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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That water invasion is the sudden invasion of water into a well or borehole [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for physical properties (Keyword) returned 16 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 16
Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology of the Sierra de El Abra and the Valles-San Luis Potosí Region, México, PhD Thesis, 1977, Fish, Johnnie Edward

The general objective of this work was to develop a basic understanding of the karst hydrology, the nature and origin of the caves, the water chemistry, the surface geomorphology, and relationships among these aspects for a high relief tropical karst region having a thick section of limestone. The Valles-San Luis Potosí region of northeastern México, and in particular, the Sierra de El Abra, was selected for the study. A Cretaceous Platform approximately 200 km wide and 300 km long (N-S) delimits the region of interest. A thick Lower Cretaceous deposit of gypsum and anydrite, and probably surrounded by Lower Cretaceous limestone facies, is overlain by more than 1000 m of the thick-bedded middle Cretaceous El Abra limestone, which has a thick platform-margin reef. The Sierra de El Abra is a greatly elongated range along the eastern margin of the Platform. During the late Cretaceous, the region was covered by thick deposits of impermeable rocks. During the early Tertiary, the area was folded, uplifted, and subjected to erosion. A high relief karst having a wide variety of geomorphic forms controlled by climate and structure has developed. Rainfall in the region varies from 250-2500 mm and is strongly concentrated in the months June-October, when very large rainfalls often occur.
A number of specific investigations were made to meet the general objective given above, with special emphasis on those that provide information concerning the nature of ground-water flow systems in the region. Most of the runoff from the region passes through the karstic subsurface. Large portions of the region have no surface runoff whatsoever. The El Abra Formation is continuous over nearly the whole Platform, and it defines a region of very active ground-water circulation. Discharge from the aquifer occurs at a number of large and many small springs. Two of them, the Coy and the Frío springs group, are among the largest springs in the world with average discharges of approximately 24 m³/sec and 28 m³/sec respectively. Most of the dry season regional discharge is from a few large springs at low elevations along the eastern margin of the Platform. The flow systems give extremely dynamic responses to large precipitation events; floods at springs usually crest roughly one day after the causal rainfall and most springs have discharge variations (0max/0min) of 25-100 times. These facts indicate well-developed conduit flow systems.
The hydrochemical and hydrologic evidence in combination with the hydrogeologic setting demonstrate the existence of regional ground-water flow to several of the large eastern springs. Hydrochemical mixing-model calculations show that the amount of regional flow is at least 12 m³/sec, that it has an approximately constant flux, and that the local flow systems provide the extremely variable component of spring discharge. The chemical and physical properties of the springs are explained in terms of local and regional flow systems.
Local studies carried out in the Sierra de El Abra show that large conduits have developed, and that large fluctuations of the water table occur. The large fossil caves in the range were part of great deep phreatic flow systems which circulated at least 300 m below ancient water tables and which discharged onto ancient coastal plains much higher than the present one. The western margin swallet caves are of the floodwater type. The cave are structurally controlled.
Knowledge gained in this study should provide a basis for planning future research, and in particular for water resource development. The aquifer has great potential for water supply, but little of that potential is presently used.


The use of geophysical surveying methods in the detection of natural cavities and mineshafts, 1987, Mccann D. M. , Jackson P. D. , Culshaw M. G. ,
The use of geophysical methods for the location of cavities and mineshafts is reviewed in relation to engineering problems at the site investigation stage. Their success is limited by the resolution and penetration achieved by the particular method applied in a given situation. It is shown that no one single geophysical method will provide the answer to all the problems associated with cavity location but considerable improvement can be achieved by the application of several methods to a given problem. It is suggested that for most standard geophysical methods it is possible to detect a cavity whose depth of burial is less than twice its effective diameter. The concept of effective diameter is shown to be of considerable importance since the presence of the cavity or mineshaft does affect the physical properties of the surrounding rock mass and, hence, gives rise to a far larger anomalous zone than that produced by the cavity on its own

IMPACT OF PAST SEDIMENT ECOLOGY ON ROCK FRACTURATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF CURRENT ECOSYSTEMS (JURA, FRANCE), 1991, Gaiffe M, Bruckert S,
Differences in the fracture type of limestone rocks have resulted in the formation of several main plant soil ecosystems in the montane and subalpine zones of the Jura (800-1 700 m). The sites were on stable landscape with slope < 5%. Locations were chosen to reflect the variation in physical properties of the bedrock and lithic contact. The rock fractures (densities and size), the shape and size of the fragments and the hydraulic conductivities were described and analyzed to characterize the 3 main bedrocks in the area studied (table 1): 1), lapiaz, ie, large rock fragments separated from each other by wide fractures (figs 1-2), 'broken' rocks traversed by numerous fine fractures (fig 2-3), paving-stones crossed by infrequent narrow fractures (fig 3). The effects of rock fracturing on vegetation (table II) and soil formation were significant in reference to porosity and permeability relationships (figs 6-7). Under similar precipitation, meteoric waters flow through the soil and porosity is relative to fracture systems (figs 4, 5). The weathering of cobbles in the soil profiles and along the lithic contacts maintains different soil solution Ca levels and is an important variable in soil and ecosystem formation (table III). Regarding the regional orogenic phases and the tectonic origin of the fractures, we postulate that the different types of fracturation originated from the different chemical and mineralogic composition of the rocks. Significant differences exist in both the calcite and dolomite content, in the insoluble residue content (table IV) and in the percentage of organic matter of the carbonate-free residues (table V, fig 8). The results indicate that the differences in rock composition arose early at about the period of sedimentation. The origin of the differentiation might be due to the sedimentation conditions and environment (fig 9). It is concluded that the present-day plant soil ecosystems may be related to the marine sediment environments of the Jurassic period (fig 10)

The detection of cavities using the microgravity technique: case histories from mining and karstic environments, 1997, Bishop I, Styles P, Emsley Sj, Ferguson Ns,
The presence of mining-related cavities (workings, shafts and tunnels) or karstic (solution cavities and sinkholes in limestone) within the top 100 m in the rock mass restricts land utilisation, and their migration to the surface may damage property or services or cause loss of life. Confirmation of features marked on existing plans prior to design and construction may be sufficient but it is often necessary to determine the detailed sub-surface structure. The standard method of siteinvestigation is to drill a pattern of boreholes to locate the spatial extent of any cavities. However, unless the spacing is less than the cavity dimensions it is possible to miss it completely. A cavity may be filled with air, water, or collapse material resulting in a contrast in physical properties which may be detected using appropriate geophysical methods. One powerful technique is microgravity which locates areas of contrasting sub-surface density from surface measurements of the earth's gravity. Although the method is fundamentally simple, measurement of the minute variations in gravity (1 in 108) requires sensitive instruments, careful data acquisition, and data reduction and digital data analysis. Final interpretation must be performed in conjunction with independent information about the site's history and geology. This paper presents three examples in both mining and karstic environments demonstrating that microgravity is a very effective technique for detectingand delineating cavities in the sub-surface

Role of stratigraphic elements in speleogenesis: the speleoinception concept, 2000, Lowe D. J.
Inception, the earliest phase of cave development, may begin during diagenesis. Within sedimentary rock sequences inception is generally related to specific favorable horizons or zones within the rock mass. These relatively thin inception horizons tend to display atypical chemical and/or physical properties, compared to the primary properties of the bulk of potentially cavernous rock successions. Commonly they correspond to depositional breaks or interruptions, particularly boundaries between major depositional cycles. Thus, according to the Inception Horizon Hypothesis, inception in sedimentary sequences (as typified by carbonate rocks) is inevitably related to, and guided by, thin relatively impure layers within thicker, otherwise pure beds, or at boundaries between impure and pure lithologies. Growth of incipient voids occurs potentially across the full lateral extent of inception horizons, generally very slowly during extended timescales. Growth may progress simultaneously at more than one stratigraphic level in a sequence, in deeply buried, confined or artesian conditions. Voids along individual inception horizons can be linked hydrologically by others that form concurrently or subsequently along tectonic or lithogenetic fissures. Later, interference between the imprinted inception framework and evolving surface landscapes leads to structurally advantageous elements of the potential three dimensional network being selected, linked and enlarged to form the skeletons of developing cave systems.

Karst geoindicators of environmental change: The case of Lithuania, 2002, Taminskas J. , Marcinkevicius V. ,
Karst is the result of an epigenetic geomorphologic process that may involve rapid changes to landscapes and their physical properties, with the newly formed relief complicating regional economic development and the protection of nature. The intensity of the karst process is closely linked with the circulation of surface and groundwater, so that the parameters characterising water circulation and chemical denudation can serve as indicators of the intensity of karstification. In this article, we describe the North Lithuanian karst region, and evaluate the influence of climate and hydrological conditions on karstification. Upper Devonian gypsum and dolomites occur beneath the Quaternary sediments here. Sinkholes frequently appear where the latter are particularly thin and underlain by gypsum, suggesting that karstification is intensifying. This is perhaps related to climate change expressed by an increase in mean annual temperature and runoff, especially during warm winters. To identify the main determinants of the karst processes, monitoring was carried out between 1994 and 1999, and data on river runoff and water chemistry from 1962 to 1999 were examined. From 1978 to 1999, the mean chemical denudation rate in the active gypsum karst zone was 30% higher than from 1962 to 1977, a change mirrored by the increased total volume of new sinkholes that appeared in the 1980s and 1990s. We have calculated the rate of chemical denudation and sink-hole formation in the last four decades and discuss karst activitiy as a geoindicator of environmental change

Coastal and submarine karstic discharges in theGokova Bay, SW Turkey, 2002, Bayari Cs, Kurttas T,
Hydrochemical, stable isotopic (18O and 2H) and thermal infrared data of LANDSAT 5 TM for sea surface temperature anomalies have been used to determine the extent and spatial variation of salinization in coastal and submarine karstic groundwater discharges in the Gokova Bay area, located in the SW Turkey. The bay is an active graben extending in an east-west direction. An artesian aquifer in the eastern tidal plain is the only source of fresh groundwater, whereas Tertiary and Mesozoic carbonates contacting with sea along the northern coastline provide abundant but saline water. Physical properties, major ion chemistry and stable isotope composition indicate a westward increase in the salinity of the karstic springs. The temporal variation of salinity in groundwater is either related to variations in sea level or in seasonal recharge rates, while some springs have time-invariant salinity. Submarine groundwater discharges were determined successfully from satellite images and verified by ground measurements of pH, temperature and electrical conductivity. Some of these discharges are also characterized by the existence of a halocline, as observed during Scuba diving. The westward-increasing salinity appears to be related to decreasing groundwater discharge in this direction

Reservoir characterization of the Mississippian Madison Formation, Wind River basin, Wyoming, 2004, Westphal H. , Eberli G. P. , Smith L. B. , Grammer G. M. , Kislak J.

Significant heterogeneity in petrophysical properties, including variations in porosity and permeability, are well documented from carbonate systems. These variations in physical properties are typically influenced by original facies heterogeneity, the early diagenetic environment, and later stage diagenetic overprint. The heterogeneities in the Mississippian Madison Formation in the Wind River basin of Wyoming are a complex interplay between these three factors whereby differences from the facies arrangement are first reduced by pervasive dolomitization, but late-stage hydrothermal diagenesis introduces additional heterogeneity. The dolomitized portions of theMadison Formation formhighly productive gas reservoirs at Madden Deep field with typical initial production rates in excess of 50 MMCFGD. In the study area, the Madison Formation is composed of four third-order depositional sequences that contain several small-scale, higher frequency cycles. The cycles and sequences display a facies partitioning with mudstone to wackestone units in the transgressive portion and skeletal and oolitic packstone and grainstone in the regressive portions. The grainstone packages are amalgamated tidally influenced skeletal and oolitic shoals that cover the entire study area. The basal three sequences are completely dolomitized, whereas the fourth sequence is limestone. The distribution of petrophysical properties in the system is influenced only in a limited manner by the smaller scale stratigraphic architecture. Porosity and permeability are controlled by the sequence-scale stratigraphic units, where uniform facies belts and pervasive dolomitization result in flow units that are basically tied to third-order depositional sequences with a thickness of 65– 100 ft (20–30 m). The best reservoir rocks are found in regressive, coarse-grained dolomites of the lower two sequences. Although the amalgamated shoal facies is heterogeneous, dolomitization decompartmentalized these cycles. Fine-grained sediments in the basal transgressive parts of these sequences, along with caliche and chert layers on top of the underlying sequences, are responsible for a decrease of porosity toward the sequence boundaries and potential flow separation. Good reservoir quality is also found in the third sequence, which is composed of dolomitized carbonate mud. However, reservoir-quality predictions in these dolomudstones are complicated by several phases of brecciation. The most influential of these brecciations is hydrothermal in origin and partly shattered the entire unit. The breccia is healed by calcite that isolates individual dolomite clasts. As a result, the permeability decreases in zones of brecciation. The late-stage calcite cementation related to the hydrothermal activity is the most important factor to create reservoir heterogeneity in the uniform third sequence, but it is also influential in the grainstone units of the first two sequences. In these sequences, the calcifying fluids invade the dolomite and partly occlude the interparticle porosity and decrease permeability to create heterogeneity in a rock in which the pervasive dolomitization previously reduced much of the influence of facies heterogeneity 


Oxidation-reduction chemistry of Lechuguilla Cave seepage, 2007, Levy D. B.
Groundwater generally becomes increasingly reduced (decreasing Eh) with depth from the soil surface, and therefore seepage is a potential source of dissolved Mn, Fe, and NH4 to caves. In Lechuguilla Cave, both abiotic and biotic processes have contributed to the origin of a vast array of secondary speleogenetic features which are enriched in Fe and Mn oxides. Existing chemical and physical properties of Lechuguilla Cave pool water indicates oxidizing conditions, with dissolved Fe and Mn below detection, and N existing primarily as NO3. However, the redox chemistry of the cave seepage has not been well-studied. The objective of this study was to characterize the redox status of Lechuguilla Cave seepage and to test the hypothesis that seepage entering the cave from the overlying vadose zone is a potential source of dissolved Fe, Mn, and inorganic N (as both NH4 and NO3). If present in seepage, Fe, Mn, and NH4 will oxidize in the cave environment, resulting in non-detectable concentrations in cave pools. Seepage was collected from eight locations in the cave and analyzed for field parameters (pH, EC, dissolved O2(g), Eh, temperature) and concentrations of dissolved Fe (Fe2+ + total Fe), Mn, NO3 + NO2-N, and NH4-N. Results indicate that low organic C concentrations prevent the occurrence of complete anaerobic conditions in seepage, but the concentrations of Mn and NH4 indicate that slightly reducing conditions can exist. Iron concentrations were below detection (,0.06 mg L21) in all samples, and N existed primarily as NO3. Field-measured Eh values obtained using a Pt electrode (Ehm) did not correlate with computed Eh values for various redox couples (Ehc), and the poor agreement between Ehc values for the different couples indicates the absence of redox equilibria in the samples. Rather than characterization of redox status according to Eh, seepage is classified as ranging from oxic to suboxic. This redox classification indicates that Lechuguilla Cave seepage can generally be expected to contain low concentrations of organic C and dissolved Mn, dissolved O2(g) ranging from 1 mM to .30 mM, but with Fe below typical analytical detection limits.

Water exchange and pressure transfer between conduits and matrix and their influence on hydrodynamics of two karst aquifers with sinking streams, 2010, Baillycomte Vincent, Martin Jonathan B. , Jourde Hervé, , Screaton Elizabeth J. , Pistre Sé, Verin, Langston Abigail

Karst aquifers are heterogeneous media where conduits usually drain water from lower permeability volumes (matrix and fractures). For more than a century, various approaches have used flood recession curves, which integrate all hydrodynamic processes in a karst aquifer, to infer physical properties of the movement and storage of groundwater. These investigations typically only consider flow to the conduits and thus have lacked quantitative observations of how pressure transfer and water exchange between matrix and conduit during flooding could influence recession curves.

We present analyses of simultaneous discharge and water level time series of two distinctly different karst systems, one with low porosity and permeability matrix rocks in southern France, and one with high porosity and permeability matrix rocks in north-central Florida (USA). We apply simple mathematical models of flood recession using time series representations of recharge, storage, and discharge processes in the karst aquifer. We show that karst spring hydrographs can be interpreted according to pressure transfer between two distinct components of the aquifer, conduit and matrix porosity, which induce two distinct responses at the spring. Water exchange between conduits and matrix porosity successively control the flow regime at the spring. This exchange is governed by hydraulic head differences between conduits and matrix, head gradients within conduits, and the contrast of permeability between conduits and matrix. These observations have consequences for physical interpretations of recession curves and modeling of karst spring flows, particularly for the relative magnitudes of base flow and quick flow from karst springs. Finally, these results suggest that similar analyses of recession curves can be applied to karst aquifers with distinct physical characteristics utilizing well and spring hydrograph data, but information must be known about the hydrodynamics and physical properties of the aquifer before the results can be correctly interpreted.


Determining Geophysical Properties of a Near-Surface Cave through Integrated Microgravity Vertical Gradient and Electrical Resistivity Tomography, 2011, Gambetta M. , Armadillo E. , Carmisciano C. , Stefanelli P. , Cocchi L. , Caratori Tontini F.

Vertical-gradient microgravity and electrical-resistivity tomography geophysical surveys were performed over a shallow cave in the Italian Armetta Mountain karst area, close to the Liguria-Piedmont watershed. The aim of this study was to test the geophysical response of a known shallow cave. The shallowest portion of the cave exhibits narrow passages and, at about 30 meters below the entrance, a fossil meander linking two large chambers, the target of the geophysical survey. The integrated results of the two surveys show a clear geophysical response to the cave. The surveys exhibited high resistivity values and a negative gravity anomaly over the large cave passages. This work confirms the ability of these geophysical techniques to give the precise location of the voids, even in complex environments. The application of these techniques can be successful for site surveying where the presence of hollows may be expected.


Temporal Stability of Cave Sediments, 2011, Peterson E. W. , Hughes K.

Sediments within cave systems have been examined concerning source, mineralogy, and transport potential. While sediments in the thalweg are very mobile, the entrainment potential of the sediment piles has not been examined. Over the course of nine months, sediment piles in a Missouri cave were sampled to determine the stability of the piles and of the sediment properties. Sediment cores were analyzed for dry bulk density (ρd), porosity (n), volumetric wetness (θ), organic content (O.C.), hydraulic conductivity (K), and sediment particle size distribution. Observational evidence, deposited sediment and deformation of previous sample holes, suggests that despite elevated flows, the sediment piles were not mobilized over the course of the nine months. Physical properties remained constant at each location, but varied among the various locations. Dry bulk density values ranged between 1.2 g/cm 3 to 1.5 g/cm 3 . Porosity values were 0.42 to 0.57. Volumetric wetness showed similar variation ranging from 0.38 to 0.53. Organic content had the highest variation among the parameters ranging from 1.24 percent at one site to 4.84 percent at another. Hydraulic conductivity ranged from 2.13×10 -7 m/s to 3.10×10 -7 m/s. 


An electrical resistivity imaging-based strategy to enable site-scale planning over covered palaeokarst features in the Tournaisis area (Belgium), 2012, Kaufmann O. , Deceuster J. , Quinif Y.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, more than 150 sinkhole occurrences, mainly dropout (or covercollapse)sinkholes, have been reported in the Tournaisis area (south-eastern Belgium). Land-use planning in such a context has to take into account hazards linked with sinkhole subsidence and collapse. Management maps, drawn at a regional scale, point out zones where karstic risks have to be taken into account when dealing with infrastructure or building projects. However, karst hazard is highly variable in three dimensions at the local scale. Therefore, for such purposes, an accurate methodology is needed to detect and delineate covered karst features, especially when located in urbanized areas. As geophysical investigations are sensitive to contrasts in physical properties of soils, these methods can be useful to detect such targets. The specific karstic context encountered in the Tournaisis area strongly guides the choice of investigation techniques. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) methods were tested on a wellknown site where dropout sinkholes occurred formerly. This site was also studied using static cone penetration tests (CPT) and boreholes. A 3D inverted resistivity model was computed based on the 2D ERI models obtained after inversion. Resistivity profiles were extracted at each CPT location and compared to geotechnical results to determine an empirical and site-specific resistivity law that allows discrimination between weathered zones and sound limestone. Performance tests were conducted to evaluate the potential of the proposed methodology for two typical engineering problems based on two current hypotheses. Borehole data were used as ground truth. Similar performance tests were also computed using the CPT depth to bedrock model. The results of these performance tests are compared and discussed. Finally, an ERI-based investigation strategy is proposed to assess karst hazard in palaeokarstic context, such as encountered in the Tournaisis area, at the scale needed for building and infrastructure purposes. 


The new global lithological map database GLiM: A representation of rock properties at the Earth surface, 2012, Hartmann Jens, Moosdorf Nils

Lithology describes the geochemical, mineralogical, and physical properties of rocks. It plays a key role in many processes at the Earth surface, especially the fluxes of matter to soils, ecosystems, rivers, and oceans. Understanding these processes at the global scale requires a high resolution description of lithology. A new high resolution global lithological map (GLiM) was assembled from existing regional geological maps translated into lithological information with the help of regional literature. The GLiM represents the rock types of the Earth surface with 1,235,400 polygons. The lithological classification consists of three levels. The first level contains 16 lithological classes comparable to previously applied definitions in global lithological maps. The additional two levels contain 12 and 14 subclasses, respectively, which describe more specific rock attributes. According to the GLiM, the Earth is covered by 64% sediments (a third of which are carbonates), 13% metamorphics, 7% plutonics, and 6% volcanics, and 10% are covered by water or ice. The high resolution of the GLiM allows observation of regional lithological distributions which often vary from the global average. The GLiM enables regional analysis of Earth surface processes at global scales. A gridded version of the GLiM is available at the PANGEA Database (http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.788537).


Microsculpturing of solutional rocky landforms., 2013, Lundberg, J.

Karren (small-scale dissolutional features) have a great variety of forms and are known by a huge suite of terms. Bare rock forms are sharper and more gravitomorphic than subcutaneous forms, where rock-fracture control may dominate. Four controls operate: (1) physical properties of the solvent (fluid flow, surface tension, and percolation); (2) chemical properties of the solvent (unmodified rainwater, enhanced aggressivity, and reduced aggressivity); (3) chemical properties of the solute (rock solubility); and (4) physical properties of the solute (fractures and rock texture). Large expanses of bare rock karren are called karren fields, the more famous including China’s ‘Stone Forest’, Madagascar’s ‘Tsingy’, and Mulu’s ‘Pinnacles’. in caves


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