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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That azimuth is the true bearing of a survey line, determined by measurement from an accurate survey or by observations of sun or stars [25].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for pigment (Keyword) returned 59 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 59
Eye and Pigment Regression of Cave Salamanders, 1961, Vandel, A.

Cave Animals and Their Environment, 1962, Richards, Aola M.

Caves can be divided into three distinct regions - the twilight zone, the transitional zone and the troglic zone. The main physical characters of caves - light, air currents, temperature and humidity - are discussed in relation to their effect on cave fauna. Various classifications of cave animals are mentioned, and those of Schiner and Jeannel discussed in detail. The paucity of food in caves, and its effect on the animal population is considered. Mention is made of the loss of secondary sexual characters and seasonal periodicity of breeding among true troglobites. Cave animals have undergone many adaptations to their environment, the most interesting of these being blindness and loss of pigment. Hyper-development of tactile, gustatory, olfactory and auditory organs and general slenderness of body, are correlated with eye degeneration. Several theories on the origin of cave fauna are discussed, and the importance of isolation on the development of cave fauna considered.


Remarks on the Japygidae (Insecta, Diplura) reported for the underground environment., 1964, Pages Jean
About 50 japygids, belonging to 29 distinct forms of which 23 are recognizable, have been collected since 1874 in caves all over the world. A list is given, by continent and by countries. Ten species found both in the soil and in caves are called troglophiles to emphasize the sorting which seems to occur among endogenous species. Of the remaining 13 species, all considered troglobites, only 3 show morphological peculiarities which can be ascribed to adaptation to cavernicolous life: (1) Metajapyx moroderi ssp. patrizianus Pags from Sardinia shows a slightly longer l0th urite and cerci than the f. typ.; (2) Kohjapyx lindbergi Pags from Afghanistan is characterized by its very long l0th urite, its relatively slender cerci, and the presence of more than 8 placoid sensillae (maximum basic number in endogenous species) on the apical segment of the antennae; (3) Austrjapyx leleupi Pags from the Lower Congo fits most closely the picture of the true troglobite; almost entirely depigmented, slender, with elongate legs, long setae, and the antennae with two of the trichobothria 4 to 5 times as long as the other typical 11, as well as 14 placoid sensillae on the apical segment. It is noted in the conclusion that, among the Diplura and Myriapoda, the almost exclusively phytophagous or saprophagous Campodeids and millipedes include a large number of true troglobites, in contrast with the carnivorous Japygids and centipedes, which have very few troglobites.

Subterranean occurrence of Anaspides tasmaniae (Thomson) (Crustacea, Syncarida)., 1965, Williams W. D.
Anaspides tasmaniae is recorded from a subterranean habitat for the first time. The only difference noted from surface forms was the smaller amount of pigment present.

A psychrophilic yeast from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky., 1967, Barr Thomas C. , Brashear David, Wiseman Ralph F.
Samples collected in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, revealed the presence of a psychrophilic yeast, tentatively identified as a strain of Candida albicans. The yeast is saprophytic on dead animal tissues and exhibits a pale yellow colour when growing in the cave. In vitro, the yeast grows poorly at 37C. and well at 130 and 200, but loses its pigmentation. It is non-pathogenic in rabbits but appears to show low-grade parasitism in frogs.

Discovery of fluorescent substances in the yellow organ of Caecospaeroma burgundum Dollfus, Isopod Crustacean of underground waters., 1967, Descimon Henry, Marvillet Claude
Chromatographic analysis of the yellow organs of the fresh-water Isopod Crustacean Caecosphaeroma burgundum Dollfus revealed, through observation of the chromatograms in ultraviolet light, the occurrence of both absorbing and fluorescent substances. Among the latter, only isoxanthopterin has been identified. The yellow pigment, which probably has a pteridine nucleus, could not be identified as a known compound and will be the object of later investigations.

On the faculty of absorption of coloured substances by the cuticle of Caecospaeroma burgundum Dollfus, Isopod Crustacean of underground waters., 1967, Graf Franois, Marvillet Claude
The discovery, in certain subterranean waters, of "pigmented," brown or black Caecosphaeroma burgundum, led to the systematic study of the action of pigmented substances on these crustaceans. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the colorations thus obtained or observed in nature are due to the agglutination of coloured substances on the surface of the carapace and, in certain cases, to an impregnation of the cuticle itself.

A psychrophilic yeast from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky., 1967, Barr Thomas C. , Brashear David, Wiseman Ralph F.
Samples collected in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, revealed the presence of a psychrophilic yeast, tentatively identified as a strain of Candida albicans. The yeast is saprophytic on dead animal tissues and exhibits a pale yellow colour when growing in the cave. In vitro, the yeast grows poorly at 37C. and well at 130 and 200, but loses its pigmentation. It is non-pathogenic in rabbits but appears to show low-grade parasitism in frogs.

Discovery of fluorescent substances in the yellow organ of Caecospaeroma burgundum Dollfus, Isopod Crustacean of underground waters., 1967, Descimon Henry, Marvillet Claude
Chromatographic analysis of the yellow organs of the fresh-water Isopod Crustacean Caecosphaeroma burgundum Dollfus revealed, through observation of the chromatograms in ultraviolet light, the occurrence of both absorbing and fluorescent substances. Among the latter, only isoxanthopterin has been identified. The yellow pigment, which probably has a pteridine nucleus, could not be identified as a known compound and will be the object of later investigations.

Tasmanian Cave Fauna: Character and Distribution, 1967, Goede, A.

The geology and nature of the caves is discussed. Cave development has been affected by glacial outwash and periglacial conditions which must be taken into account when considering the development and distribution of cave fauna. The food supply in the caves is limited by the absence of cave-inhabiting bats. Floods while adding to the food supply must be destructive to some forms of terrestrial cave life. The cave fauna consists entirely of invertebrates. The carab genus Idacarabus Lea contains the only troglobites found in Tasmania. A common troglophile throughout the island is Hickmania troglodytes (Higgins and Petterd) which belongs to a very small group of relict spiders. Five species of cave crickets are known from Tasmania and Flinders Island. Three species belong to the genus Micropathus Richards and show an interesting distribution pattern. A single species of glow-worm, Arachnocampa (Arachnocampa) tasmaniensis Ferguson occurs in a number of Tasmanian caves. It is more closely related to the New Zealand species than to glow worms found on the Australian mainland. Other terrestrial cave life is briefly discussed. Aquatic cave life is poorly known. The syncarid Anaspides tasmaniae (Thomson) has been recorded from several caves. It differs from epigean forms in reduction of pigment.


The subterranean fauna associated with the blind palaemonid prawn Typhlocaris galilea Calman., 1971, Dov Por Francis, Tsurnamal Moshe
Exploration of the subterranean tract of the spring of En-Nur (at the North end of Lake Tiberias) by scuba diving and by use of new collecting methods, led to the discovery of a living community associated with the blind prawn Typhlocaris galilea. A rich growth of sulphur bacteria and of pigmentless Cyanophyceae from the trophic basis in this peculiar biotope. Representatives of three hypogeic crustacean orders have been found as well as some peculiar gastropods, nematods and oligocaets. The latter are the main food of Typhlocaris galilea.

The subterranean fauna associated with the blind palaemonid prawn Typhlocaris galilea Calman., 1971, Dov Por Francis, Tsurnamal Moshe
Exploration of the subterranean tract of the spring of En-Nur (at the North end of Lake Tiberias) by scuba diving and by use of new collecting methods, led to the discovery of a living community associated with the blind prawn Typhlocaris galilea. A rich growth of sulphur bacteria and of pigmentless Cyanophyceae from the trophic basis in this peculiar biotope. Representatives of three hypogeic crustacean orders have been found as well as some peculiar gastropods, nematods and oligocaets. The latter are the main food of Typhlocaris galilea.

A cavernicolous asellid of southern Spain: Proasellus solanasi n. sp. (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota)., 1972, Henry Jean Paul, Magniez Guy
Description of a new, unpigmented and eyeless species of the genus Proasellus Dudich, from an underground stream in the province of Malaga (Southern Spain). It belongs to the phyletic line which gave rise to the modem epigean water-slater Proasellus rneridianus (Racovitza).

Observations on a darkness-bound Asellus of France: Proasellus racovitzai n.sp. (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota)., 1972, Henry Jean Paul, Magniez Guy
This paper reports the description of a new species of the genus Proasellus Dudich. Proasellus racovitzai n.sp. is widely depigmented. The eyes are reduced. It lives in the underground stream of the Goueil-di-Her cave system (Haute-Garonne, France). The species is an old, endemic form of the phyletic line of the modern epigean species P. meridianus (Racovitza). Chromosome number of the new species: 2n = 22.

Two new cavernicolous Stenasellidae of Central America: Mexistenasellus parzefalli n. sp. Et Mexistenasellus wilkensi n. sp. (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota)., 1972, Magniez Guy
Description of the females of two new species of the family Stenasellidae (anophthalmous and unpigmented Asellota from underground waters). They were found in a little cave of San-Luis Potosi state (Mexico).

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