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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That bank is ascending slope bordering a river [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for oklahoma (Keyword) returned 17 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 17
A Checklist of the Cave Fauna of Oklahoma: Reptilia, 1974, Howard Black, Jeffre

Cave-Associated Snakes, Elaphe guttata, in Oklahoma, 1975, Mccoy, C. J.

Paleomagnetism of the Cambrian Royer Dolomite and Pennsylvanian Collings Ranch Conglomerate, southern Oklahoma; an early Paleozoic magnetization and nonpervasive remagnetization by weathering, 1990, Nick Kevin E. , Elmore R. Douglas,

Speleothems of Aerosol Origin: Reply, 1996, Klimchouck, A. B. , Nasedkin, V. M. , Cunningham, K. .
Ten new species of the genus Arrhopalites are described from caves in Oklahoma, Virginia, and Texas. A system for labeling the circumanal setae is presented, following the scheme of Lawrence (1979).

Occurrence of pesticides in ground water of the Ozark Plateaus Province, 1996, Adamski Jc, Pugh Al,
Pesticides were detected in ground-water samples collected from 20 springs and nine wells in the Ozark Plateaus Province of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. From April through September 1993, water samples were collected from 50 shallow domestic wells and 50 springs in the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers and analyzed for 47 pesticides and metabolites. Pesticides were detected in 17 water samples from the Springfield Plateau aquifer and 12 water samples from the Ozark aquifer. Fourteen pesticides were detected, with a maximum of four pesticides detected in any one sample. The most commonly detected pesticides were atrazine (14 detections), prometon (11 detections), and tebuthiuron (seven detections). P,P' DDE, a metabolite of DDT, was detected in water samples from three wells and one spring. The remaining pesticides were detected in three or less samples. The occurrence and distribution of pesticides probably are related to the local land use near a sampling site. Pesticide detections were significantly related to aquifer, site type, and discharge of springs

Dedolomitization as a mechanism for karst generation in permian Blane formation, southwestern Oklahoma, USA., 1997, Raines M. A. , Dewers T. A.

Dedolomitization as a driving mechanism for karst generation in Permian Blaine formation, southwestern Oklahoma, USA, 1997, Raines M. A. , Dewers T. A. ,
Cyclic deposits of Permian shales, dolomites, and halite and gypsum-bearing strata in the Blaine Formation of Southwestern Oklahoma contain abundant karst features. The present study shows that an important mechanism of karst development in these sequences is dedolomitization, wherein gypsum and dolomite in close spatial proximity dissolve and supersaturate groundwaters with respect to calcite. The net loss of mass accompanying this process (dolomite and gypsum dissolution minus calcite precipitation) can be manifest in secondary porosity development while the coupled nature of this set of reactions results in the retention of undersaturated conditions of groundwater with respect to gypsum. The continued disequilibrium generates karst voids in gypsum-bearing aquifers, a mineral-water system that would otherwise rapidly equilibrate. Geochemical modeling (using the code PHRQPITZ, Plummer et al 1988) of groundwater chemical data from Southwestern Oklahoma from the 1950's up to the present suggests that dedolomitization has occurred throughout this time period in evaporite sequences in Southwestern Oklahoma. Reports from groundwater well logs in the region of vein calcite suggest secondary precipitation, an observation in accord with dedolomite formation In terms of the amounts of void space produced by dissolution, dedolomitization can dominate gypsum dissolution alone, especially in periods of quiescent aquifer recharge when gypsum-water systems would have otherwise equilibrated and karst development ceased. Mass balance modeling plus molar volume considerations show that for every cubic cm of original rock (dolomite plus gypsum), there is 0.54 cm(3) of calcite and 0.47 cm(3) of void space produced Only slightly more pore space results if the dedolomitization reaction proceeds by psuedomorphic replacement of dolomite by calcite than in a reaction mechanism based on conservation of bicarbonate

Mixed transport reaction control of gypsum dissolution kinetics in aqueous solutions and initiation of gypsum karst, 1997, Raines M. A. , Dewers T. A. ,
Experiments with gypsum in aqueous solutions at 25 degrees C, low ionic strengths, and a range of saturation states indicate a mixed surface reaction and diffusional transport control of gypsum dissolution kinetics. Dissolution rates were determined in a mixed flow/rotating disc reactor operating under steady-state conditions, in which polished gypsum discs were rotated at constant speed and reactant solutions were continuously fed into the reactor. Rates increase with velocity of spin under laminar conditions (low rates of spin), but increase asymptotically to a constant rate as turbulent conditions develop with increasing spin velocity, experiencing a small jump in magnitude across the laminar-turbulent transition. A Linear dependence of rates on the square root of spin velocity in the laminar regime is consistent with rates being limited by transport through a hydrodynamic boundary layer. The increase in rate with onset of turbulence accompanies a near discontinuous drop in hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness across the transition. A relative independence of rates on spinning velocity in the turbulent regime plus a nonlinear dependence of rates on saturation state are factors consistent with surface reaction control. Together these behaviors implicate a 'mixed' transport and reaction control of gypsum dissolution kinetics. A rate law which combines both kinetic mechanisms and can reproduce experimental results under laminar flow conditions is proposed as follows: R = k(t) {1 - Omega(b)() zeta [1 - (1 2(1 - Omega(b)())(1/2)]} where k(t) is the rate coefficient for transport control, and Omega(b)() is the mean ionic saturation state of the bulk fluid. The dimensionless parameter zeta(=Dm(eq)()/2 delta k() where m(eq)() = mean ionic molal equilibrium concentration, D is the diffusion coefficient through the hydrodynamic boundary layer, delta equals the boundary layer thickness and k() is the rate constant for surface reaction control) indicates which process, transport or surface reaction, dominates, and is sensitive to the hydrodynamic conditions in the reactor. For the range of conditions used in our experiments, zeta varies from about 1.4 to 4.5. Rates of gypsum dissolution were also determined in situ in a cavern system in the Permian Blaine Formation, southwestern Oklahoma. Although the flow conditions in the caverns were not determinable, there is good agreement between lab- and field-determined rates in that field rate magnitudes lie within a range of rates determined experimentally under zero to low spin velocities A numerical model coupling fluid flow and gypsum reaction in an idealized circular conduit is used to estimate the distance which undersaturated solutions will travel into small incipient conduits before saturation is achieved. Simulations of conduit wall dissolution showed-member behaviors of conduit formation and surface denudation that depend on flow boundary conditions (constant discharge or constant hydraulic gradient and initial conduit radius. Surface-control of dissolution rates. which becomes more influential with higher fluid flow velocity, has the effect that rate decrease more slowly as saturation is approached than otherwise would occur if rates were controlled by transport alone. This has the effect that reactive solutions can penetrate much farther into gypsum-bearing karst conduits than heretofore thought possible, influencing timing and mechanism of karst development as well as stability of engineered structures above karst terrain

Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA, 2000, Adamski Jc,
Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a carbonate aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in central USA, has two distinct hydrochemical zones. Within each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different than water from wells. Geochemical data indicate that spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Water type throughout most of the aquifer was calcium bicarbonate, indicating that carbonate-rock dissolution is the primary geochemical process occurring in the aquifer. Concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen and tritium indicate that most ground water in the aquifer recharged rapidly and is relatively young (less than 40 years). In general, field-measured properties, concentrations of many chemical constituents, and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from the northern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone A) than in samples from the southern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone B). Factors affecting differences in the geochemical composition of ground water between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zone A than in zone B. In addition, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, concentrations of many chemical constituents and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from wells than in samples from springs in each hydrochemical zone. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, and chloride generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Water from springs generally flows rapidly through large conduits with minimum water-rock interactions. Water from wells flow through small fractures, which restrict how and increase water-rock interactions. As a result, springs tend to be more susceptible to surface contamination than wells. The results of this study have important implications for the geochemical and hydrogeological processes of similar carbonate aquifers in other geographical locations. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

A Pleistocene Tapir and Associated Mammals from the Southwestern Ozark Highland, 2002, Czaplewski, N. J. , Puckette, W. L. , Russell, C.
A mud deposit in Sassafras Cave near Stilwell, Oklahoma, produced a small assemblage of fossil vertebrates including an unidentified salamander and the mammals Myotis sp., Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus subflavus, Tamias striatus, Peromyscus sp., Reithrodontomys sp., Microtus sp., and Tapirus veroensis. The fossiliferous mud deposit is a stream terrace containing abundant red clay accumulated behind roof fall and breakdown boulders that temporarily dammed the main stream-passage of the cave. The tapir fossils indicate a late Rancholabrean (late Pleistocene) age for the deposit. This is the first report of a tapir from the Oklahoma Ozark Highland and only the second report of Pleistocene megafauna from a cave in eastern Oklahoma. The tapir is represented by a partial skeleton with some of the distal leg bones articulated in life position in the deposit. The animal probably died while it was standing or laying in the mud, possibly after falling into the cave or walking in through an entrance that had a different configuration in the Pleistocene than the present sinkhole entrance

Speleology of gypsum caves in Oklahoma, 2002, Bozeman J, Bozeman S,
The gypsum caves of western Oklahoma are situated in three separate areas of evaporite karst: (1) the Cimarron Gypsum Hills, in the northwest, along the Cimarron River; (2) the Weatherford Gypsum Hills, in west-central Oklahoma, to the north of the Wichita Mountains; and (3) the Mangum Gypsum Hills, in the southwest, west of the Wichita Mountains. Caves of the Cimarron Gypsum Hills and the Mangum Gypsum Hills are developed in the alternating dolomite, gypsum/anhydrite, and shale beds of the Permian Blaine Formation. Ranging from natural bridges to extensive cave systems, the largest is the 10 km of passages in Jester Cave in the Mangum Gypsum Hills. Cave passages formed in the normally paired gypsum and dolomite beds exhibit narrow (1.5-5 in wide), sinuous, canyon-like profiles. The development of broader passages, with widths from 5 in to more than 3 5 in, involve the shale beds. Some are bedding-plane passages with extremely low ceilings, whereas others are comfortable, walking-height passages with ceilings from 3-15 in high. The Blaine Formation, in the area of humanly mappable cave development, is from 12 in to approximately 50 in thick. The caves drain the bluffs/escarpments and normally end in karst spring resurgences. Roof collapse often modifies these resurgences into breakdown mazes. The Weatherford Gypsum Hills caves are formed in the Permian Cloud Chief Formation. The Cloud Chief gypsum is chalkier than the Blaine gypsums and the resultant cave development is more segmented, ranging from natural bridges (1.5-15 in in length) to cave segments (locally referred to as 'tunnels') that are tens of meters to more than one kilometer in length. These caves exhibit very little vertical development, and none of the bedding-plane development found in the Blaine Formation

Intrastratal karst at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico, 2003, Hill C. A.

Evaporite Karst and Engineering/Environmental Problems in the United States, 2003, Johnson K. S. , Neal J. T.

Dictyostelid cellular slime molds from caves., 2006, Landolt J. C. , Stephenson S. L. , Slay M. E.
Dictyostelid cellular slime molds associated with caves in Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Missouri, New York, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, West Virginia, Puerto Rico, and San Salvador in the Bahamas were investigated during the period of 1990-2005. Samples of soil material collected from more than 100 caves were examined using standard methods for isolating dictyostelids. At least 17 species were recovered, along with a number of isolates that could not be identified completely. Four cosmopolitan species (Dictyostelium sphaerocephalum, D. mucoroides, D. giganteum ac/Polysphondylium violaceumj and one species (D. rosariumj with a more restricted distribution were each recorded from more than 25 different caves, but three other species were present in more than 20 caves. The data generated in the present study were supplemented with all known published and unpublished records of dictyostelids from caves in an effort to summarize what is known about their occurrence in this habitat.

A maximum size and abundance record for Cambarus subterraneus (Astacoidea: Cambaridae), 2013, Fenolio Dante, Niemiller Matthew L, Soares Daphne, Slay Michael E, Stark Richard C, Hensley Steve L

The Delaware County Cave Crayfish, Cambarus subterraneus is restricted to just three caves within a small region of the Neosho River watershed of Delaware Co., Oklahoma, USA.  Few individuals are typically observed during surveys of the three caves.  This species is listed as ‘Critically Imperiled’ by NatureServe and ‘Critically Endangered’ by IUCN.  We observed an exceptionally large female in Twin Cave, Delaware Co., OK; we also recorded a record count in the system.  Based on our observations at Twin Cave, we think this population is healthy with continued recruitment and with some individuals attaining large sizes and presumably old ages.


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