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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That relative permeability is see permeability, relative.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for numerical-simulation (Keyword) returned 11 results for the whole karstbase:
Numerical versus statistical modelling of natural response of a karst hydrogeological system, 1997, Eisenlohr L, Bouzelboudjen M, Kiraly L, Rossier Y,
Structural and hydrodynamic characteristics of karst aquifers are mostly deduced from studies of global responses of karst springs (hydrographs, chemical or isotopic composition). In this case, global response is often used to make inferences with respect to infiltration and ground water How processes as well as on the hydrodynamic parameters. Obviously, the direct verification of these inferences is very difficult. We have used an indirect method of verification, introducing well defined theoretical karst structures into a finite element model and then analysing the simulated global response according to the currently accepted interpretation schemes. As we know what we are introducing into the numeric model, the consistency of the interpretation may be checked immediately. The results obtained in the hydrogeological study of two karst basins in the Swiss Jura and from 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations show the difficulty of finding structural parameters and hydrodynamic behaviour from statistical methods alone, i.e. correlation analyses discharge-discharge and precipitation-discharge. In effect, our first results show that the form of the correlograms depends on several factors besides the structure of the karst aquifer: (i) on the form of the floods. in other words the contrast between quick Row and base How, (ii) on the frequency of hydrological events during the period analysed and (iii) on the type of infiltration processes, in other words the ratio of diffuse infiltration to concentrated information. Obviously, the variability of a karst hydrograph is a result of a combination of these factors. Distinction between them is not always possible on hydrographs, and therefore on correlations (discharge-discharge and precipitation-discharge). (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Numerical simulation as a tool for checking the interpretation of karst spring hydrographs, 1997, Eisenlohr L, Kiraly L, Bouzelboudjen M, Rossier Y,
A schematic representation of karst aquifers may be that of a high hydraulic conductivity channel network with kilometre-wide intervals, surrounded by a low hydraulic conductivity fractured limestone volume and connected to a local discharge area, the karst spring, The behaviour of the karst spring (hydrographs, chemical or isotopic composition, etc.) represents the global response of the karst aquifer to input events. The available data an karst aquifer hydraulic parameters are limited, Global response is therefore more easily obtained and is commonly used to make inferences on the recharge and groundwater How processes, as well as on the hydraulic parameter fields. Direct verification of these interpretations is, obviously, very difficult. We have used an indirect method of verification, consisting of introducing well-defined theoretical karst structures into a finite element model and then analysing the simulated global response according to presently accepted interpretation schemes. As we know what we put into the numerical model, the validity of any interpretation may be checked. The first results indicate that some of the generally accepted interpretations are not necessarily true. In particular: (i) separation of simulated recession hydrographs into several components shows that different exponential components do not necessarily correspond to aquifer volumes with different hydraulic conductivities: (ii) non-exponential parts of recession hydrographs do not always give information about the infiltration process: and (iii) the recession coefficient of the baseflow (i.e. the last, nearly exponential part of the recession hydrograph) depends on the global configuration of the whole karst aquifer, not just on the hydraulic properties of the low hydraulic conductivity volumes. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Influence of aperture variability on dissolutional growth of fissures in karst formations, 1998, Hanna R. B. , Rajaram H. ,
The influence of aperture variability on dissolutional growth of fissures is investigated on the basis of two-dimensional numerical simulations. The logarithm of the fissure aperture before dissolution begins is modeled as a Gaussian stationary isotropic random field. The initial phase of dissolutional growth is studied up to the time when turbulent flow first occurs at a point within the fissure (the breakthrough time). The breakthrough time in variable aperture fissures is smaller than that in uniform fissures and decreases as the coefficient of variation of the aperture field (sigma/mu) increases. In comparing uniform and variable aperture fissures in limestone, the breakthrough time with sigma/mu = 0.1 is about a factor of 2 smaller than that in a uniform fissure. The breakthrough time is reduced by about an order of magnitude with sigma/mu = 2.0. The mechanism leading to reduced breakthrough times is the focusing of flow into preferential flow channels which are enlarged at a faster rate than the surrounding regions of slower flow. Dissolution channels are narrower and more tortuous as sigma/mu. increases. Investigations of the influence of reaction rate reveal that the influence of aperture variability is more pronounced in rapidly dissolving rock. In uniform fissures in rapidly dissolving minerals, breakthrough times are very long since water becomes saturated with respect to the mineral within a short distance of the entrance to the flow path. However, in variable aperture fissures, breakthrough occurs rapidly because of selective growth along preferential flow channels, which progressively capture larger fractions of the total flow. These results partly explain why conduits develop rapidly in gypsum, although previous one-dimensional studies suggest that conduit growth will not occur

Flow pattern variability in natural fracture intersections, 1999, Kosakowski G. , Berkowitz B. ,
We use numerical simulations to examine the variability of flow patterns in representative fracture intersection geometries. In contrast to existing studies of perfectly orthogonal intersections, we demonstrate that more realistic geometries lead to a rich spectrum of flow patterns. Moreover, numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in these fracture intersections indicate that non-linear inertial effects become important for Reynolds numbers as tow as 1-100. Such Reynolds numbers often exist in naturally fractured formations, particularly in karst systems and in the vicinity of wells during pump tests

Climate-change impacts in a regional karst aquifer, Texas, USA, 2000, Loaiciga H. A. , Maidment D. R. , Valdes J. B. ,
Climate-change scenarios were created from scaling factors derived from several general circulation models to assess the likely impacts of aquifer pumping on the water resources of the Edwards Balcones Fault Zone (BFZ) aquifer, Texas, one of the largest aquifer systems in the United States. Historical climatic time series in periods of extreme water shortage (1947-1959), near-average recharge (1978-1989), and above-average recharge (1975-1990) were scaled to 2 x CO2 conditions to create aquifer recharge scenarios in a wanner climate. Several pumping scenarios were combined with 2 x CO2 climate scenarios to assess the sensitivity of water resources impacts to human-induced stresses on the Edwards BFZ aquifer. The 2 x CO2 climate change scenarios were linked to surface hydrology and used to drive aquifer dynamics with alternative numerical simulation models calibrated to the Edwards BFZ aquifer, Aquifer simulations indicate that, given the predicted growth and water demand in the Edwards BFZ aquifer region, the aquifer's ground water resources appear threatened under 2 x CO2 climate scenarios. Our simulations indicate that 2 x CO2 climatic conditions could exacerbate negative impacts and water shortages in the Edwards BFZ aquifer even if pumping does not increase above its present average level. The historical evidence and the results of this article indicate that without proper consideration to variations in aquifer recharge and sound pumping strategies, the water resources of the Edwards BFZ aquifer could be severely impacted under a warmer climate. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Modeling research in low-medium temperature geothermal field, Tianjin, 2002, Wang K. , Li C. H. ,
The geothermal reservoir in Tianjin can be divided into two parts: the upper one is the porous medium reservoir in the Tertiary system; the lower one includes the basement reservoir in Lower Paleozoic and Middle-Upper Proterozoic. Hot springs are exposed in the northern mountain and confined geothermal water is imbedded in the southern plain. The geothermal reservoir is incised by several fractures. In recent years, TIDS of the geothermal water have gone up along with the production rate increasing, along the eastern fracture zone (Cangdong Fracture and West Baitangkou Fracture). This means that the northern fracture system is the main seepage channel of the deep circulation geothermal water, and the reservoir has good connection in a certain area and definite direction. The isotopic research about hydrogen and carbon chronology indicates that the main recharge period of geothermal water is the Holocene Epoch, the pluvial and chilly period of 20 kaBP. The karst conduits in weathered carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic and Lower Paleozoic and the northeast regional fracture system are the main feeding channels of Tianjin geothermal water. Since the Holocene epoch, the geothermal water stayed at a sealed warm period. The tracer test in WR45 doublet system shows that the tracer test is a very effective measure for understanding the reservoir's transport nature and predicting the cooling time and transport velocity during the reinjection. 3-D numerical simulation shows that if the reinjection well keeps a suitable distance from the production well, reinjection will be a highly effective measure to extract more thermal energy from the rock matrix. The cooling of the production well will not be a problem

Evaluation of aquifer thickness by analysing recession hydrographs. Application to the Oman ophiolite hard-rock aquifer, 2003, Dewandel B, Lachassagne P, Bakalowicz M, Weng P, Almalki A,
For more than a century, hydrologists and hydrogeologists have been investigating the processes of stream and spring baseflow recession, for obtaining data on aquifer characteristics. The Maillet Formula [Librairie Sci., A. Hermann, Paris (1905) 218], an exponential equation widely used for recession curve analysis, is an approximate analytical solution for the diffusion equation in porous media whereas the equation proposed by Boussinesq [C. R. Acad. Sci. 137 (1903) 5; J. Math. Pure Appl. 10 (1904) 5], that depicts baseflow recession as a quadratic form, is an exact analytical solution. Other formulas currently used involve mathematical functions with no basis on groundwater theory. Only the exact analytical solutions can provide quantitative data on aquifer characteristics. The efficiency of the two methods was compared on the basis of recession curves obtained with a 2D cross-sectional finite differences model that simulates natural aquifers. Simulations of shallow aquifers with an impermeable floor at the level of the outlet show that their recession curves have a quadratic form. Thus, the approximate Maillet solution largely overestimates the duration of the 'influenced' stage and underestimates the dynamic volume of the aquifer. Moreover, only the Boussinesq equations enable correct estimates of the aquifer parameters. Numerical simulations of more realistic aquifers, with an impermeable floor much deeper than the outlet, proves the robustness of the Boussinesq formula even under conditions far from the simplifying assumptions that were used to integrate the diffusion equation. The quadratic form of recession is valid regardless of the thickness of the aquifer under the outlet, and provides good estimates of the aquifer's hydrodynamic parameters. Nevertheless, the same numerical simulations show that aquifers with a very deep floor provide an exponential recession. Thus, in that configuration, the Maillet formula also provides a good fit of recession curves, even if parameter estimation remains poor. In fact, the recession curve appears to be closer to exponential when flow has a very important vertical component, and closer to quadratic when horizontal flow is dominant. As a consequence, aquifer permeability anisotropy also changes the recession form. The combined use of the two fitting methods allows one to quantify the thickness of the aquifer under the outlet. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

A model comparison of karst aquifer evolution for different matrix-flow formulations, 2003, Kaufmann G. ,
The evolution of permeability and flow in a karst aquifer is studied by numerical simulations. The aquifer considered consists of a large central fracture, a network of finer fissures, and a porous rock matrix. Enlargement of both the central fracture and the fissures by chemical dissolution is possible, hence the conductivities in the fracture and the fissure system can increase with time. No dissolution is allowed in the porous rock matrix, which has a constant conductivity. How is driven by a simple fixed head boundary condition representative for the initial phase of karstification. A systematic parameter study is carried out by varying the initial width of the fissure network and the conductivity of the rock matrix, while keeping the initial width of the central fracture fixed. Key parameters such as flowrates, breakthrough times, and conductivities for the different models are compared. If either the conductivity of the rock matrix is high enough or the initial width of the fissures is large enough to carry flow, breakthrough times of the aquifer are significantly reduced, when compared to a model with low matrix conductivity and small fissures. However, due to the dissolutional widening of fissures the evolution of the aquifer is distinctively different for models with rock matrix simulated by a porous medium or a fissure network. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

From the geological to the numerical model in the analysis of gravity-induced slope deformations: An example from the Central Apennines (Italy), 2005, Maffei A. , Martino S. , Prestininzi A. ,
This paper presents the findings from a study on gravity-induced slope deformations along the northern slope of Mt. Nuria (Rieti-Italy). The slope extends from the village of Pendenza to the San Vittorino plain and hosts the Peschiera River springs, i.e. the most important springs of the Central Apennines (average discharge: about 18 m(3)/s). Detailed geological-geomorphological and geomechanical surveys, supported by a site stress-strain monitoring system and laboratory tests, led us to define the main evolutionary features of the studied phenomena. Based on the collected data, a 'geological-evolutionary model' was developed with a view to identifying a spatio-temporal correlation between relief forms, jointing of the rock mass and its stress conditions. The geological-evolutionary model was expected to improve numerical simulations and to test our assumptions. The numerical model also allowed us to simulate changes in the stress-strain conditions of the rock mass and correlate them with jointing, seepage, as well as with site-detected and site-monitored forms and deformations. In particular, significant relations between seepage, tensile stresses within the rock mass, karst solution and collapse of cavities were identified. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Reactive transport modeling and hydrothermal karst genesis: The example of the Rocabruna barite deposit (Eastern Pyrenees), 2006, Corbella M, Ayora C, Cardellach E, Soler A,
In western Europe and North Africa, many sulfide and barite deposits appear to be related to the pre-Triassic paleosurface. Some of these mineralizations have traditionally been interpreted as the result of mineral fillings of previously formed karstic cavities. However, reactive transport modeling suggests that those minerals may have originated at depth and simultaneous with the cavity in the carbonate rocks. Numerical simulations using the Rocabruna deposit as an example recreate the genesis of such cavities and their filling by new minerals in a hydrothermal environment. Two warm (T = 150 [deg]C) fluids with different compositions but both saturated with dolomite were allowed to mix at a fracture intersection; the resulting solution strongly corroded the dolomite host rock and was able to create large voids in a hundred thousand year time scale. Our results show that equidimensional cavities originate from mixtures with equal fluxes of the contributing fluids, but elongated dissolution zones appear when the flux ratios were different from unity and the slowest flow direction coincided with the longest dimension of the void. Moreover, when the fluid mixture was dominated by a diluted and slightly alkaline groundwater instead of a 50-50 mixture with an acidic brine, dolomite dissolution or corrosion was more effective. Sulfide minerals precipitate around cavity walls replacing the host dolostone as the dolomite dissolution reaction couples with that of sulfide precipitation. This coupling produces some porosity, which is negligible compared to that caused by the mixing itself. Barite may also precipitate inside the forming cavity, but as the sulfate mineral precipitation reaction is not coupled with that of dolomite dissolution, barite grows in open space

On the importance of geological heterogeneity for flow simulation, 2006, Eaton Tt,
Geological heterogeneity is recognized as a major control on reservoir production and constraint on many aspects of quantitative hydrogeology. Hydrogeologists and reservoir geologists need to characterize groundwater flow through many different types of geological media for different purposes. In this introductory paper, an updated perspective is provided on the current status of the long effort to understand the effect of geological heterogeneity on flow using numerical simulations. A summary is given of continuum vs. discrete paradigms, and zonal vs. geostatistical approaches, all of which are used to structure model domains. Using these methods and modern simulation tools, flow modelers now have greater opportunities to account for the increasingly detailed understanding of heterogeneous aquifer and reservoir systems.One way of doing this would be to apply a broader interpretation of the idea of hydrofacies, long used by hydrogeologists. Simulating flow through heterogeneous geologic media requires that numerical models capture important aspects of the structure of the flow domain. Hydrofacies are reinterpreted here as scale-dependent hydrogeologic units with a particular representative elementary volume (REV) or structure of a specific size and shape. As such, they can be delineated in indurated sedimentary or even fractured aquifer systems, independently of lithofacies, as well as in the unlithified settings in which they have traditionally been used. This reconsideration of what constitutes hydrofacies, the building blocks for representing geological heterogeneity in flow models, may be of some use in the types of settings described in this special issue

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