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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That retardation factor is the ratio of the average linear velocity of ground water to the velocity of the retarded constituent at c/co=0.5 [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for palaeontology (Keyword) returned 19 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 19
Bibliography of Welsh Cave Archaeology and Palaeontology, 1972, Valdemar A. E.

Relations between the location of the karst bauxites in the northern hemisphere, the global tectonics and the climatic variations during geological time, 1979, Nicolas Jean, Bildgen Pierre,
The study of the distribution of the laterites and bauxites of karst in the Northern Hemisphere shows that their location is not erratic. Most of the bauxites are ordered after their age, according to alignments indicating the existence of palaeoclimatic belts of humid intertropical type that were susceptible of having generated a laterizing pedogenesis, during geological time when these bauxites and laterites were formed. In relation to the present network of latitudes, these palaeoclimatic belts gradually took up more southerly positions, as geological time passed. A few of these formations appear, however, to be located outside the palaeclimatic belts within which they should occur. To explains this apparent anomaly, it is in consequence necessary to call into play on the one hand, the drift of the palaeoclimatic belts from the north to the south, and on the other, the mechanisms of ocean-floor spreading and of the movement of the continental plates. The results of these processes are integrated into the framework of the principles of global tectonics. They also correspond to those obtained from other disciplines, such as palaeomagnetism, palaeoclimatology, biogeography, palaeontology, etc.Extension of this study to the Southern Hemisphere can not be realized for the present, because the results of the researches relating to it in the field with which we are concerned are much too imprecise and the bibliography linked up with it too summary

Karst geology of Wellington Caves, a review., 2001, Osborne R. A. L.

After 170 years of scientific investigation and speculation, significant problems in the karst geology of Wellington Caves remain unsolved. Work in progress is addressing issues relating to: the role of the geological structure in cave development; the mechanism of cave formation; the palaeontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology of the cave sediments; the origin of the phosphate deposits and the relationship between the caves and the surrounding landscape. Little progress has been made in understanding the hydrology of the karst or the meteorology of the caves. These latter problems will require long-term monitoring and data collection, which has yet to commence.

The small vertebrate fauna (Rodents, Insectivores, and Reptiles) of Šandalja 1A (Istria, Croatia), 2001, Aguilar Jeanpierre, Crochet Jeanyves, Michaux Jacques, Mihevc Andrej, Paunovič, Maja

Is described under the name of Šandalja 1A, a Lower to Middle Pleistocene fauna of small vertebrates including rodents, insectivores and reptiles. Extracted from a bone breccia found in 1999 in the Šandalja quarry near Pula, its accurate localization with respect to the previously known bone breccia of Šandalja 1 is not known. Nevertheless this dating - a Biharian age - is congruent with the younger age now advocated for the fauna of large mammals of Šandalja 1 and its associated chopper.

Molluscan assemblages from deposits filling small karst forms in the Tatra Mountains (Southern Poland), 2001, Alexandrowicz, Witold Pawel

Numerous shells of molluscs were found in loamy sediments rich in limestone and dolomite scree filling small karst forms and forming debris fans. They have been analysed from several logs in the Tatra Mountains. Woodland and open-country snails are the main components of fauna. Relations between two mentioned ecological groups of molluscs indicate climatic changes and moving the timberline. Three phases of warming separated by two stages of the colder climate were recognised. They can be related to following ages: XIII and first half of XIV centuries AD (warm phase), second half of XIV - XVII centuries AD (cold phase), XVIII and the first half of XIX centuries (warm phase), second half of the XIX century (cold phase) and finally to XX century (warm phase).

Intrt de lapproche morphognique pour la comprhension globale dune grotte haute valeur patrimoniale, la grotte Chauvet (Ardche - France), 2004, Delannoy Jeanjacques, Perrette Yves, Debard Evelyne, Ferrier Catherine, Kervazo Bertrand, Perroux Annesophie, Jaillet Stphane, Quinif Yves
Interest of the morphogenesis approach to improve the knowledge of a high-value heritage: Chauvet cave (Ardche, France) - This paper describes the shapes and cave deposits of the Chauvet cave. Especially, the geomorphologic approach improves the global understanding of the Chauvet cave characteristics while Man and animal prehistoric occupancies. Access to the cave, painting location in the cave, and finally cave closing, are discussed on geomorphologic basis to answer the questions asked by prehistorians and archaeologists. The ultimate goal of this paper is to enhance the contribution of the geomorphologic high resolution mapping to the prehistoric investigations. To answer the three questions above, we used shapes and deposits to relate the past cave environments. Soil detailed map allows to describe deposits and shapes in a stratigraphic approach. Some U/Th dating complete the chronology especially during Man and animal occupancy; thus, the closing of the prehistoric entrance has been dated older than 15000 years. Also, this paper shows the interest of crossing the disciplinary approaches in the understanding of such a complex scientific object: the Chauvet cave, a high value Man heritage

The Pleistocene Ma U’Oi cave, northern Vietnam: palaeontology, sedimentology and palaeoenvironments, 2004, Bacon Am, Demeter F, Schuster M, Long Vt, Thuy Nk, Antoine Po, Sen S, Nga Hh, Huong Nm,
In November 2001, a Vietnamese-French team undertook the excavation of the Ma U’Oi cave in northern Vietnam. This limestone karst cave is located in the province of Hoa Binh, 70 km ESE from Hanoi and is typical of the northern Vietnam landscape. The site yielded an in situ mammalian fauna of a relatively modern composition. We also found a mixed fauna with a lower molar attributed to an archaic Homo (Demeter et al., in press). We estimate the age of Ma U’Oi fauna between 169 kyr, the age of Thum Wiman Nakin (Esposito et al., 1998) estimated by U/Th method and 80-60 kyr, the biochronological age of Lang Trang (Long et al., 1996), or even Holocene. The Ma U’Oi site is important because of the scarcity of Vietnamese sites of those particular levels. For that reason, it fills a gap in the biostratigraphy of Vietnam and permits new correlations with other sites of the mainland, especially those well documented from Thailand

Hypogene and supergene alteration of the Late Palaeozoic Ratburi Limestone during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (Thailand, Surat Thani Province). Implications for the concentration of mineral commodities, 2005, Dill H. G. , Botz R. , Luppold F. W. , Henjeskunst F.
An interdisciplinary study of the Upper Carboniferous to Middle Permian Ratburi Group, Peninsular Thailand, is presented. The investigation involved sedimentary petrography, inorganic geochemistry, Sr, C, O isotope analyses, micropalaeontology as well as radio-carbon age dating. Emphasis was placed on the post-depositional evolution of the Ratburi Limestone in the Surat Thani Province. The Holocene chemical residues and the various calcite and dolomite minerals which have formed since the Late Palaeozoic in the Ratburi Limestone are the product of a complex, multistage alteration which is called supergene and hypogene karstifications, respectively. Sedimentation took place in a shelf environment with some reefs evolving during the late Murgabian at the shelf margin. There was no pre-concentration of elements, except for Ca and F during sedimentation. Diagenetic neomorphism and cementation under marine and freshwater conditions caused the Ratburi Limestone to convert into a marble-like rock. Fabric-selective dolomitization is of local scale and has impacted only on part of the Ratburi Limestone during the Lower to Upper Permian. A significant enhancement of pore space and better conduits were generated during the Late Cretaceous epithermal alteration. The most favorable conditions for the accumulation of metals were provided during the high-temperature stage of epithermal alteration when a low-metal concentration with As, Zn, Sb, U, Co and Pb existed. Unlike the other elements, Sb was subject to a multiphase concentration, giving rise to a considerable Sb deposit in the region. The most recent stage of karstification produced numerous caves, dripstones, tufa terraces and encrustations around brine pools in the study area. This alteration originated from per descensum and per ascensum processes which may be traced back to 15,000 years before present. The alteration of the Ratburi Limestone may be subdivided into two parts. The prograde post-depositional alteration, beginning with diagenesis, reached its temperature climax during epithermal subsurface alteration I. The retrograde branch of alteration lasted until the most recent times. The initial stages deposition and diagenesis took place under more or less closed-system conditions relative to the succeeding stages of the prograde alteration which saw the strongest influx of metal-bearing brine during the epithermal stage I. The retrograde branch of alteration is element-conservative.

In Situ taphonomic investigation of Pleistocene Large Mammal Bone Deposits from the Ossuaries, Victoria Fossil Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia, 2006, Reed E. H.
The Ossuaries within the Victoria Fossil Cave (5U-1) contain a large, virtually untouched deposit of Pleistocene vertebrates. Discovered in the early 1970s, the chamber has been left unexcavated as a reference section of the cave and contains taphonomic features analogous to the formation of other large deposits such as the Fossil Chamber. This paper presents the results of an in situ taphonomic investigation of large mammal fossils from The Ossuaries. The results suggest The Ossuaries acted as a pitfall trap for a range of large Pleistocene mammals, in particular kangaroos. Once accumulated, the skeletons of these animals were subject to burial and dispersal by water and modification by trampling and termite gnawing. The presence of articulated material suggests many animals survived their initial fall, only to wander further into the cave and perish at some distance from the entrance.

U-series dating and taphonomy of Quaternary vertebrates from Brazilian caves, 2006, Auler As, Pilo Lb, Smart Pl, Wang X, Hoffmann D, Richards Da, Edwards Rl, Neves Wa, Cheng H,
The geochronology and taphonomy of internationally important fossil bearing cave deposits were studied, both in the semi-arid Northern Bahia area and the subtropical southeastern Lagoa Santa area of Brazil. Taphonomic analysis suggests that the processes responsible for bone accumulation in the Brazilian caves vary between sites, and taphonomic bias can therefore be significant in causing differences in faunal composition. In the Toca da Boa Vista caves the presence of single articulated skeletons, and the entrance-related distribution indicate that random penetration of animals is the main mechanism of fossil accumulation, a process that biases the assemblage to smaller species, and takes place over extended time periods. In nearby Toca dos Ossos cave transport by runoff in the cave river is predominant, and biases the fauna remains to larger more robust bones and species. Deposition probably also occurred only at times of enhanced runoff giving a more contemporaneous assemblage. Similar processes were responsible for emplacement of the copious fossil remains in the more humid Lagoa Santa area, where terrigenous fossil deposits are found intercalated by massive speleothem calcite layers. In this area runoff under a drier climate probably accounts for the sediment emplacement inside caves. In both areas the mode of emplacement implies bias in the fossil record, resulting in fossil assemblages that do not mirror surface faunas, limiting palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.Mass spectrometric U-series analysis of speleothem calcite overlaying fossil remains gives minimum ages for fossil deposition. These ages confirm the previous view that many of the deposits derive from the late glacial, but also show that much older material (some > 350,000[no-break space]yr) is also present. The habitat requirements of critical fossil species such as bats and monkeys strongly suggest that they derive from much wetter periods when forest cover was present in the currently semi-arid Northern Bahia area. Taphonomy exerts a major control on the diversity and mode of emplacement of cave fossil deposits in eastern Brazil and thus detailed sedimentological and hydrological studies coupled with a sound geochronological approach are essential in quantifying the relative importance of each taphonomic processes before faunal and palaeoecological interpretations can be attempted

New palaeontological assemblage, sedimentological and chronological data from the Pleistocene Ma U'Oi cave (northern Vietnam), 2006, Bacon Am, Demeter F, Rousse S, Long Vt, Duringer P, Antoine Po, Thuy Nk, Mai Bt, Huong Ntm, Dodo Y,
This paper describes recent material gathered during the second fieldwork at Ma U'Oi in November 2002 by a Vietnamese-French-Japanese team. The Ma U'Oi cave, located in the province of Hoa Binh (60 km SW from Hanoi), northern Vietnam, belongs to a karstic network developed in Triassic dark-grey limestones.The cave is filled with coarse-grained breccias containing numerous fossil remains, partially preserved at several loci inside the cave (wall, vault and ground). We describe new teeth which confirm the occurrence of mammal taxa already mentioned at Ma U'Oi (Bacon et al., 2004)[Bacon, A-M., Demeter, F., Schuster, M., Long, V.T., Thuy, N.K., Antoine, P-O., Sen, S., Nga, H.H., Huong, N.T.M., 2004. The Pleistocene Ma U'Oi cave, northern Vietnam: palaeontology, sedimentology and palaeoenvironments. Geobios 37, 305-314], while others, mainly microvertebrates, emphasize the occurrence of new species for the Pleistocene of Vietnam. We report here, for the first time, the occurrence of these microvertebrates of different groups (primates, rodents, insectivores, small reptiles and amphibians) in the faunal assemblage. Among mammal taxa, the presence of one more hominid affiliated to archaic Homo is also attested by our findings. U/Th dating carried out on 2 samples extracted from breccia speleothems confirms the biochronological estimate, with fossiliferous fillings ranging from late Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene

In Situ Taphonomic Investigation of Pleistocene Large Mammal Bone Deposits from The Ossuaries, Victoria Fossil Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia, 2006, Reed, Elizabeth H.

The Ossuaries within the Victoria Fossil Cave (5U-1) contain a large, virtually untouched deposit of Pleistocene vertebrates. Discovered in the early 1970s, the chamber has been left unexcavated as a ‘reference’ section of the cave and contains taphonomic features analogous to the formation of other large deposits such as the Fossil Chamber. This paper presents the results of an in situ taphonomic investigation of large mammal fossils from The Ossuaries. The results suggest The Ossuaries acted as a pitfall trap for a range of large Pleistocene mammals, in particular kangaroos. Once accumulated, the skeletons of these animals were subject to burial and dispersal by water and modification by trampling and termite gnawing. The presence of articulated material suggests many animals survived their initial fall, only to wander further into the cave and perish at some distance from the entrance.

La faune de rongeurs de Rounal 1: rvision et implications pour linterprtation du systme karstique de Saint-Remze (Ardche, France, 2008, Aguilar J. P. , Michaux J.
the fossil mammal bearing locality of Rounal 1: revised faunal list and its bearing for the interpretation of Saint-Remze karstic river system (Ardeche, France). The laboratory of Palaeontology of the University of Montpellier 2 recently received the collection of rodent teeth collected and studied by Jacques Martini [2005]. The corresponding fossil mammal bearing localities are located in cavities associated to the fossil underground river system of Saint-Remze (Ardche). Several of Martinis determinations relative to the Rounal 1 fauna have to be revised. New determinations drive to a younger age of the fauna and consequently its bearing on the geodynamic interpretation of the karstic system river has to be changed. Rounal 1 fauna, initially referred to the Late Miocene (Messinian), is Lower Pliocene. This new dating drives to reject the hypothesis of a deposit linked to the functioning during Messinian times of a paleoriver connected to the paleo-Ardche. The Rounal I deposit together with the Costes Chaudes II deposit, which also belongs to the same river system, likely result from a different dynamic context of Pliocene age.

Monk seal (Monachus monachus) bones in Bel Torrente Cave (central-east Sardinia) and their paleogeographical significance, 2009, Brook George, De Waele Jo, Oertel Anke

Fragments of monk seal bones (Monachus monachus) discovered 7–12 m below water level in Bel Torrente Cave (central-east Sardinia) in 2004 have been AMS radiocarbon dated. The bones, probably of different individuals, have calibrated ages ranging from 5000–6500 calendar years B.P. and allow reconstruction of the paleogeography of the cave and the surrounding area during this time period. Monk seals living in large numbers along the Sardinian coast used the cave for shelter and to give birth to their pups. The lower sea level of the mid-Holocene, combined with cave morphology, allowed them to reach far into the main tunnel of the cave. The large number of bones found of approximately the same age seems to indicate that the monk seals used caves either to shelter from storm waves or to escape from natural predators during periods when human disturbance of the coast was minor. This could suggest the monk seals had other predators they were also trying to avoid.

Teaching resources in speleology and karst: a valuable educational tool, 2010, De Waele J.

There is a growing need in the speleological community of tools that make teaching of speleology and karst much easier. Despite the existence of a wide range of major academic textbooks, often the caver community has a difficult access to such material. Therefore, to fill this gap, the Italian Speleological Society, under the umbrella of the Union International de Splologie, has prepared a set of lectures, in a presentation format, on several topics including geology, physics, chemistry, hydrogeology, mineralogy, palaeontology, biology, microbiology, history, archaeology, artificial caves, documentation, etc. These lectures constitute the “Teaching Resources in Speleology and Karst”, available online. This educational tool, thanks to its easily manageable format, can constantly be updated and enriched with new contents and topics.

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