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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That density is the mass of water per unit volume, usually stated in grams per cubic centimeter (gm/cm3), but may also be measured in pounds per gallon (lb/gal), pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3), and kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3.) density of fresh water is taken to be 1.0.?

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for nitrate (Keyword) returned 78 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 78
The role of tributary mixing in chemical variations at a karst spring, Milandre, Switzerland, , Perrin J. , Jeannin P. Y. , Cornaton F. ,
SummarySolute concentration variations during flood events were investigated in a karst aquifer of the Swiss Jura. Observations were made at the spring, and at the three main subterraneous tributaries feeding the spring. A simple transient flow and transport numerical model was able to reproduce chemographs and hydrographs observed at the spring, as a result of a mixing of the concentration and discharge of the respective tributaries. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model showed that it is possible to produce chemical variations at the spring even if all tributaries have constant (but different for each of them) solute concentrations. This process is called tributary mixing. The good match between observed and modelled curves indicate that, in the phreatic zone, tributary mixing is probably an important process that shapes spring chemographs. Chemical reactions and other mixing components (e.g. from low permeability volumes) have a limited influence.Dissolution-related (calcium, bicarbonate, specific conductance) and pollution-related parameters (nitrate, chloride, potassium) displayed slightly different behaviours: during moderate flood events, the former showed limited variations compared to the latter. During large flood events, both presented chemographs with significant changes. No significant event water participates in moderate flood events and tributary mixing will be the major process shaping chemographs. Variations are greater for parameters with higher spatial variability (e.g. pollution-related). Whereas for large flood events, the contribution of event water becomes significant and influences the chemographs of all the parameters. As a result, spring water vulnerability to an accidental pollution is low during moderate flood events and under base flow conditions. It strongly increases during large flood events, because event water contributes to the spring discharge

Hydrological and chemical investigations of running waters of the Schlitzerland (Western Germany). A. Springs, I. Survey., 1976, Brehm Jorg
In a Triassic sandstone woodland (Schlitzerland in Hesse, Western Germany) 17 springs were hydrologically and hydrochemically investigated throughout one year (April 1973; April 1974). Measurements were carried out on water volume, temperature, electrolytical conductivity, pH, aikalinity, chlorinity, dissolved molecular oxygen, dissolved organic material (COD), ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and free phosphate. Among the hydrochemical factors investigated the pH-value was closely related especially to the micro-climate in the spring drainage area. In particular the pH rose both with increasing length of the drainage area and within the same spring with decreasing water supply. On the other hand the pH-value diminished with increasing altitude of the drainage area. Simultaneously the highest values were found on SW-slopes and the lowest ones in NE-exposures.

The role of groundwater in eutropication of a lake in glacial outwash terrain., 1976, Lee David Robert
The nutrient contribution of groundwater in glacial outwash terrain was evaluated at Lake Sallie in north-central U.S.A. (4646' N., 95 54' W.). Groundwater entering the lake was collected with seepage meters consisting of bottomless cylinders vented to a thin membrane bag. A theoretical flow net and comparison of nutrient concentrations in well and seepage water indicated that seepage meters can be used in high velocity discharge areas to obtain site-specific water samples of groundwater for nutrient analyses. Based on an average value of 0.25 mg/l PO4, groundwater inflow along an 800 km segment of shoreline transported 37 kg of phosphorus per year into the lake. Groundwater inflow was nitrate rich along shoreline adjacent so land used for agriculture and lakeside septic tanks, but there was no apparent pattern regarding land use and phosphorus content of groundwater inflow. A nearby eutrophic lake was a suspected source of phosphorus in groundwater inflow. Because surface flow has carried large quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus into this lake, its present eutrophic condition cannot be attributed to nutrient influx by groundwater. However, groundwater nutrient influx could be highly significant in other lakes where surface nutrient influx is small.

Nitrobacter in Mammoth Cave., 1977, Fliermans C. B. , Schmidt E. L.
Mammoth Cave, a large lirnestone cavern in Mammoth Cave National Park in the Central Kentucky karst, was first mined for saltpetre in 1808 and was a major source of nitrates used in the manufacture of gunpowder during the War of 1812. The mechanism of saltpetre formation is unknown, although hypotheses encompassing both biotic and abiotic functions have been suggested. Present studies were conducted in various saltpetre caves using species specific fluorescent antibodies in order to determine if the chemoautotroph, Nitrobacter, were present. Population densities and species distribution of Nitrobacter were studied in relation to chemical and physical parameters for over 200 sediment samples from Mammoth Cave. Both the isolation and immunofluorescence data indicate that Nitrobacter are present in relatively high population densities in Mammoth Cave sediments, and that such bacteria are common among saltpetre caves in the southeastern United States. Immunofluorescence data further indicates that N. agilis dominates the Nitrobacter population in Mammoth Cave. The possibility that Nitrobacter is the etiological agent for saltpetre formation is suggested.

Chemical Aspectes of the Conversion of Cave Nitrates to Saltpeter, 1981, Eller, P. Gary

Mineralogy of Cave Nitrates, 1981, Hill, Carol A.

Saltpeter Beds: A Review of Nitrate Production in Compost Heaps, 1991, Lewis, Warren C.

The sulfate speleothems of Thampanna cave, Nullarbor Plain, Australia, 1991, James, Julia M.

Examination of gypsum speleothems and chemical analysis of the cave drip waters (ions to chloride mole ratios, tot. dissolved solids, nitrate) confirm that the major source of the sulfate in Thampanna cave (Western Australia) is from seawater transported by rain.


Nitrate content in the groundwater of the Campo de Dalias (Almeria), 1993, Pulidobosch A. , Molina L. , Navarrete F. , Martinez Vidal J. L.

Temporal evolution of Riofrio nitrate content (Sierra Gorda, Granada), 1993, Castillo A. , Lopez Chicano M. , Pulidobosch A.

ESTIMATION OF PREFERENTIAL MOVEMENT OF BROMIDE TRACER UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS, 1994, Jabro J. D. , Lotse E. G. , Fritton D. D. , Baker D. E. ,
Leaching of agricultural chemicals from the root and vadose zones into groundwater is an important environmental concern. To procure a better understanding of the movement and transport of agricultural chemicals through the soil profile, a field research study was conducted to estimate bromide leaching losses under saturated conditions where preferential flow is occurring. The field data were then used to evaluate the LEACHM model. Eighteen double-ring infiltrometers were used to apply a pulse (100 mm depth) of bromide tracer on two previously saturated soils located in a karst region of southeastern Pennsylvania. Internal drainage over the next seven days resulted in nearly 51 % of the applied Br- being leached to a depth below 0.80 m. The LEACHM model was used to simulate the amount of bromide leached in each infiltrometer. The model predicted, accurately, an average of 46% of the applied Br- leached below the 0.80 m depth. Mcan values of bromide concentration in the soil profile were predicted within two standard deviations of the measured mean for all depths except for the 0.20-0.40 m depth increment where the model overpredicted the bromide concentration. The model predictions of Br- leached were tested against field measurements using several statistical tests. The LEACHM model performed adequately under preferential flow conditions, perhaps because the infiltration rate at each site was used as a model input. This, actually, is some measure of the macropore flow process and suggests that simple models such as LEACHM can be used in the field, as long as a distribution of infiltration rates is used as an input

Convolution a debit variable a partir des reponses de tracages artificiels; application a un systeme karstique (Causse de Gramat, Lot, France): Convolution in time-dependent system from artificial tra, 1995, Dzikowski M, Delay F, Sauty Jp, Crampon N, De Marsily G,
ResumeLa realisation de tracages artificiels dans des conditions hydrodynamiques differentes sur le systeme karstique de I'Ouysse (Causse de Gamat, France) ainsi que de mesures physicochimiques portant entre autres sur les chlorures, nitrates et matieres en suspension ont permis d'exploiter les possibilites de l'analyse des systemes-tracages dependant du temps. Pour des tracages artificiels realises a des periodes hydrologiques differentes (basses-eaux et hauteseaux), les relations entre les reponses impulsionnelles a l'injection instantanee de traceur et les debits d'ecoulement variables associes sont mises en evidence sur un systeme a deux entrees (pertes de Themines et Theminettes) et une sortie (gouffre de Besaces). Ces relations etablissent une independance entre l'espace occupe par le traceur au cours de son transfert et les conditions hydrodynamiques dans la gamme de debits interessant chaque tracage. Des operations de convolutions d'entrees en chlorures, nitrates et matieres en suspension, basses sur l'hypothese d'un systeme a volume constant dependant du temps ont donc pu etre realisees. Les resultats sont compares au mesures experimentales au point de sortie (Besaces).AbstractArtificial tracer tests conducted under different hydrodynamic conditions on the karst system of Ouysse (Causse de Gramat, France) and chemical measurements have permitted the use of the time-dependent tracer test analysis. For artificial tracer experiments in different hydrologic periods (water rise and high flow), the relationships between the responses to an instantaneous injection are improved in a system defined by two inputs (losses of Themines and Theminettes). They show that the space occupied by the mass of tracer during its transfer can be considered as independent of the discharge according to the range of flow rate in which the tracer experiments have been conducted. Therefore, convolutions on chlorides, nitrates and suspended sediments are simulated under the hypothesis of a constant-volume and time-dependent system. The computed results are compared with the experimental data at the output (cave of Besaces)

INFILTRATION MECHANISMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURAL WASTE TRANSPORT THROUGH THE SOIL MANTLE TO KARST AQUIFERS OF SOUTHERN INDIANA, USA, 1995, Iqbal M. Z. , Krothe N. C. ,
A hydrogeological study was conducted, during the 1991-1992 water year, in the clay-soil mantled portion of a limestone terrain in southern Indiana. The purpose of the study was to investigate the modes of soil-water infiltration contributing to rapid transport of nitrate to the saturated zone. The I-year-cycle profiles of nitrate concentration vs. time show a consistent increase of nitrate at various depths in the unsaturated zone during the period of investigation. The increase of nitrate in soil water is attributed to the rapid flushing of the inorganic fertilizers from the fields after the area received sufficient rainfall in late fall. The investigation also showed a major movement of nitrate in quick pulses through the unsaturated zone, rather than a slow uniform recharge, immediately after a major storm event. The asymmetric profiles of nitrate concentration vs. depth point to the existence of preferential flow through macropores in the clay-soil mantle above the bedrock. Soil-water transport between storm events is by matrix type flow. Nitrogen isotopes were analyzed for representative groundwater samples collected before and immediately after fertilization of fields in the summer, 1991. The delta(15)N values of the samples did not show any major shift in nitrate sources between the sampling periods. The summer of 1991 was extremely dry prohibiting vertical transport of nitrate from the fields to the groundwater system. Any change in nitrate concentration in groundwater during this time is attributed to the mixing through lateral flow within the aquifer

AN APPARATUS COMPLEX FOR RADON MEASUREMENTS AND CALIBRATIONS, 1995, Nikolaev V. A. , Vorobjev I. B. , Gewirz V. B. , Gromov A. V. , Kozlov A. E. ,
An apparatus complex is developed for measurements of radon volume activity by the tract method. The equipment has been attested at the D.I.Mendeleev All-Russia Research Institute of Metrology, and is intended for mass scale usage, the complex has passive tract radiometers of radon based on cellulose nitrate detectors, a spark counter of the type ''AIST-ZV'', a thermostating etching device, as well as a calibration radon rack ''KARST''

NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS IN KARST SPRINGS IN AN EXTENSIVELY GRAZED AREA, 1995, Boyer Dg, Pasquarell Gc,
The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are located on karat terrain. Nitrate concentrations were measured in several karat springs in Southeastern West Virginia in order to determine the impact of animal agriculture on nitrate pollution of the karst ground water system. Karst basins with 79, 51, 16, and 0 percent agriculture had mean nitrate concentrations of 15.8, 12.2, 2.7, and 0.4 mg/l, respectively. A strong linear relationship between nitrate concentration and percent agricultural land was shown. Median nitrate concentration increased about 0.19 mg l(-1) per percent increase in agricultural land. Weather patterns were also found to significantly affect the median nitrate concentrations and the temporal variability of those concentrations. Lower nitrate concentrations and lower temporal variability were observed during a severe drought period. It was concluded that agriculture was significantly affecting nitrate concentrations in the karst aquifer. Best management practices may be one way to protect the ground water resource

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