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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That water invasion is the sudden invasion of water into a well or borehole [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for oxygen isotopes (Keyword) returned 23 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 23
Oxygen isotopes and sea level, 1986, Chappell J. , Shackleton N. J.

Oxygen isotopes in meteoric calcite cement as indicators of continental paleoclimate., 1991, Hays P. D. , Grossman E. L.

Correlated strontium, carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbonate gangue at the Nanisivik zinc-lead deposits, northern Baffin Island, Canada., 1992, Ghazban F. , Schwarcz H. P. , Ford D. C.

Speleothem evidence for Holocene fluctuations of the prairie-forest ecotone, north-central USA, 1999, Denniston Rf, Gonzalez La, Baker Rg, Asmerom Y, Reagan Mk, Edwards Rl, Alexander Ec,
Carbon and oxygen isotopic trends from seven Midwestern speleothems record significant offsets in the timing of middle-Holocene vegetation change. Interactions of dry Pacific and moist Gulf of Mexico air masses maintained a sharp moisture gradient across Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin such that the arrival of prairie was offset by 2000 years between caves and pollen sites located only 50 km apart. Oxygen isotopes shift concomitantly with carbon in most cases, although these changes are believed to represent increased evaporative enrichment of 18O prior to infiltration during the prairie period

Isotopic, geochemical and biological tracing of the source of an impacted karst spring, Weldon Spring, Missouri, 2001, Criss Re, Fernandes Sa, Winston We,
Weldon Spring is consistently enriched in O-18 relative to other karst springs in east-central Missouri and western Illinois, suggesting an evaporated source component. Regional potentiometric head maps of the shallow aquifer suggest that Prairie Lake, an artificial lake built between 1954 and 1982, could represent this component. Isotopic, biological and chemical tracing of the spring conclusively verify the hypothesis that this lake has impacted Weldon Spring. Mixing calculations indicate that Weldon Spring is now comprised of approximately 80% lake water and 20% groundwater. Recent measurements indicate that the discharge rate of the spring is now approximately 10 times the rate prior to the construction of the lake, confirming the augmentation of flow by a new source. Analysis of the isotopic trends indicates that the subsurface travel time is short, and suggests that the conduits connecting the lake and the spring may be progressively enlarging. (C) 2001 AEHS

Estimating recharge thresholds in tropical karst island aquifers: Barbados, Puerto Rico and Guam, 2003, Jones I. C. , Banner J. L. ,
The hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater in tropical island aquifers, such as Barbados, Guam and Puerto Rico, are significantly influenced by tropical climatic conditions. Recharge to these aquifers is the product of regional and local climate patterns that control rainfall. Oxygen isotopes can be used to estimate the amount and timing of recharge on these islands because seasonal fluctuations of rainwater oxygen isotopic compositions are related to the amount of rainfall. The karst aquifers on Barbados, Guam and Puerto Rico have similar rainwater and groundwater oxygen isotopic compositions. Comparison of groundwater and rainwater oxygen isotopic compositions in the three aquifers indicates that: (1) recharge occurs by rapid infiltration with little evaporation prior to recharge; and (2) recharge is associated with similar monthly rainfall thresholds of 190-200 mm. These rainfall thresholds are remarkably similar for three aquifers in different geographic locations. Differences between the spatial variations of groundwater oxygen isotopic compositions on Barbados and Puerto Rico can be attributed to the more complex groundwater flow system on Puerto Rico. The surprising similarities of hydrologic conditions under which recharge will take place can be attributed to similarities in climate and geologic conditions, such as soils and limestone bedrock, that exist on the three islands. We therefore speculate that similar recharge-rainfall thresholds may be observed in other tropical karst aquifers. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Hydrogeologic and climatic influences on spatial and interannual variation of recharge to a tropical karst island aquifer, 2003, Jones I. C. , Banner J. L. ,
[1] The hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater in tropical island aquifers, such as on Barbados, are significantly influenced by tropical climatic conditions. Recharge to these aquifers is the product of regional and local climate patterns that control rainfall. Oxygen isotopes can be used to estimate the amount and timing of recharge on these islands because seasonal fluctuations of rainwater oxygen isotopic compositions are related to the amount of rainfall. This study shows that estimates of average annual recharge to the limestone aquifer on Barbados vary widely, displaying a more direct relationship to the distribution of rainfall throughout each year than to total annual rainfall. Recharge estimates are higher during years when rainfall is concentrated in the peak wet season months than during years when rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year. The El Nino-Southern Oscillation appears to be partially responsible for these rainfall and recharge fluctuations. Knowledge of interannual variation of recharge and processes responsible is important because recharge variation must be considered when setting groundwater management policies related to groundwater availability

Cryogenic cave calcite from several Central European caves: age, carbon and oxygen isotopes and a genetic model, 2004, Zak Karel, Urban Jan, Cilek Vaclav, Hercman Helena,
Cryogenic cave calcite (CCC), formed by segregation of solutes during water freezing, was found in three Central European caves. This calcite type forms accumulations of loose calcite grains on cave floor. The calcite grains are of highly variable crystal morphology, and of sizes ranging from less than 1 mm to over 1 cm. The most typical feature is their accumulation as loose (uncemented) crystals. U-series dating indicates the formation of CCC in the studied caves during several climatic oscillations of the Weichselian (between 61 and 36 ka BP in the Chelsiowa Jama-Jaskinia Jaworznicka cave system in Poland, between 34 and 26 ka BP in the BUML Cave in the Czech Republic, and between 26 and 21 ka BP in the Stratenska Jaskyna cave system, Slovakia). At the time of CCC formation, the studied caves were lying in a periglacial zone.Detailed C and O stable isotope study of CCC samples revealed that slow water freezing under isotope equilibrium was the dominant formational process in the studied Polish and Czech caves. Significantly higher [delta]13C values of CCC in the Stratenska Jaskyna Cave indicate either water freezing in a more opened system with continuous CO2 escape (Rayleigh fractional separation), or participation of another CO2 source. The model of slow water freezing under isotope equilibrium is supported by isolated character of the caves having limited ventilation.In contrast, modern cryogenic cave calcite powders sampled directly on the ice surface of two recently iced caves in Slovakia with high ventilation showed much higher [delta]18O and [delta]13C data, similar to cryogenic calcites obtained in experimental rapid water freezing

Palaeoclimatic implications of the growth history and stable isotope ([delta]18O and [delta]13C) geochemistry of a Middle to Late Pleistocene stalagmite from central-western Italy, 2004, Drysdale Rn, Zanchetta G, Hellstrom Jc, Fallick Ae, Zhao Jx, Isola I, Bruschi G,
The age structure and stable isotope composition of a stalagmite (CC1) from an upland cave in central-western Italy were studied to investigate regional response to global climatic changes. Four growth phases are constrained by 28 thermal ionization and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Th-U ages and reveal intermittent deposition through the period between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and 3 (~380 and ~43 kyr). Most of the growth took place between ~380 and ~280 kyr, a period punctuated briefly by a hiatus in deposition through the glacial maximum of MIS 10. Growth was terminated abruptly at 280 kyr just prior to the MIS 8 glacial maximum. With a present-day chamber temperature of 7.5 [deg]C, the timing of hiatuses close to these glacial maxima point to freezing conditions at the time. No deposition was recorded through the entirety of MIS 7 and most of MIS 6, whilst two minor growth phases occurred at ~141-125 and ~43 kyr. Growth at 141 kyr indicates temperatures >0 [deg]C at a time when MIS 6 ice volumes were close to their maximum. High stable carbon isotope ([delta]13C) values (-2.8[per mille sign] to .1[per mille sign]) throughout the stalagmite's growth reflect a persistently low input of biogenic CO2, indicating that the steep, barren and alpine-like recharge area of today has been in existence for at least the last ~380 kyr. During MIS 9, the lowest [delta]13C values occur well after maximum interglacial conditions, suggesting a lag in the development of post-glacial soils in this high-altitude karst. The stable oxygen isotope ([delta]18O) trends match the main structural features of the major climate proxy records (SPECMAP, Vostok and Devils Hole), suggesting that the [delta]18O of CC1 has responded to global-scale climate changes, whilst remarkable similarity exists between CC1 [delta]18O and regional sea-surface temperature reconstructions from North Atlantic core ODP980 and southwest Pacific marine core MD97-2120 through the most detailed part of the CC1 record, MIS 9-8. The results suggest that CC1 and other stalagmites from the cave have the potential to capture a long record of regional temperature trends, particularly in regards to the relative severity of Pleistocene glacial stages

Use of stable isotopes to quantify flows between the Everglades and urban areas in Miami-Dade County Florida, 2004, Wilcox W. M. , Sologabriele H. M. , Sternberg L. O. R. ,
An isotopic study was performed to assess the movement of groundwater for a site located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The site encompasses portions of a protected wetland environment (northeast Everglades National Park) and suburban residential Miami, incorporating municipal pumping wells and lakes formed by rock mining. Samples of ground, surface, and rainwater were analyzed for their isotopic composition (oxygen-18 and deuterium). Various analytical and graphical techniques were used to analyze this data and two conceptual box models were developed to quantify flows between different regions within the site. Results from this study indicate that the aquifer underlying the study site (the Biscayne aquifer) is highly transmissive with the exception of two semi-confining layers of reduced hydraulic conductivity. Everglades surface water infiltrates into the aquifer and migrates east toward residential areas. In these urban areas, 'shallow' groundwater (above the deeper semi-confining layer) is substantially affected by urban rainfall while 'deep' groundwater (below the deeper semi-confining layer) maintains a composition similar to that of Everglades water. Rock mining lakes in the area provide 'breaks' in the semi-confining layers that allow for mixing of shallow and deep groundwater. As water travels eastward, municipal well intakes, screened to a depth below the deeper semi-confining layer, draw upon not only shallow urban water (predominantly comprised of urban rainfall) and lake water (having influences from both urban rainfall and Everglades water) but also deep water that originated in the Everglades. Results from one of the box models estimate that over 60% of the water being removed by municipal pumping originated in the Everglades. These conclusions suggest that Everglades water, both directly through deep groundwater flow and indirectly through mixing with rock-mining lakes, is being drawn into the operating municipal wellfield.

A 6000-year high-resolution climatic record from a stalagmite in Xiangshui Cave, Guilin, China, 2004, Zhang Meiliang, Yuan Daoxian, Lin Yushi, Qin Jiaming, Bin Li, Cheng Hai, Edwards R. Lawrence,
Middle-to late-Holocene palaeoclimate change has been reconstructed at high resolution by the analysis of the carbon and oxygen isotopes from a thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) U/Th dated stalagmite from Xiangshui Cave, near Guilin, Guangxi Province, China. The carbon and oxygen isotopic records from the stalagmite suggest that changes in the Asian monsoon since the middle Holocene (6000 BP) can be divided into two periods: (1) an interval from 6000 to 3800 BP when a strong East Asian summer monsoon gradually weakened and climate was relatively warm and humid; (2) a cool period from 3800 to 373 BP when the East Asian summer monsoon was relatively weak and the winter monsoon was probably relatively strong. This cooler interval was interspersed with a number of short warm periods. A This interpretation is largely based upon the general increase in 6180 values of the stalagmite between 6000 and 3800 BP and shifts in 6180 about a relatively heavy mean value between 3800 and 373 BP. The 6000 to 3800 BP trend is probably associated with decrease in precipitation and temperature subsequent to the mid-Holocene climatic optimum

Dynamic hydrologic and geochemical response in a perennial karst spring, 2004, Winston W. E. , Criss R. E. ,
Storms induce rapid variations in the discharge, specific conductivity, and temperature of a perennial karst spring in eastern Missouri that are followed by gradual return to normal conditions. These dynamics reflect the varying relative proportions of 'base flow'' and 'event water'' components that have different delta(18)O signatures, solute concentrations, flow paths, and transport timescales, which combine with other transport impedances to govern the temporal behavior of water quality parameters. A new Darcian model accurately reproduces the hydrograph and its separated components, defines the time constants that govern their physical and geochemical responses, and affords a quantitative method to investigate these linked behaviors. Analysis of 58 storm events reveals an average pulse time constant of 0.4 0.2 days that is much shorter than the similar to2 year residence time of water in the aquifer derived from long-term delta(18)O variations. For individual pulses this short time constant for total flow approximates that of the base flow component, but the time constant for the event water component is even shorter. The same model also approximates other storm-induced variations and indicates they are all triggered at the same time but respond according to different time constants of 1.6 0.2 days for oxygen isotopes, 1.6 0.9 days for temperature, and 3.4 1.0 days for specific conductivity and major ion concentrations. The time constant for discharge decreases somewhat with greater peak flows, while the geochemical time constants increase

ISOTOPES IN SPELEOTHEMS, 2005, Mcdermott F. , Schwarcz H. , Rowe P. J.

Stable isotope analysis of the Cenomaniane Turonian (Late Cretaceous) oceanic anoxic event in the Crimea, 2005, Fisher J. K. , Price G. D. , Hart M. B. , Leng M. J.

Carbon and oxygen isotope data from Cenomaniane Turonian sediments from the southwest of the Crimea are presented. The sediments consist of limestones, marls and organic-rich claystones, the latter with total organic carbon values up to 2.6 wt. %, representing Oceanic Anoxic Event 2. A shift to more negatived 18 O values through the uppermost Cenomanian into the lowermost Turonian may be the result of warming; however, petrographic analysis shows that the samples have undergone a degree of diagenetic alteration. The carbon isotope data reveal a positive excursion fromw2.7&to a peak of 4.3&at the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary; values then decrease in the early Turonian. This excursion is comparable to those of other Cenomaniane Turonian sections, such as those seen in the Anglo-Paris Basin, and is thought to be due to global changes in the oceanic carbon reservoir. On this curve are a number of negatived 13 C excursions, just below the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary. It is suggested that these negative excursions are associated with the uptake of light carbon derived from the oxidation and deterioration of or-ganic material during localised exposure of the sediments to oxic or meteoric diagenetic conditions, possibly during sea-level fluctuations. 


Water storage and transfer in the epikarst of karstic systems during high flow periods, 2006, Aquilina L, Ladouche B, Dorfliger N,
SummaryA monitoring of spring and rain waters in the South of France during two hydrological cycles is presented. Rain waters were sampled after each precipitation event at 3 rain-gauge stations. Four karstic springs located in the same area have also been daily (high discharge events) to monthly (low flow periods) sampled. This paper focuses on compositional changes in the Cl- and Br- ions and the oxygen-18 ([delta]18O) and hydrogen ([delta]D) isotopes during the high discharge events.The responses of the different karstic systems are quite homogeneous and reflect the hydrological state of the system. The waters discharged during the major autumn and winter high discharge events originate from the epikarstic reservoir and show characteristics chemical variations related to residence in the unsaturated zone close to the surface. Their residence time in the order of 1-3 months. Correlations between the composition of the spring-water and the rainwater during three successive high discharge events during the summer of 1998 indicate that the water for high discharge event 'n' is derived from water from precipitation event 'n - 1' via a piston-type mechanism with residence time of 2 weeks.These results are interpreted as an indication of the major role of the epikarst reservoir in the karst recharge functioning. The similar behaviour of the four springs, although located in different geological contexts allows to think that the epikarst role could be more important than previously thought

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