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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That chemical equivalent is the expression of water characteristics such as hardness or alkalinity resulting from several ions in solution in terms of only one equivalent concentration [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for pasture (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
Relationship Between the Hydrology of Blowing Cave and Cowpasture River, 1977, Lucas, Phillip C.

Qualit physico chimique et bactriologique des sources du domaine de Plat (Haute-Savoie), 1990, Buissonvodinh, J.
PHYSICO CHEMISTRY AND BACTERIOLOGY OF THE DOMAIN OF PLATE SPRINGS (HAUTE SAVOIE, FRANCE) - On the high alpine karst of Plat (Haute-Savoie), eight springs on four catchments have been submitted to physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. The skiing resort of Flaine is situated on one of the catchments, the others are not very frequented (mountain pasture, cattle). These springs have a good physico-chemical quality but only one is drinkable. Pathological germs contained in human and animal excrements contaminate the others. This phenomenon is amplified by the ground and earth leaching due to rainstorms. On the other hand, the skiing resort of Flaine could be responsible of a chronic pollution of the Salles spring. All traditional frequentation of this area makes the water unusable and undrinkable, and all additional development on the karst could only aggravate this situation and compromise the use of water.

A ground water catchment was instrumented as a karst hydrology and water quality laboratory to develop long-term flow and water quality data. This catchment located in Woodford and Jessamine Counties in the Inner Bluegrass, Central Kentucky encompasses approximately 1620 ha, 40 water wells, over 400 sinkholes, 2 karst windows, and 1 sinking stream. The land uses consist of approximately 59% beef pasture, horse farm, and golf course; 16% row crops; 6% orchard; 13%forest; and 6% residential. The instrumentation consisted of a recording rain gage, an H-flume, a water stage recorder, and an automated water sampler. Flow data for 312 days were analyzed, and a peak flow rate prediction equation, specific to this catchment, was developed Recession curves were analyzed and found to be of two distinct mathematical forms, log curves and exponential curves. Prediction equations were good for the log-type recession curve and fair for the exponential-type recession curve. For the exponential recessions, the peak flow rate was found to be bimodally distributed The recession events were classified as either high flow or low flow, with the point of separation at 113 L/s. It was hypothesized that the flow system was controlled by pipe flow above 113 L/s and by open channel flow below 113 L/s. Subsequent analysis resulted in adequate prediction for the low flow events. Explained variation associated with the high flow events was low and attributed to storage in the karst system that was not incorporated into the predictor equation

Agricultural land use effects on nitrate concentrations in a mature karst aquifer, 1996, Boyer Dg, Pasquarell Gc,
The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are on karst terrain. Nitrate concentrations were measured in cave streams draining two primary land management areas. The first area was pasture serving a beef cow-calf operation. The second area was a dairy. Nitrate-N concentrations were highest in cave streams draining the daily and a cave stream draining an area of pasture where cattle congregate for shade and water. The dairy contributed about 60 to 70 percent of the nitrogen load increase in the study section of the cave system. It was concluded that agriculture was significantly affecting nitrate concentrations in the karst aquifer. Best management practices may be one way to protect the ground water resource

Deforestation in the Dominican Republic: a village-level view, 1997, Brothers Ts,
Deforestation is still rapid in some parts of the Caribbean, though it has attracted much less attention than deforestation in mainland Latin America. This paper examines the history and causes of the recent rapid deforestation of a lowland karst region of the Dominican Republic in the light of models derived from studies in Central America and the Amazon. Investigation was limited to the vicinity of a single village (Los Limones). Information was drawn from interviews, questionnaires and ground reconnaissance, in addition to archival information and aerial photographs. Deforestation at Los Limones involved many of the same elements seen in mainland deforestation, including construction of access roads, spontaneous agricultural colonization, and pasture conversion, but it followed no single mainland model. Logging, not normally emphasized as a cause of Latin American deforestation, played an important role in opening up the forest to agricultural settlement. Pasture conversion was not a matter of aggregation of large ranches by wealthy absentee landowners, as in the Amazon, but apparently a local response to the economic and ecological advantages of cattle raising. Government actions strongly influenced deforestation, but not via colonization schemes or economic subsidies for cattle ranching; the rhythm of deforestation at Los Limones was tied to the monopolistic practices of the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo and the social disorganization following his assassination. The national government in fact bears the primary responsibility for deforestation of Los Haitises, a conclusion that contradicts the government's own suggestion that the destruction was largely carried out by poor farmers. Prospects for rehabilitation of the deforested area are gloomy because of the extent of ecological damage and the continued adversarial relationship between the government and the rural population

Forest recovery in the karst region of Puerto Rico, 1998, Rivera L. W. , Aide T. M. ,
Widespread deforestation has led to an increase in secondary forest in the tropics. During the late 1940s in Puerto Rico, forest covered only 6% of the island, but a shift from agriculture to industry has led to the increase of secondary forest. This study focuses on the regeneration of forest following the abandonment of pastures and coffee plantations located in the karst region of Puerto Rico. Alluvial terraces and sinkholes were the principal features used for pastures, shifting agriculture, and coffee plantations, whereas mogotes (limestone hills of conical shape) were burned periodically or cut for charcoal or wood production. Abandoned pasture sites had a greater woody species diversity in comparison with coffee sites. The density of woody stems was greater in the abandoned pasture sites and Spathodea campanulata was the dominant species. In coffee sites Guarea guidonia was the most abundant species. There was no difference in basal area between the two land uses. Canonical Correspondence Analysis applied separately to adults and seedlings clearly separated each community according to land use. Seedling composition in coffee sites indicates a resistance to change in terms of the dominant species while in the pasture sites the composition will change as the dominant species S. campanulata is replaced with more shade tolerant species. Patches of forest that remained on the steep sides of mogotes and the presence of bats appears to have enhanced forest recovery, but the land use history of these sites has affected the pattern of regeneration and will continue to affect forest dynamics for many years. The karst area is a critical environment for water resources and biodiversity and its conservation and restoration is essential. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Agriculture and nature conservation in the Moravian karst (Czech Republic), 1999, Balk Ivan, Bosk Pavel, Jano Jozef, Stefka Leos
Moravian Karst is a narrow strip of limestone with long history of settlement, agricultural use and man impact to karst. It is naturally divided into smaller units; karst plateaus; separated by deep valleys (glens). Each plateau has different proportion of land use, i.e. the percentage of agricultural land, forests, etc. The agricultural land constitutes now up to 70% in the north and max. 30% in the centre and south of the total area of plateaus. Intensive agricultural use of the arable land since 60ties of this Century caused great impact to quality of soils and groundwater by overdoses of fertilisers and other artificial chemical substances. Detailed research in 1980 to 1997 resulted in a plan of care based on the zonation of land. There were defined zones with different degree of restriction of land use, agricultural activities and application of fertilisers and biocides. Arable lands has been gradually changed to meadows and pastures by introduction of grass since 1987 in the most strictly protected zone to protect especially subsurface karst forms.

The use of alkalinity as a conservative tracer in a study of near-surface hydrologic change in tropical karst, 1999, Chandler Dg, Bisogni Jj,
Water shortages commonly increase in frequency following forest clearance on lauds overlying karst in the tropics. The mechanism underlying this hydrologic change is likely to depend on the land use which follows forest cover. To determine the flow paths which prevail for a progression of land uses common to the uplands of Leyte, Philippines, samples of interflow were collected during the rainy season and titrated to determine their alkalinities. The ratio of the measured alkalinity to the value predicted by equilibrium calculations for each sample was used as an indication of the contact time of the water with the limestone. The responses of the alkalinity saturation ratio and the runoff depth to increasing rainfall depth were used to substantiate the hypothesis that epikarst infilling and changing soil structure create throttles to percolation and infiltration. The forest site was found to generate interflow primarily as pipe how, with the infiltration and percolation throttles rarely exceeded. Similarly, infiltration was not: limiting for the slash/mulch Site, however, level of soil disturbance was adequate to initiate a throttle at the epikarst which increased the volume of interflow generated. The total percolation was similar for the plowed and slash/mulch sites; however, the interflow was decreased at the plowed site by reduced infiltration at the soil surface. The throttles to surface infiltration and epikarst percolation were even greater at the pasture sites, resulting in high runoff generation. However, comparatively greater infiltration was observed in the pasture having contour-hedgerows. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Agricultural land use impacts on bacterial water quality in a karst groundwater aquifer, 1999, Boyer Dg, Pasquarell Gc,
The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are on karst terrain. The purpose of this study was to compare fecal bacteria densities in karst groundwater impacted by two primary agricultural land uses in central Appalachia. Fecal bacteria densities were measured in cave streams draining two primary land management areas. The first area was pasture serving a beef cow-calf operation. The second area was a dairy. Neither area had best management practices in place for controlling animal wastes. Median fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus densities were highest in cave streams draining the dairy. Median fecal coliform densities in the daily-impacted stream were greater than 4,000 CFU/100 ml and the median fecal coliform densities in the pasture-impacted streams were less than TO CFU/100 ml. Median fecal streptococcus densities in the same streams were greater than 2,000 CFU/100 ml and 32 CFU/100 ml, respectively. A second dairy, with best management practices for control of animal and milkhouse waste, did not appear to be contributing significant amounts of fecal bacteria to the karst aquifer. It was concluded that agriculture was affecting bacterial densities in the karat aquifer. New management practices specifically designed to protect karst groundwater resources may be one way to protect the groundwater resource

Forest recovery in abandoned agricultural lands in a karst region of the Dominican Republic, 2000, Rivera L. W. , Zimmerman J. K. , Aide T. M. ,
This study documents the status of forest vegetation in the karst region of Los Haitises National Park, Dominican Republic, following the abandonment of pastures (less than or equal to 5 years), young (less than or equal to 5 years) 'conucos' (mixed plantings), old (7-30 years) conucos, and cacao plantations (> 25 years). We compared these sites to vegetation characteristics of patches of forest in karst valleys ('old forest'-too old to know their exact land use) and on mogote tops with no recent history of human disturbance. The youngest sites date to when squatters were removed from Los Haitises National Park. Forest structure (density, basal area, and species richness of woody plants greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH) were all significantly affected by land use. Density was highest in intermediate-aged valley sites (old conucos) and mogote tops, while both basal area and species richness tended to increase with age of abandonment. Although cacao plantations had been abandoned for more than 25 years the species diversity was low, due to continued regeneration of this persistent crop. Abandoned pastures had the greatest nonwoody biomass and were dominated by the fern Nephrolepis multiflora which had completely replaced pasture grasses. An ordination of the woody plant communities separated the mogote tops from valleys, emphasizing the strong control that topography has on the forest community in moist and wet tropical forests on karst substrates. Valley sites were arranged in the ordination in order of their age, suggesting a successional sequence converging on the composition of the 'old forest' sites

Phosphorus mobility in a karst landscape under pasture grazing system, 2003, Allousha Ga, Boyer Dg, Belesky Dp, Halvorson Jj,
The spatial distribution and partitioning of water dissolved phosphorus fractions in the soil profile of a grazed karst sinkhole landscape were investigated. We also measured P fractions in surface runoff entering a sinkhole drain and in karst spring flow draining the study area. Grazing increased total N, C, and all forms of P of soil. Dissolved inorganic orthophosphate (DPi) was the highest in the surface soil layer and diminished significantly with depth. The proportion of dissolved unreactive phosphorus (DPu) increased with soil depth. Changes in DPu with landscape position and depth were closely correlated with changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) suggesting that the mobility and transport of DPu was mediated by DOC. Landscape position sampling showed molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) and DPu increased toward the bottom and center of sinkholes. The distribution of DPi and DPu in surface runoff and that occurring in underground watercourses confirms the significance of DPu transported into karst groundwater

Land use change and soil nutrient transformations in the Los Haitises region of the Dominican Republic, 2005, Templer P. H. , Groffman P. M. , Flecker A. S. , Power A. G. ,
We characterized soil cation, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformations within a variety of land use types in the karst region of the northeastern Dominican Republic. We examined a range of soil pools and fluxes during the wet and dry seasons in undisturbed forest, regenerating forest and active agricultural sites within and directly adjacent to Los Haitises National Park. Soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), soil cations, leaf litter C and pH were significantly greater in regenerating forest sites than agricultural sites, while bulk density was greater in active agricultural sites. Potential denitrification, microbial biomass C and N, and microbial respiration g(-1) dry soil were significantly greater in the regenerating forest sites than in the active agricultural sites. However, net mineralization, net nitrification, microbial biomass C, and microbial respiration were all significantly greater in the agricultural sites on g(-1) SOM basis. These results suggest that land use is indirectly affecting microbial activity and C storage through its effect on SOM quality and quantity. While agriculture can significantly decrease soil fertility, it appears that the trend can begin to rapidly reverse with the abandonment of agriculture and the subsequent regeneration of forest. The regenerating forest soils were taken out of agricultural use only 5-7 years before our study and already have soil properties and processes similar to an undisturbed old forest site. Compared to undisturbed mogote forest sites, regenerating sites had smaller amounts of SOM and microbial biomass N, as well as lower rates of microbial respiration, mineralization and nitrification g(-1) SOM. Initial recovery of soil pools and processes appeared to be rapid, but additional research must be done to address the long-term rate of recovery in these forest stands. (C) 2004, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Fauna of the land habitats of the Pivka lakes, 2005, Polak, S.

The paper gives an overview of the current knowledge of the fauna of the land habitats around the Pivka lakes. So far 20 mammal species and 127 bird species have been identified. Of the bird species, 75 also nest here. Special attention is paid to European conservation species such as the corn crake, woodlark, nightjar and barred warbler. The nesting density of the barred warbler, skylark, red-backed shrike and corn bunting at the Pivka lakes is among the highest in the country. In the area of the Pivka lakes 8 reptile species and 9 amphibian species have been identified. The majority of these species are on the Red List of Threatened Animals. The butterflies have been relatively well researched. 106 species have been identified in the area, which amounts to 57% of all species of butterflies living in Slovenia. Many of them are threatened and vulnerable species. To the present, 210 species of beetles have been identified, live here. Many of the threatened species are connected with the marshy grasslands of the lakes, dry karst grasslands and barren rocky outcrops. There are fewer threatened animal species in the forests and brush. The remains of old oak forests are scientifically important. Due to the abandonment of land use by humans in the area of the Pivka lakes we can observe the rapid overgrowth of pasturelands, which leads to decreased biodiversity. In addition to legal protection of the Pivka lakes it is therefore also recommend active management and conservation as well as preserving and encouragement of the formerly extensive farming practices.

Reversibility of forest conversion impacts on water budgets in tropical karst terrain, 2006, Chandler Dg,
A conceptual model of the control of tropical land use and vegetative cover on bedrock recharge is developed for highly permeable geologic substrates. A case study of water budgets is then developed from field data and simple modeling for upland sites with three different vegetative covers (cropland, intensively grazed pasture and forest regrowth) in Leyte, Philippines. Water budget model results show that annual precipitation is divided primarily between evapotranspiration and overland flow for the pasture, but apportioned more to evapotranspiration and inputs to bedrock storage for the crop and forest sites. Modeled evapotranspiration from the forest (1906 mm) was not sufficiently greater than that for either the crop (1661 mm) or pasture (1476 mm) sites to offset the greater overland flow from those sites. The differences in overland flow are related to depth profiles of soil bulk density, which decreased between crop and forest and increased between crop and pasture, and drainable porosity, which increased between crop and forest and decreased between crop and pasture. Dry season streamflow is assumed to be primarily base flow and dependent on wet season bedrock recharge, which was dramatically lower for the pasture (106 mm) than for the crop (1134 mm) or forest covers (1320 mm), for 2946 mm of rainfall. The results support the premise that for landscapes with adequate storage in bedrock fractures, forest regrowth can increase recharge to perched aquifers, and hence dry season baseflow, relative to cropping and that dramatic reductions in overland flow and increases in dry season baseflow may be achieved by reforestation of compacted pastures. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Incorporation of Auxiliary Information in the Geostatistical Simulation of Soil Nitrate Nitrogen, 2006, Grunwald S. , Goovaerts P. , Bliss C. M. , Comerford N. B. , Lamsal S. ,
In north-central Florida the potential risk for movement of nitrate into the aquifer is high due to the large extent of well-drained marine-derived quartz sand overlying porous limestone material coupled with high precipitation rates. Our objective was to estimate spatio-seasonal distributions of soil NO3-N across the Santa Fe River Watershed in north-central Florida. We conducted spatially distributed synoptic and seasonal sampling (September 2003--wet summer/fall season, January 2004--dry winter season, May 2004--dry spring season) of soil NO3-N. Prior distributions of probability for NO3-N were inferred at each location across the watershed using ordered logistic regression. Explanatory variables included environmental spatial datasets such as land use, drainage class, and the Floridian aquifer DRASTIC index. These prior probabilities were then updated using indicator kriging, and multiple realizations of the spatial distribution of soil NO3-N were generated by sequential indicator simulation. Cross-validation indicated that smaller prediction errors are obtained when secondary information is incorporated in the analysis and when indicator kriging is used instead of ordinary kriging to analyze these datasets characterized by the presence of extreme high values and a nonnegligible number of data below the detection limit. The NO3-N values were lowest in September 2003 as a result of excessive leaching caused by large, intense tropical storms. Overall the NO3-N values in January 2004 were high and could be attributed to fertilization of crops and pastures, low plant uptake, and low microbial transformation during the winter period. Despite seasonal trends reflected by the values of observed and estimated NO3-N, we found areas that showed consistently high soil NO3-N throughout all seasons. Those areas are prime targets to implement best management practices

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