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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That irrigation return flow is the part of artificially applied water that is not consumed by evapotranspiration and that migrates to an aquifer or surface water body [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for palaeozoic (Keyword) returned 26 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 26
Bat Erosion in Australian Limestone Caves, 1965, Dwyer, P. D.

The clustering areas of bent-winged bats in limestone caves are frequently stained and etched. This staining is very intense, and covers large areas at breeding caves present in Palaeozoic limestones. Erosion of limestone is very conspicuous in these caves. Staining is not intense at breeding caves in Tertiary limestones, but a combination of chemical and mechanical erosion may, in part, account for the depth of dome pits in which the bats cluster. Certain caves that are characterised by extensive guano deposits and by conspicuously eroded and/or stained limestone, but which are currently without large colonies of bats, may represent ancestral breeding caves.


Investigations into the watertightness of the proposed Gordon-above-Olga hydro-electric storage South-west Tasmania, 1974, Roberts Glyn T. , Andric Miodrag,
The Gordon-above-Olga scheme is one of several major hydro-electric developments under investigation in the south-west of Tasmania. The proposed storage area includes a zone of Palaeozoic limestone forming part of the eastern limb of a synclinal structure which provided a potential for the existence of leakage paths capable of threatening the viability of the scheme. The geology of the area is described and the methods used in assessing the likelihood of existence of subjacent karst are detailed. The conclusion is drawn on several grounds that neither recent nor ancient activity is likely to have markedly affected the limestone through the synclinorium. In consequence the water-tightness of the proposed reservoir is predicted

Limestone weathering: its engineering significance and a proposed classification scheme, 1988, Fookes Pg, Hawkins Ab,
As a foundation material, limestone differs from other rocks in that voids may be found at almost any depth within the rock mass. They may result directly from solution weathering near the surface and along discontinuities, or as specific cave systems at depths related to present or past ground water levels. The paper reviews the processes involved in the weathering by solution of the crystalline limestones, typically of Palaeozoic age. It offers a tentative, simple engineering classification of the solution features characteristic of limestones; and presents case histories to illustrate some of the problems which may be encountered during construction in areas of limestone bedrock

Les karsts des Pyrnes-Orientales, 1989, Salvayre, H.
The karsts of Eastern Pyrenees (France) - Karsts in the Eastern Pyrenees occur in Palaeozoic limestones (syncline of Villefranche-de-Conflent) or in Mesozoic limestones. Horizontal caves of several kilometres (En Gorner, Fuilla, Les Ambullas) are found in the Palaeozoic; but the numerous shafts are in the Mesozoic limestones. The subterranean waters circulate freely in the upper parts of the massif (Fontrabiouse), while there are many saturated karst in coastal areas (Font-Estramar). Classical types of surface karst features develop in the Corbires massif; elsewhere, in the Palaeozoic limestones, this karst morphology does not exist or is hidden under covers.

Yates and other Guadalupian (Kazanian) oil fields, U. S. Permian Basin, 1990, Craig Dh,
More than 150 oil and gas fields in west Texas and southeast New Mexico produce from dolomites of Late Permian (Guadalupian [Kazanian]) age. A majority of these fields are situated on platforms or shelves and produce from gentle anticlines or stratigraphic traps sealed beneath a thick sequence of Late Permian evaporites. Many of the productive anticlinal structures are elongate parallel to the strike of depositional facies, are asymmetrical normal to facies strike, and have flank dips of no more than 6{degrees}. They appear to be related primarily to differential compaction over and around bars of skeletal grainstone and packstone. Where the trapping is stratigraphic, it is due to the presence of tight mudstones and wackestones and to secondary cementation by anhydrite and gypsum. The larger of the fields produce from San Andres-Grayburg shelf and shelf margin dolomites. Cumulative production from these fields amounts to more than 12 billion bbl (1.9 x 109 m3) of oil, which is approximately two-thirds of the oil produced from Palaeozoic rocks in the Permian Basin. Eighteen of the fields have produced in the range from 100 million to 1.7 billion bbl (16-271 x 106 m3). Among these large fields is Yates which, since its discovery in October 1926, has produced almost 1.2 billion bbl (192 x 106 m3) out of an estimated original oil-in-place of 4 billion bbl (638 x 106 m3). Flow potentials of 5000 to 20 000 bbl (800 to 3200 m3) per day were not unusual for early Yates wells. The exceptional storage and flow characteristics of the Yates reservoir can be explained in terms of the combined effects of several geologic factors: (1) a vast system of well interconnected pores, including a network of fractures and small caves; (2) oil storage lithologies dominated by porous and permeable bioclastic dolograinstones and dolopackstones; (3) a thick, upper seal of anhydrite and compact dolomite; (4) virtual freedom from the anhydrite cements that occlude much porosity in other fields which are stratigraphic analogues of Yates; (5) unusual structural prominence, which favourably affected diagenetic development of the reservoir and made the field a focus for large volumes of migrating primary and secondary oil; (6) early reservoir pressures considerably above the minimum required to cause wells to flow to the surface, probably related to pressures in a tributary regional aquifer

Prsentation des rgions karstiques du Vietnam, 1991, Khang, Pham
Tropical karst of Vietnam - The main karstic region of Vietnam cover a total surface of 50,000 km2 and are to be found almost exclusively in North Vietnam, that is to say in 1/5 of the territory. They are situated in the distinct zone conditioned by the Tertiary and Quaternary phases. The largest zones are situated in the Northern and Eastern parts of the country. The least karstified zone is the West and southwest of Hanoi. The flooded coastal region (Isle of Catba, Along Bay) belongs to the boarder of the subsidence zone of the Red River delta. Although the damp tropical monsoon climate has varied very little from the Neogene until today, the karstic landscapes and degrees of evolution differ in each area and can range from cone, pyramid, tower to pinnacle karsts.

Evidence for two phases of Late Palaeozoic karstification, cave development and sediment filling in South-eastern Australia, 1995, Osborne R. A.

Petroleum geology of the Black Sea, 1996, Robinson A. G. , Rudat J. H. , Banks C. J. , Wiles R. L. F. ,
The Black Sea comprises two extensional basins formed in a back-arc setting above the northward subducting Tethys Ocean, close to the southern margin of Eurasia. The two basins coalesced late in their post-rift phases in the Pliocene, forming the present single depocentre. The Western Black Sea was initiated in the Aptian, when a part of the Moesian Platform (now the Western Pontides of Turkey) began to rift and move away to the south-east. The Eastern Black Sea probably formed by separation of the Mid-Black Sea High from the Shatsky Ridge during the Palaeocene to Eocene. Subsequent to rifting, the basins were the sites of mainly deep water deposition; only during the Late Miocene was there a major sea-level fall, leading to the development of a relatively shallow lake. Most of the margins of the Black Sea have been extensively modified by Late Eocene to recent compression associated with closure of the Tethys Ocean. Gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and carbon isotope analysis of petroleum and rock extracts suggest that most petroleum occurrences around the Black Sea can be explained by generation from an oil-prone source rock of most probably Late Eocene age (although a wider age range is possible in the basin centres). Burial history modelling and source kitchen mapping indicate that this unit is currently generating both oil and gas in the post-rift basin. A Palaeozoic source rock may have generated gas condensate in the Gulf of Odessa. In Bulgarian waters, the main plays are associated with the development of an Eocene foreland basin (Kamchia Trough) and in extensional structures related to Western Black Sea rifting. The latter continue into the Romanian shelf where there is also potential in rollover anticlines due to gravity sliding of Neogene sediments. In the Gulf of Odessa gas condensate has been discovered in several compressional anticlines and there is potential in older extensional structures. Small gas and oil discoveries around the Sea of Azov point to further potential offshore around the Central Azov High. In offshore Russia and Georgia there are large culminations on the Shatsky Ridge, but these are mainly in deep water and may have poor reservoirs. There are small compressional structures off the northern Turkish coast related to the Pontide deformation; these may include Eocene turbidite reservoirs. The extensional fault blocks of the Andrusov Ridge (Mid-Black Sea High) are seen as having the best potential for large hydrocarbon volumes, but in 2200 m of water

Alteration of magnetic properties of Palaeozoic platform carbonate rocks during burial diagenesis (Lower Ordovician sequence, Texas, USA), 1999, Haubold Herbert,
Palaeomagnetic and sedimentological investigations of samples from two sections of correlative Iapetan platform carbonate rocks from Texas, USA, were made to test whether their magnetic properties reflect diagenetic alteration associated with regional and local tectonism. The Honeycut Formation (Llano Uplift area, central Texas), in close proximity to the late Palaeozoic Ouachita orogenic belt, exhibits a distinct correlation between magnetization intensity, magnetization age (direction) and lithofacies. Mudstones preserve their weak primary Early Ordovician magnetization, whereas dolo-grainstones carry a strong Pennsylvanian magnetization residing in authigenic magnetite. Fluid migration associated with the Ouachita Orogeny has been focused in lithofacies with high permeability and caused dolomite recrystallization and pervasive remagnetization. Magnetization intensity trends covary with fluid/rock ratios. However, aquitards were either not affected or less affected by these fluids. Unlike the Honeycut Formation, permeable rocks of the El Paso Group (Franklin Mountains, west Texas) carry only a non-pervasive Pennsylvanian magnetization. Therefore, a larger percentage of El Paso Group samples retain a primary Early Ordovician signature. This area is further removed from the Ouachita front, and, thus, the influence by Pennsylvanian orogenic fluids was less pronounced

Les karsts de Nouvelle-Zlande, 2002, Salomon, Jeannol
Karsts of New-Zealand - New-Zealand presents numerous karsts developed as well in ancient rocks (Palaeozoic) as in recent ones (Oligocene). The stretching in latitude of the land, the high vegetal biodiversity and the strong rainfalls explain the importance of the karst development and the variety of the morphologies. Endokarsts are well developed, but many are still to explore. The polygonal karst of the King Country (North Island) in one hand, and the karsts of the Marble Mountains (South Island) in another one, are the most interesting. The possibilities of crossing of numerous datings (dendrochronology, speleothems, volcanism, etc.) and the location of these karsts in the south hemisphere provide to these last exceptional paleo-environmental recording systems.

Permo-Mesozoic multiple fluid flow and ore deposits in Sardinia: a comparison with post-Variscan mineralization of Western Europe, 2002, Boni M, Muchez P, Schneider J,
The post-Variscan hydrothermal activity and mineralization in Sardinia (Italy) is reviewed in the framework of the geological and metallogenic evolution of Western Europe. The deposits can be grouped into (a) skarn, (b) high- to low-temperature veins and (c) low-temperature palaeokarst. The structural, stratigraphical and geochemical data are discussed. The results suggest three hydrologically, spatially, and possibly temporally, distinct fluid systems. System 1 (precipitating skarn and high-temperature veins) is characterized by magmatic and/or (?) magmatically heated, meteoric fluids of low-salinity. The source of metals was in the Variscan magmatites, or in the Palaeozoic/Precambrian basement. System 2 (low-temperature veins and palaeokarst) is represented by highly saline, Ca-rich (formation or modified meteoric) fluids. Sources of the metals were the pre-Variscan ores and carbonate rocks. System 3 is characterized by low-temperature, low-salinity fluids of meteoric origin. The hydrothermal deposits related to Systems 1 and 2 can be framed in a crustal-scale hydrothermal palaeofield', characterizing most of the post-orogenic mineralization in Variscan regions of Western and Southern Europe, allowing for local age differences of each single ore district and background effects. The suggested timing for the hydrothermal events in Sardinia is: (1) Mid-Permian (270 Ma), (2) Triassic-Jurassic. It is suggested that the Mesozoic events were related to the onset of Tethys spreading

Halls and Narrows: Network caves in dipping limestone, examples from eastern Australia, 2003, Osborne, R. A. L.

Structurally guided network caves formed in limestones dipping at greater than approximately thirty degrees differ in plan and section from maze caves developed in horizontal to gently dipping limestone. These caves are characterised by the development of large elongate cavities oriented along strike called halls and smaller, short cavities oriented perpendicular to strike called narrows. Halls typically terminate blindly along strike. A range of hall and narrows development is recognised, resulting from increases in dip and differing disposition of joints. Entrances to hall and narrows caves appear to have little genetic relationship to the caves. Hall and narrows caves are common in the steeply dipping Palaeozoic limestones of eastern Australia. While the origin of these caves has yet to be completely explained, many of their features suggest that hydrothermal or artesian water had a role in their development.


Dolomites in SE Asia -- varied origins and implications for hydrocarbon exploration, 2004, Carnell Ajh, Wilson Mej,
Carbonates in SE Asia range in age from Palaeozoic to Recent, but are most important as reservoirs in the Neogene where they comprise a major target for hydrocarbon exploration (e.g. Batu Raja Formation, South Sumatra, Sunda and Northwest Java basins). Carbonates of pre-Tertiary, Palaeogene and Neogene age all show a strong diagenetic overprint in which dolomite occurs as both cementing and replacive phases associated with variable reservoir quality. This paper reviews published data on the occurrence and types of dolomites in SE Asian carbonates, and considers the models that have been used to explain the distribution and origin of dolomite within these rocks. Pre-Tertiary carbonates form part of the economic basement, and are little studied and poorly understood. Although some, such as in the Manusela Formation of Seram, may form possible hydrocarbon reservoirs, most are not considered to form economic prospects. They are best known from the platform carbonates of the Ratburi and Saraburi groups. in Thailand, and the oolitic grainstones of the Manusela Formation of Seram. The Ratburi Group shows extensive dolomitization with dolomite developed as an early replacive phase and as a late-stage cement. Palaeogene carbonates are widely developed in the region and are most commonly developed as extensive foraminifera-dominated carbonate shelfal systems around the margins of Sundaland (e.g. Tampur Formation, North Sumatra Basin and Tonasa Formation, Sulawesi) and the northern margins of Australia and the Birds Head microcontinent (e.g. Faumai Formation, Salawati Basin). Locally, carbonates of this age may form hydrocarbon reservoirs. Dolomite is variably recorded in these carbonates and the Tampur Formation, for example, contains extensive xenotopic dolomite. Neogene carbonates (e.g. Peutu Formation, North Sumatra) are commonly areally restricted, reef-dominated and developed in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic systems. They most typically show a strong diagenetic overprint with leaching, recrystallization, cementation and dolomitization all widespread. Hydrocarbon reservoirs are highly productive and common in carbonates of this age. Dolomite is variably distributed and its occurrence has been related to facies, karstification, proximity to carbonate margins and faults. The distribution and origin of the dolomite has been attributed to mixing-zone dolomitization (commonly in association with karstic processes), sulphate reduction via organic matter oxidation, and dewatering from the marine mudstones that commonly envelop the carbonate build-up. Dolomite has a variable association with reservoir quality in the region, and when developed as a replacive phase tends to be associated with improved porosity and permeability characteristics. This is particularly the case where it is developed as an early fabric-retentive phase. Cementing dolomite is detrimental to reservoir quality, although the extent of this degradation generally reflects the abundance and distribution of this dolomite. Dolomitization is also inferred to have influenced the distribution of non-hydrocarbon gases. This is best documented in North Sumatra where carbon dioxide occurs in quantities ranging from 0 to 85%. There are a number of possible mechanisms for generating this CO2 (e.g. mantle degassing), although the most likely source is considered to be the widely dolomitized Eocene Tampur Formation that forms effective basement for much of the basin. High heat flows are suggested to have resulted in the thermogenic decomposition of dolomite with CO2 produced as a by-product

Basin fluid flow, base-metal sulphide mineralization and the development of dolomite petroleum reservoirs, 2004, Gregg Jay M. ,
Saline basinal fluids, at temperatures from 60 to 250 {degrees}C, have affected almost every sedimentary basin in the world including rocks from Palaeoproterozoic to Cenozoic age. These fluids commonly precipitate base-metal sulphides (pyrite, sphalerite, galena, etc.) and associated minerals (barite, fluorite, calcite, dolomite, etc.) ranging in volume from trace amounts to large economic ore deposits. Such deposits are commonly referred to as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) after the large Palaeozoic deposits of this kind found in the Mississippi Valley of North America. They are primarily hosted by platform carbonates, typically dolomite, and are usually associated with hydrocarbons. Dolomites not affected by mineralizing fluids commonly display micron- to decimicron-size planar textures, and have well-developed micro- and mesoporosity networks dominated by intercrystal and vug porosity. However, these and other carbonate rocks affected by basinal fluids may undergo massive geochemical and textural alteration. This occurs even when the affected rocks are distal from the main loci of sulphide mineralization. Alteration includes: dolomitization of limestone; neomorphic recrystallization of existing dolomite; and precipitation at intervals of large volumes of open-space-filling dolomite, calcite and quartz cements alternating with dissolution. Dolomitization of limestone and/or neomorphic recrystallization of dolomite, at elevated temperatures, commonly results in centimicron and larger size crystals, and development of nonplanar textures that increase pore-throat tortuosity. Open-space-filling dolomite, calcite and quartz cementation causes a dramatic reduction of porosity and blockage of pore throats. Periods of carbonate dissolution, proximal to intense sulphide mineralization, result in the development of large-scale macroporosity such as breccias that are commonly superimposed on karst and tectonic fractures. Exposure to mineralizing basinal fluids substantially alters porosity and permeability distribution, and thus the potential reservoir properties of the dolomite. The resulting reservoir may have little resemblance to its precursor. Understanding the epigenetic history of a dolomite is critical, therefore, as this will ultimately affect its development strategy and production history

Concepts and models of dolomitization: a critical reappraisal, 2004, Machel Hans G. ,
Despite intensive research over more than 200 years, the origin of dolomite, the mineral and the rock, remains subject to considerable controversy. This is partly because some of the chemical and/or hydrological conditions of dolomite formation are poorly understood, and because petrographic and geochemical data commonly permit more than one genetic interpretation. This paper is a summary and critical appraisal of the state of the art in dolomite research, highlighting its major advances and controversies, especially over the last 20-25 years. The thermodynamic conditions of dolomite formation have been known quite well since the 1970s, and the latest experimental studies essentially confirm earlier results. The kinetics of dolomite formation are still relatively poorly understood, however. The role of sulphate as an inhibitor to dolomite formation has been overrated. Sulphate appears to be an inhibitor only in relatively low-sulphate aqueous solutions, and probably only indirectly. In sulphate-rich solutions it may actually promote dolomite formation. Mass-balance calculations show that large water/rock ratios are required for extensive dolomitization and the formation of massive dolostones. This constraint necessitates advection, which is why all models for the genesis of massive dolostones are essentially hydrological models. The exceptions are environments where carbonate muds or limestones can be dolomitized via diffusion of magnesium from seawater rather than by advection. Replacement of shallow-water limestones, the most common form of dolomitization, results in a series of distinctive textures that form in a sequential manner with progressive degrees of dolomitization, i.e. matrix-selective replacement, overdolomitization, formation of vugs and moulds, emplacement of up to 20 vol% calcium sulphate in the case of seawater dolomitization, formation of two dolomite populations, and -- in the case of advanced burial -- formation of saddle dolomite. In addition, dolomite dissolution, including karstification, is to be expected in cases of influx of formation waters that are dilute, acidic, or both. Many dolostones, especially at greater depths, have higher porosities than limestones, and this may be the result of several processes, i.e. mole-per-mole replacement, dissolution of unreplaced calcite as part of the dolomitization process, dissolution of dolomite due to acidification of the pore waters, fluid mixing (mischungskorrosion), and thermochemical sulphate reduction. There also are several processes that destroy porosity, most commonly dolomite and calcium sulphate cementation. These processes vary in importance from place to place. For this reason, generalizations about the porosity and permeability development of dolostones are difficult, and these parameters have to be investigated on a case-by-case basis. A wide range of geochemical methods may be used to characterize dolomites and dolostones, and to decipher their origin. The most widely used methods are the analysis and interpretation of stable isotopes (O, C), Sr isotopes, trace elements, and fluid inclusions. Under favourable circumstances some of these parameters can be used to determine the direction of fluid flow during dolomitization. The extent of recrystallization in dolomites and dolostones is much disputed, yet extremely important for geochemical interpretations. Dolomites that originally form very close to the surface and from evaporitic brines tend to recrystallize with time and during burial. Those dolomites that originally form at several hundred to a few thousand metres depth commonly show little or no evidence of recrystallization. Traditionally, dolomitization models in near-surface and shallow diagenetic settings are defined and/or based on water chemistry, but on hydrology in burial diagenetic settings. In this paper, however, the various dolomite models are placed into appropriate diagenetic settings. Penecontemporaneous dolomites form almost syndepositionally as a normal consequence of the geochemical conditions prevailing in the environment of deposition. There are many such settings, and most commonly they form only a few per cent of microcrystalline dolomite(s). Many, if not most, penecontemporaneous dolomites appear to have formed through the mediation of microbes. Virtually all volumetrically large, replacive dolostone bodies are post-depositional and formed during some degree of burial. The viability of the many models for dolomitization in such settings is variable. Massive dolomitization by freshwater-seawater mixing is a myth. Mixing zones tend to form caves without or, at best, with very small amounts of dolomite. The role of coastal mixing zones with respect to dolomitization may be that of a hydrological pump for seawater dolomitization. Reflux dolomitization, most commonly by mesohaline brines that originated from seawater evaporation, is capable of pervasively dolomitizing entire carbonate platforms. However, the extent of dolomitization varies strongly with the extent and duration of evaporation and flooding, and with the subsurface permeability distribution. Complete dolomitization of carbonate platforms appears possible only under favourable circumstances. Similarly, thermal convection in open half-cells (Kohout convection), most commonly by seawater or slightly modified seawater, can form massive dolostones under favourable circumstances, whereas thermal convection in closed cells cannot. Compaction flow cannot form massive dolostones, unless it is funnelled, which may be more common than generally recognized. Neither topography driven flow nor tectonically induced ( squeegee-type') flow is likely to form massive dolostones, except under unusual circumstances. Hydrothermal dolomitization may occur in a variety of subsurface diagenetic settings, but has been significantly overrated. It commonly forms massive dolostones that are localized around faults, but regional or basin-wide dolomitization is not hydrothermal. The regionally extensive dolostones of the Bahamas (Cenozoic), western Canada and Ireland (Palaeozoic), and Israel (Mesozoic) probably formed from seawater that was pumped' through these sequences by thermal convection, reflux, funnelled compaction, or a combination thereof. For such platform settings flushed with seawater, geochemical data and numerical modelling suggest that most dolomites form(ed) at temperatures around 50-80 {degrees}C commensurate with depths of 500 to a maximum of 2000 m. The resulting dolostones can be classified both as seawater dolomites and as burial dolomites. This ambiguity is a consequence of the historical evolution of dolomite research

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