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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That gallery is a rather large, nearly horizontal passage in a cave [10].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for patterns (Keyword) returned 289 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 289
The geographical distribution of Australian cave dwelling Chiroptera., 1966, Hamiltonsmith E.
Of the 56 species of bats currently recorded from Australia, 22 are known to occur in caves. The geographical distribution of each of these species is detailed, and from this data, the species are divided into four groups according to their pattern of distribution. Group I comprises those species found only North of 18S latitude, all of which either also occur in New Guinea or are closely related to New Guinea species. Group II, including both endemic Australian genera, occurs over that area North of 28S latitude. This area largely comprises desert or semi-desert terrain, with its characteristics of low humidity and a wide range between extremes of temperature. Group III occurs in the Eastern Coastal Region, with one species extending to a limited degree along both Northern and Southern Coasts. Although temperature is extremely varied over this range, there are common environmental factors of moderate to high humidity and a moderate to low range of temperature variation. Group IV species are all widespread, in many cases over the whole continent, are all members of the Vespertilionidae, and occur in caves only occasionally or only in certain parts of their range. These species are more commonly found in trees or buildings. The possible factors contributing to the origin of these distributional patterns are discussed, and some areas for future investigation suggested.

Distribution and dispersion of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle Rhadine subterranea, 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Intracave distribution and dispersion patterns within a population of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea were studied. Distribution was markedly heterogeneous, the beetles being almost entirely restricted to substrata of deep, uncompacted silt. Dispersion of the beetles on the silt substrata did not depart from random expectation. It is shown, however, that this is a functionally emergent pattern resulting from an intrasex repulsion related to feeding which tends to produce regularity counterbalanced by an intersex attraction related to reproduction which tends to produce contagion.

Distribution and dispersion of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle Rhadine subterranea, 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Intracave distribution and dispersion patterns within a population of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea were studied. Distribution was markedly heterogeneous, the beetles being almost entirely restricted to substrata of deep, uncompacted silt. Dispersion of the beetles on the silt substrata did not depart from random expectation. It is shown, however, that this is a functionally emergent pattern resulting from an intrasex repulsion related to feeding which tends to produce regularity counterbalanced by an intersex attraction related to reproduction which tends to produce contagion.

The analysis of growth patterns of two generations; the example of karst sinkholes, 1972, Drake J. J. , Ford D. C.

Caves and groundwater patterns in a tropical karst environment; Jamaica, West Indies, 1973, Brown Mc, Ford Dc,
Tracer experiments, cave patterns used to interpret ground-water flow

Spontaneous and induced acivity patterns in troglobite beetles (Genera Aphaenops, Geotrechus,Speonomus)., 1978, Lamprecht G. , Weber F.
In Constant temperature the troglobite beetles Aphaenops cerberus and pluto, Geotrechus orpheus and Speonomus diecki are aperiodically active. By periodogram analysis neither circadian nor ultradian or infradian periodic components can be found. Moreover there are no relevant correlations between the lengths of successive activity bursts and rest pauses. Consequently the activity patterns are stochasticly structured.; In cases with constancy of activity respectively rest behaviour the probabilities for the transition from activity to rest and from rest to activity are computed using the Frequency histograms of lengths of activity bursts and rest pauses. The transition probability is time-invariant if the observed histogram can be approximated to the negative exponential function. Y=ae -fx . The transition probability increases continuously if the observed histogram can be approximated to the Poisson or normal function. -74% of the investigated frequency histograms of the length of activity bursts and 57% of the histograms of the lengths of rest pauses can be approximated to one of the tested functions. -Aphaenops and Geotrechus specimens do not react to changes of the illumination intensity. Conversely temperature cycles induce distinct activity periodicities. In Aphaenops the mean length of activity bursts is -on the average; less temperature dependent than the mean length of rest pauses. Moreover, in this species the mean length of bursts is weakly negatively correlated with the mean length of pauses.; The evolution and adaptive reactions of the random mechanism of activity control in troglobite animals are discussed.

Observations on the behaviour patterns of the Cuban cave fish Lucifuga subterranea Poey (Pisces, Ophidiidae)., 1978, Piquemal M. , Thins Georges
The swimming behaviour and the sensory reactions of the blind Cuban cave fish Lucifuga subterranea Poey were studied on a single individual during a period of 6 months. Mechanical stimulation elicits but slight reactions. Gustatory substances in solution elicit fairly typical motor responses which are not followed by systematic exploration behaviour, the same being true for stimulations by odours of prey. The presence of moving prey provokes an oriented exploration with a slight plunging movement of the kind evidenced in other cave fishes. Actual seizing of the prey requires an active approach of the latter towards the anterior part of the body of the fish.

Karst development in Ordovician carbonates: Western Platform of Newfoundland, Master of Science (MS) Thesis, 1978, Karolyi, Marika Sarolta

The Appalachian fold belt system in Newfoundland is divided into three tectonic divisions: Western Platform; Central Mobile Belt; Avalon Platform Rocks of the Western Platform range in age from Precambrian to Carboniferous. Major karst areas are found there is Ordovician and Carboniferous rocks. Karst features of the study area (Goose Arm to Bonne Bay Big Pond) are in the Ordovician carbonates of the undivided St. George and Table Head Formations, covering a few hundred square kilometers. Features include karren, sinkholes, sinking streams, and karst springs, caves and other solutional and collapse features.
In the study area multiple fold and faulting episodes complicate the geology. Extensive and probably repeated glaciations have produced rugged terrane with U-shaped valleys and as much as 300m relief on the carbonates. There is variable but thick till cover. A class or classes of ice-scoured closed depressions with internal drainage are recognized. Postglacial karst forms are limited to varieties of karren (mainly littoral), small sinkholes, and cave systems that are inaccessively small in most instances. Distribution of all karst features is highly irregular.
Hydrologic patterns follow fluvial, fluviokarstic and holokarstic drainage. Large number of sinking ponds have seasonal overflow channels. The ground water drainage routes are generally short and shallow, with varied hydraulic gradients. Few instances of ground water route integration to regional springs is found.
The water chemistry of the area displays a tight normal distribution of hardness. This is attributed to the ponding effect. Seasonal trends show an overall increase in total hardness and other parameters, with some ponds showing linear increases and others cyclic variations.
Karst type and distribution is complex and irregular, but both glaciokarstic and karstiglacial development is present. The majority of karst forms point to karstiglacial development where previous karst forms have been modified by ice. Karstification is controlled by geology, rock lithology, hydraulic gradients and glacial scour and infill. Karstic processes continue to operate today, modifying the scoured basins and creating new karst forms.


Genetic Population Structure in an Amphipod Species., 1981, Golladay S. W. , Gooch James L.
Genetic structure of a species should conform, in part, to environmental structure. Three polymorphic enzyme loci in the amphipod Gammarus minus Say are geographically differentiated in gene frequencies in the mid-Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, and genetic breaks usually coincide with topographical features and stream divides. Considering alleles as migrational markers, it is expected that heterozygosity would decrease upstream in isolated drainage basins, increase in the headwaters of adjacent but oppositely flowing streams in which gene exchange was occurring between genetically differentiated populations, and increase in sites near regional master streams. These genetic patterns were found to exist in an area near the Juniata River in central Pennsylvania.

Les grandes cavits alpines, 1984, Delannoy J. J. , Maire R.
THE LARGE ALPINE CAVES: DISTRIBUTION AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONTEXT - Western Alps possess about 40 caves deeper than 500m. The large karstic systems are situated principally in the external alpine zone (subalpine ranges) and secondly in the internals alpine zone (Marguareis). These caves develop in different structural patterns (perched syncline, anticline...). The vadose zone is characterised by a vadose circulation, the phreatic zone has a diverse importance, depending on geological structure.

On the Heredity of Behavior Patterns in Cave Animals and Their Epigean Relatives, 1985, Parzefall, Jakob

Shallow-marine carbonate facies and facies models, 1985, Tucker M. E. ,
Shallow-marine carbonate sediments occur in three settings: platforms, shelves and ramps. The facies patterns and sequences in these settings are distinctive. However, one type of setting can develop into another through sedimentational or tectonic processes and, in the geologic record, intermediate cases are common. Five major depositional mechanisms affect carbonate sediments, giving predictable facies sequences: (1) tidal flat progradation, (2) shelf-marginal reef progradation, (3) vertical accretion of subtidal carbonates, (4) migration of carbonate sand bodies and (5) resedimentation processes, especially shoreface sands to deeper subtidal environments by storms and off-shelf transport by slumps, debris flows and turbidity currents. Carbonate platforms are regionally extensive environments of shallow subtidal and intertidal sedimentation. Storms are the most important source of energy, moving sediment on to shoreline tidal flats, reworking shoreface sands and transporting them into areas of deeper water. Progradation of tidal flats, producing shallowing upward sequences is the dominant depositional process on platforms. Two basic types of tidal flat are distinguished: an active type, typical of shorelines of low sediment production rates and high meteorologic tidal range, characterized by tidal channels which rework the flats producing grainstone lenses and beds and shell lags, and prominent storm layers; and a passive type in areas of lower meteorologic tidal range and higher sediment production rates, characterized by an absence of channel deposits, much fenestral and cryptalgal peloidal micrite, few storm layers and possibly extensive mixing-zone dolomite. Fluctuations in sea-level strongly affect platform sedimentation. Shelves are relatively narrow depositional environments, characterized by a distinct break of slope at the shelf margin. Reefs and carbonate sand bodies typify the turbulent shelf margin and give way to a shelf lagoon, bordered by tidal flats and/or a beach-barrier system along the shoreline. Marginal reef complexes show a fore-reef--reef core--back reef facies arrangement, where there were organisms capable of producing a solid framework. There have been seven such phases through the Phanerozoic. Reef mounds, equivalent to modern patch reefs, are very variable in faunal composition, size and shape. They occur at shelf margins, but also within shelf lagoons and on platforms and ramps. Four stages of development can be distinguished, from little-solid reef with much skeletal debris through to an evolved reef-lagoon-debris halo system. Shelf-marginal carbonate sand bodies consist of skeletal and oolite grainstones. Windward, leeward and tide-dominated shelf margins have different types of carbonate sand body, giving distinctive facies models. Ramps slope gently from intertidal to basinal depths, with no major change in gradient. Nearshore, inner ramp carbonate sands of beach-barrier-tidal delta complexes and subtidal shoals give way to muddy sands and sandy muds of the outer ramp. The major depositional processes are seaward progradation of the inner sand belt and storm transport of shoreface sand out to the deep ramp. Most shallow-marine carbonate facies are represented throughout the geologic record. However, variations do occur and these are most clearly seen in shelf-margin facies, through the evolutionary pattern of frame-building organisms causing the erratic development of barrier reef complexes. There have been significant variations in the mineralogy of carbonate skeletons, ooids and syn-sedimentary cements through time, reflecting fluctuations in seawater chemistry, but the effect of these is largely in terms of diagenesis rather than facies

Les Mts. de Pardailhan, tude hydrodynamique et hydro-chimique (Montagne Noire, Hrault), 1986, Guyot, J. L.
THE PARDAILHAN MOUNTAINS: HYDRODYNAMIC AND HYDROCHEMICAL STUDY OF KARSTIC SPRINGS OF POUSSAROU AND MALIBERT - The hydrogeological study of the Monts de Pardailhan carried out in collaboration with the Regional Service of Development Water (Montpellier), has allowed the definition of the systems of flow of the principal courses of water and sources of this region to become apparent. The hydrodynamic analysis of the two main karstic springs, Poussarou and Malibert, showed, thanks to the utilisation of different methods (sorted discharge, variograms) that these sources have different systems of flow. The hydrochemical study confirmed this difference of behavioural patterns towards the outlet.

Effect of climate changes on the precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of water in a climate transition zone: case of the eastern Mediterranean Sea area, 1987, Gat J. R. , Carmi I.

Etude statistique des cavits karstiques de la rgion monpelliraine, 1989, Brun, J. F.
Statistic study of karst caves of the Montpellier area - A statistical study of a speleological file concerning the karstic area of Montpellier was undertaken, aiming to detect some factors statistically linked with cave distribution or speleometry. Shafts are generally disconnected from horizontal systems, but they use sometimes pre-existing galleries. They are significantly deeper when grouped, or when presenting parallel shafts, or when being old shaped shafts with a large entrance. Splited zones contain more potholes, yet they are not statistically deeper. Horizontal caves exhibit a discontinuous distribution by altitude levels, which are regularly observed in every sector, when the effect of diastrophism is taken into account. Total filling seems to be the rule as soon as galleries have stopped their activity: use or re-use by present streams is required to avoid this process. Old levels of caves, above Upper Miocene surfaces, exhibit different orientation patterns of galleries than younger ones. Some limestone facies seems to allow a stronger vertical (or horizontal) cave development. A schematic history of cave development in this area is proposed.

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