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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That daylight hole is a hole in the roof of a cave, reaching the surface [10].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for performance (Keyword) returned 22 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 22
A New Equation Solver for Modeling Turbulent Flow in Coupled Matrix‐Conduit Flow Models, ,

Karst aquifers represent dual flow systems consisting of a highly conductive conduit system embedded in a less permeable rock matrix. Hybrid models iteratively coupling both flow systems generally consume much time, especially because of the nonlinearity of turbulent conduit flow. To reduce calculation times compared to those of existing approaches, a new iterative equation solver for the conduit system is developed based on an approximated Newton–Raphson expression and a Gauß–Seidel or successive over-relaxation scheme with a single iteration step at the innermost level. It is implemented and tested in the research code CAVE but should be easily adaptable to similar models such as the Conduit Flow Process for MODFLOW-2005. It substantially reduces the computational effort as demonstrated by steady-state benchmark scenarios as well as by transient karst genesis simulations. Water balance errors are found to be acceptable in most of the test cases. However, the performance and accuracy may deteriorate under unfavorable conditions such as sudden, strong changes of the flow field at some stages of the karst genesis simulations.

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Aspects of the Musical History of Jenolan Caves, 1986, Targett, Warren

The acoustic quality of caves has always led people to use them for the performance of sacred or secular music. The earliest record of music at Jenolan is that of J. C. Millard, who wrote that his party "camped in the largest cave, sang a few hymns... and early next morning arose and sang the doxology" (Millard, 1858). However music must have been performed there prior to that since the Bathurst Free Press reported in 1856 that a dancing platform had been erected in the Grand Arch. Trickett (1905) however gave the date of installation of the dance floor as 1869. This was in regular use until the end of the century (Harvard, 1936) when the improved amenities of the guest house rendered it redundant. A poster of 1898 gives evidence of 'Smoke Concerts' held in the Grand Arch, with local employees providing the entertainment. The Cathedral Cave was reputedly consecrated as a place of worship in the 1880s by Bishop Barry, Anglican Primate of the colony. Since then it has been used by various denominations for divine services. This cave was also sometimes used for live broadcasts of 'Radio Sunday School' on radio station 2GB in the 1930s and 1940s. Performers included Albert Boyd, a popular light baritone, and the Lithgow Brass Band. From about 1910 until the end of the 1940s musical performances were common at Caves House, with resident musicians employed on a permanent basis to play light music during meals and after dinner to provide dance music in the Ballroom. Many entertainments were organised which were attended by both staff and guests. This came to an end in the 1950s, and for 20 years live music became a rarity at Jenolan. Inspection parties visiting the Cathedral Cave had commonly been invited to sing, but in the 1950s this tradition was dropped, and instead a remote controlled record player was installed in the cavern. The recordings played were generally of a religious character. This equipment, in a state of disrepair, was finally removed in 1979. In the late 1960s the Smoke Concerts in the Grand Arch were revived, but were abandoned in 1974 after disruption by hooligan elements. However social concerts and dances continued in Caves House. In 1983 the regular engagement of musicians began again, and live music shows are now a regular feature on Saturday nights. Occasional concerts are once more taking place in the Grand Arch. Religious services and Masonic ceremonies have taken place in the caverns. Music is once again part of the Jenolan experience.


Le karst du compartiment oriental de la basse Cvenne carbonate (Gard), 1988, Martin, Ph.
The karst of the Eastern compartment of the carbonated Lower Cvenne (Gard) - This text summarises 10 years of exploration and study of the eastern karst of the Gardon river basin above Als. Karst concerns 5 facies: Trias, Hettangian-Sinemurian (rich in limonite and pyrites), Upper Bajocian - Lower Bathonian (rich in pyrites), Upper Jurassic and Barremian. This lager is broken into more or less rolling panels, which have collapsed towards the Als rift. Tridimensional systems draining this karst are considered to be evolving toward better performance. It is a remarkable case of natural organisation. Structure is deduced from function. A morphologic approach explains the systems history. Three of the four identified karstic systems are simple. They are partial a natural models of the fourth: the Fonts karstic system. We describe on detail some elements of its structure (caves for ex.) and of its functio-ning (hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry). We show through pumping that the Cauvel river feeds the Fonts spring and the Carabiole spring. The effect of geological and geomorphologic characteristics of the spring site on water output is mentioned. We describe the realisation of a pumping station driving subterranean Cauvel river water a 100m back and point out the usefulness of speleological information.

Comparative performances of non-visual food search in the hypogean cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii and in the epigean relative Barbus filamentosus, 1993, Berti Roberto, Masciarelli Luca
The anophthalmic hypogean cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii Vinciguerra shows a more efficient food searching behaviour than blinded specimens of the epigean species Barbus filamentosus Cuvier and Valenciennes. This difference seems to be related to a tendency to swim near the bottom of the aquarium and the behavioural stereotypes in food localization and intake. Both in P andruzzii and in the blinded B. filamentosus food search is guided by chemical stimulation. Other data indicate that mechanical stimulation could play an important role in the feeding behaviour of the hypogean form. The behavioural analogies in food localization between P andruzzii and the cave forms of the characid Astyanax fasciatus Cuvier are briefly discussed.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRACTURES AND KARSTIFICATION - THE OIL-BEARING PALEOKARST OF ROSPO MARE (ITALY), 1994, Soudet H. J. , Sorriaux P. , Rolando J. P. ,
The Rospo Mare oil field is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km off the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at a depth of 1300 m and consists of a paleokarst oi Oligocene to Miocene age which developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered by 1200 m of Mio-Pliocene sequences. The oil column is about 140 m 8 high. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical, cored drill holes which allowed us to analyse the various solution features and the sedimentary infilling (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including in particular paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sink holes. Detailed geophysical knowledge of that morphology helped to optimize the development of the field through horizontal drilling. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a palaeokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in quarries located nearby. The Rospo Mare paleokarst is an integral part of the ante Miocene paleokarst assemblages of the periphery of the Mediterranean which were formed in tropical conditions. Only the fractures enhanced by meteoric water during the formation of the karat are important for reservoir connectivity. During the formation of the karst there were several phases of dissolution and infilling which modified the geometry of the open fissures and only these fractures play an important role in the reservoir drainage. Vertically we can distinguish three very different zones from top to bottom: at the top the epikarst (0-35 m) in a zone of extension. All the fractures have been enlarged by dissolution but the amount of infilling by clay is substantial. The clays are derived either from alteration of the karat fabric or by deposition during the Miocene transgression; the percolation zone (15-45 m) is characterized by its network of large fractures vertically enlarged by dissolution which corresponds to the relict absorption zones in the paleokarst. These fractures, which usually have a pluridecametric spacing, connect the epi-karst with the former sub-horizontal river system. This zone has been intersected by the horizontal wells during the field development. In this zone there are local, horizontal barriers oi impermeable clay which can block vertical transmissibility. In these low permeability zones the vertical fractures have not been enlarged due to dissolution hence the horizontal barrier; the zone of underground rivers (35-70 m) is characterized by numerous horizontal galleries which housed the subterranean ground water circulation. When these fissures are plurimetric in extent this can lead to gallery collapse with the associated fill by rock fall breccia. This can partly block the river system but always leaves a higher zone of free circulation with high permeabilities of several hundreds of Darcys. These galleries form along the natural fracture system relative to the paleohydraulic gradient which in some cases has been preserved. The zone below permanent ground water level with no circulation of fluids is characterized by dissolution limited to non-connected vugs. Very locally these fissures can be enlarged by tectonic fractures which are non-connected and unimportant for reservoir drainage. Laterally, only the uppermost zone can be resolved by seismic imaging linked with horizontal well data (the wells are located at the top of the percolation zone). The Rospo Mare reservoir shows three distinct horizontal zones: a relict paleokarst plateau with a high index of open connected fractures, (area around the A and B platforms); a zone bordering the plateau (to the north-east of the plateau zone) very karstified but intensely infilled by cap rock shales (Miocene - Oligocene age); a zone of intensely disturbed and irregular karst paleotopography which has been totally infilled by shales. The performance of the production wells is dependent on their position with respect to the three zones noted above and their distance from local irregularities in the karst paleotopography (dolines, paleovalleys)

The nutritional status of healthy and declining stands of Banksia integrifolia on the Yanakie Isthmus, Victoria, 1997, Bennett Lt, Attiwill Pm,
Banksia integrifolia L.f. has been in decline an calcareous sands of the Yanakie Isthmus, southern Victoria, since early 1980. Early studies indicated that the decline is associated with a particular soil condition possibly a nutritional imbalance involving Fe. However, in foliage samples collected from the three main soil types of the Isthmus, declining trees had similar concentrations of Fe but lower concentrations of Ca than healthy trees. Comparisons were made of seasonal variation in concentrations of macro- and micro-nutrients in foliage and litterfall from healthy trees (to minimise secondary changes associated with decline) within healthy and declining sites on the same soil type. On average, litterfall and the nutrient content of litterfall was greatest within the canopy area of B. integrifolia of the healthy stand. Banksias of the healthy stand also had greater concentrations of N, P, K and Na in fully-expanded leaves, resorbed greater proportions of phloem-mobile nutrients from senescent leaves and accumulated more Ca in senescent leaves. However, there was no evidence of nutritional imbalance in healthy trees within declining stands. It is argued that the lower foliar Ca in declining trees on three soil types and lower nutritional status of healthy trees within declining stands were due to lower productivity and lower water use and were therefore a result or an indication of decline rather than a cause

Geological features, permeability and groutability characteristics of the Zimapan Dam Foundation, Hidalgo State, Mexico, 1997, Foyo A, Tomillo C, Maycotte Ji, Willis P,
The geology of the Zimapan Dam foundation has a significant influence on the permeability and groutability characteristics. The dam foundation is composed of a sequence of dolomitic limestones and dolomitic breccia of the late Jurassic period. Karst phenomena contribute the main structural features. In this paper the relationships between the karstic features and the permeability characteristics of the Zimapan Dam foundation have been evaluated. A modification of the low pressure test (Foyo and Cerda, 1990) for analyzing the permeability characteristics was carried out. This type of permeability test permits the determination of the critical pressure and the analysis of the differences between the critical manometric pressures and the real critical pressures induced during the test performance. Permeability and hydrofracture tests results were used in the foundation for the design of the grouting programme, and the karstic features of the formation were grouted using a special treatment process. The relationships between the permeability and the grouting results have been analyzed

Lanthanide-labeled clay: A new method for tracing sediment transport in karst, 1998, Mahler B. J. , Bennett P. C. , Zimmerman M. ,
Mobile sediment is a fundamental yet poorly characterized aspect of mass transport through karst aquifers. Here the development and field testing of an extremely sensitive particle tracer that may be used to characterize sediment transport in karst aquifers is described. The tracer consists of micron-size montmorillonite particles homoionized to the lanthanide form; after injection and retrieval from a ground water system, the lanthanide ions are chemically stripped from the clay and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography, The tracer meets the following desired criteria: low detection limit; a number of differentiable signatures; inexpensive production and quantification using standard methods; no environmental risks; and hydrodynamic properties similar to the in situ sediment it is designed to trace. The tracer was tested in laboratory batch experiments and field tested in both surface water and ground water systems. In surface water, arrival times of the tracer were similar to those of a conservative water tracer, although a significant amount of material was lost due to settling. Two tracer tests were undertaken in a karst aquifer under different flow conditions. Under normal flow conditions, the time of arrival and peak concentration of the tracer were similar to or preceded that of a conservative water tracer. Under low flow conditions, the particle tracer was not detected, suggesting that in low flow the sediment settles out of suspension and goes into storage

An evaluation of the performance of activated charcoal in detection of fluorescent compounds in the environment,, 2001, Smart C. , Simpson B.

Nutrient processing capacity of a constructed wetland in western Ireland, 2002, Healy M. , Cawley A. M. ,
In Ireland, constructed wetland systems are increasingly being used to perform tertiary treatment on municipal waste effluent from small towns and villages located in areas whose receiving waters are deemed sensitive. The bedrock formation in the west of Ireland is primarily karst limestone and where the overburden-soil cover is very shallow, such waters are highly sensitive to pollution sources, as little or no natural attenuation and/or treatment will occur. Constructed wetland technology has been seen to offer a relatively low-cost alternative to the more conventional tertiary treatment technologies, particularly when dealing with low population numbers in small rural communities. This paper examines the waste treatment performance, in terms of nutrient (P and N) reduction, of a recently constructed surface-flow wetland system at Williamstown, County Galway, Ireland. Performance evaluation is based on more than two years of water quality and hydrological monitoring data. The N and P mass balances for the wetland indicate that the average percentage reduction over the two-year study period is 51% for total N and 13% for total P. The primary treatment process in the wetland system for suspended solids (between 84 and 90% reduction), biological oxygen demand (BOD) (on average, 49% reduction), N, and P is the physical settlement of the particulates. However, the formation of algal bloom during the growing season reduces the efficiency of the total P removal

A nonlinear rainfall-runoff model using neural network technique: Example in fractured porous media, 2003, Lallahem S. , Mania J. ,
One of the more advanced approaches for simulating groundwater flow in karstic and fractured porous media is the combination of a linear and a nonlinear model. The paper presents an attempt to determine outflow influencing parameters in order to simulate aquifer outflow. Our approach in this study is to create a productive interaction system between expert, mathematical model, MERO,. and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The proposed method is especially suitable for the problem of large-scale and long-term simulation. In the present project, the first objective is to determine aquifer outflow influencing parameters by the use of MERO model, which gave a good results in a fissured and chalky media, and then introduce these parameters in neural network (NN). To determine outflow influencing parameters, we propose to test the NN under fourth different external input scenarios. The second objective is to investigate the effect of temporal information by taking current and past data sets. The good found results reveal the merit of ANNs-MERO combination and specifically multilayer perceptron (MLP) models. This methodology provided that the network with lower, lag and number hidden layer, consistently produced better performance. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Karstic problems in the construction of Milwaukee's Deep Tunnels, 2004, Day Mj,
A critical component of Milwaukee's $ 2.8 billion Water Pollution Abatement Program is a 31.2-km inline storage system comprising three Deep Tunnel sections that were bored between 1984 and 1993 at a depth of 80-100 m within Silurian-aged Niagara dolostone. Construction of these Deep Tunnels proved more difficult and expensive than estimated because the karstic nature of the dolostone, particularly its hydrology, had not been fully appreciated. Rock collapse, subsidence and groundwater intrusion necessitated remedial grouting and lining of about 45% of the tunnels, costing some $ 50 million above estimates and delaying completion by 9 months. Tunnel performance since completion continues to be controversial

Non-stationary spatiotemporal analysis of karst water levels, 2005, Dryden Il, Markus L, Taylor Cc, Kovacs J,
We consider non-stationary spatiotemporal modelling in an investigation into karst water levels in western Hungary. A strong feature of the data set is the extraction of large amounts of water from mines, which caused the water levels to reduce until about 1990 when the mining ceased, and then the levels increased quickly. We discuss some traditional hydrogeological models which might be considered to be appropriate for this situation, and various alternative stochastic models. In particular, a separable space-time covariance model is proposed which is then deformed in time to account for the non-stationary nature of the lagged correlations between sites. Suitable covariance functions are investigated and then the models are fitted by using weighted least squares and cross-validation. Forecasting and prediction are carried out by using spatiotemporal kriging. We assess the performance of the method with one-step-ahead forecasting and make comparisons with naive estimators. We also consider spatiotemporal prediction at a set of new sites. The new model performs favourably compared with the deterministic model and the naive estimators, and the deformation by time shifting is worthwhile

Hydrogeological research as a basis for the preparation of the plan of monitoring groundwater contamination: A case study of the Stara vas landfill near Postojna (SW Slovenia), 2005, Petrič, Metka, Š, Ebela Stanka

For the present 9 landfills on karst are still active in Slovenia, among them also the Stara vas landfill near Postojna. As strong fissuration of the rock base and very good permeability is typical for karst areas, the waste waters from the landfills particularly endanger the groundwater. The capacity of natural filtration in karst is very low and the dimension of possible negative impact is very high. The actual legislation regulates the performance of operational monitoring, a part of which is also the measurement of parameters of contamination of groundwater by hazardous substances, if they are in the area of influence of the landfill. Preparation of the monitoring plan is based on adequate hydrogeological researches. Besides basic geological and hydrogeological data also the results of tracer tests were used in the case study of the Stara vas landfill. Additionally, the detailed tectonic-lithological mapping in the scale 1:5000 was performed in the narrow area of the landfill. Based on defined characteristics of underground water flow and in accordance with the regulations 3 monitoring points inside (Malenščica and Vipava springs, Fužina cave) and one point outside the area of influence of the landfill (Matijeva jama cave) were selected. The monitoring plan for the observation of water quality and capacity was suggested.


A multicell karstic aquifer model with alternative flow equations, 2006, Rozos Evangelos, Koutsoyiannis Demetris,
A multicell groundwater model was constructed to investigate the potential improvement in the modelling of karstic aquifers by using a mixed equation suitable for both the free surface and pressure flow conditions in karstic conduits. To estimate the model parameters the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) optimisation method was used. This ensured a fast and objective model calibration. The model was applied to two real-world karstic aquifers and it became clear that in case of absence of water level measurements, the use of the mixed equation did not improved the performance. In cases where both spring discharge and water level measurements were available, the use of the mixed equation proved to be advantageous in reproducing the features of the observed time series especially of the water level

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