckland Univ PhD thesis, 1978, Gunn J.

Limestone solution rates and processes in the Waitomo district, New Zealand., 1981, Gunn J.

Karst landforms in New Zealand, 1982, Williams P. W.

Point recharge of limestone aquifers a model from New Zealand karst., 1983, Gunn J.

POINT-RECHARGE OF LIMESTONE AQUIFERS - A MODEL FROM NEW-ZEALAND KARST, 1983, Gunn J. ,

The role of the subcutaneous zone in karst hydrology, 1983, Williams Paul W. ,
The subcutaneous zone is the upper weathered layer of rock beneath the soil, but above the permanently saturated (phreatic) zone. It is of particular hydrological importance in karst because of its high secondary permeability, arising from the considerable chemical solution in this zone. However, corrosional enlargement of fissures diminishes with depth; thus permeability decreases in the same direction with the result that percolation is inhibited, except down widened master joints and faults. Storage of water consequently occurs in this zone, particularly after storms. The upper surface of this suspended saturated layer in the subcutaneous zone is defined by a perched water table, which slopes towards points of rapid vertical percolation. The potential induces lateral water movement converging on the most permeable areas such as beneath dolines. Leakage from the subcutaneous store sustains slow percolation in the vadose zone. Cross-correlation of rainfall with percolation rates in caves in New Mexico, U.S.A., and New Zealand reveal response lags of 2-14 weeks with no apparent relationship to depth below the surface. Other percolation sites show no correlation with rainfall; interpreted as being a consequence of considerable friction in tight fissure networks. The recognition of storage and rapid as well as very slow percolation from the subcutaneous zone requires re-interpretation of the components of hydrographs from karst springs and of some conceptual models of karst aquifers. The importance of subcutaneous storage in sustaining baseflow discharge at some sites must be recognised, as must the contribution of subcutaneous water to flood hydrographs. Methods of estimating the volumes of subcutaneous and phreatic components of karst-spring flood hydrographs are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the significance of subcutaneous hydrologic processes for an understanding of karst geomorphology. The desirability of explaining karst landform evolution in terms of hydrologic processes is stressed

KARST HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE TAKAKA VALLEY, GOLDEN BAY, NORTHWEST NELSON, 1991, Mueller M. ,
Upper Ordovician Arthur Marble and Oligocene Takaka Limestone contain extensive phreatic cave systems beneath the Takaka valley and Golden Bay. Half of all water flows in the Takaka valley pass through subterranean drainage conduits in carbonate rock. New Zealand's largest freshwater springs, the Waikoropupu Springs, are one surface expression of these karst systems. Other characteristics are dolines and submarine springs. A paleocave system developed in the Arthur Marble during the formation of the northwest Nelson peneplain in the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary. Subsequent subsidence of the peneplain, and deposition of Motupipi Coal Measures, Takaka Limestone, and Tarakohe Mudstone, was followed by folding and faulting of the sequence in the Kaikoura Orogeny. Uplift and erosion in the Pleistocene brought the two carbonate rock formations within reach of groundwater movements. The paleocave system in Arthur Marble was reactivated during periods of glacial, low sea levels, and a smaller cave system formed in the overlying Takaka Limestone. Both systems interact and extend to more than 100 m below present sea level, forming the Arthur Marble - Takaka Limestone aquifer

Karst hydrology, 1992, Williams P. W.

Hydrology and geomorphology of the Paparoa Karst, north Westland, New Zealand., 1994, Crawford S. J


Palaeoclimatic interpretation of stable isotope data from Holocene speleothems of the Waitomo district, North Island, New Zealand, 1999, Williams P. W. , Marshall A. , Ford D. C. , Jenkinson A. V. ,
One straw stalactite and three stalagmites from the Waitomo district of North Island, New Zealand, were examined for stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon with a view to interpreting their palaeoclimate signal. Dating was by uranium series and AMS 14C for the stalagmites and by gamma-ray spectrometry for the straw. Records were thus established for about 100 years for the straw and 3.9, 10.1 and 10.2 ka for the stalagmites. The range of variability in d18Oc and d13Cc this century is about two-thirds of that experienced over the entire Holocene, and is most simply explained in terms of the oceanic source area of rain. Stable isotope variations in three stalagmites show some general similarities, but have significant differences in detail, which underlines the necessity to base palaeoclimatic interpretations on more than one speleothem record. The d18Oc of each stalagmite varies positively with temperature, indicating the dominance of the ocean source of evaporation in determining the isotopic composition of precipitation and hence speleothem calcite in the Holocene. This conclusion is contrary to that of other authors working in New Zealand, who identified a negative relationship between d18Oc and temperature, while examining time periods extending across the Last Glacial Maximum. It is concluded here that, whereas the ice volume effect dominates the large climatic shifts of glacial-interglacial amplitude, the oceanic source effect becomes more important during the period of relatively stable sea level during the Holocene. Results also indicate a late-Holocene altitudinal effect of 0.2{per thousand} d18Oc per 100 m and an associated temperature relationship of about 0.26{per thousand} per{degrees}C. The average of two records identifies the postglacial climatic optimum to lie in the interval from prior to 10 ka BP to 7.5 ka BP, when d18Oc values were up to 0.6{per thousand} less negative than present, implying an average annual mean temperature that was up to 2.3{degrees}C warmer. The average of three speleothem records for the last 3900 years reveals the coldest period of the Holocene to have occurred about 3 to 2 ka BP, when d18Oc values were typically 0.4{per thousand} more negative than present and average temperatures may have been 1.5{degrees}C cooler. Mean annual temperature variability of about 2{degrees}C was sometimes experienced in little more than 100 years

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