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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That topographic divide is a crest line dividing one drainage basin from another [16]. see also divide.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for piracy (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 21
A Stream Piracy Theory of Cave Formation, 1961, Woodward, Herbert P.

Cross Piracy Drainage Development in the Newsome Sinks Area of Alabama, 1963, Varnedoe_jr. , W. W.

River Cave, Cooleman Plain, Kosciusko National Park, And Its Hydrological Relationships, 1969, Jennings, J. N.

River Cave is a Zwischenhohle (between-cave) in which the active river passage is reached through a former tributary stream passage from a dry valley. Now vadose in character, it is of gentle gradient, with some normally and some temporarily water-filled reaches of shallow phreatic nature. There is only a single level of development. Water tracing has confirmed previous inferences that it is mainly fed from the South Branch watersink, that its normal flow goes to the Blue Waterholes, the main rising of the Plain, and that there is flood overflow to Murray Cave, which is shown to have been formerly the normal outflow cave of the system. In the changeover from one outflow point (Vorfluter) to another, a shorter, steeper cave and longer surface course has been replaced by a longer cave of shorter gradient. Ev's Cave, a flood inflow cave of the South Branch, may also feed River Cave and Keith's Faint Cave is inferred to be part of the link between South Branch Sink and River Cave. It has the aspect of an early stage of vadose development from phreatic conditions. Previous interpretation of Glop Pot as a true phreatic relic is maintained in the light of new facts. Evidence is lacking with which to date the caves at all reliably. Glop Pot possibly belongs to a phase of surface planation of Tertiary age whereas the other caves are likely to be consequent on Pleistocene dissection. The tributary passage of River Cave and its associated dry valley may have lost their stream in the Holocene when Murray Cave became intermittent in action also. The Murray Cave event is due to subterranean piracy associated with rejuvenation whereas the loss of the tributary stream is probably in part due to increasing warmth and less effective precipitation.

Traits gnraux de l'hydrologie karstique en Basse Cvenne, 1984, Fabre, G.
GENERAL FEATURES OF KARSTIC HYDROLOGY IN BASSE CEVENNE (FRANCE) - N to the town of Als (SE Massif Central and Cvennes), a very fractured carbonated belt outcrops. The karst concerns some facies of Trias, Lias-Dogger, Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous. Karstic flows are of two types: toward W, convergent to the important springs of la Tour-Dauthunes, and toward E and divergent. Ggeneral characteristics are presented. Economic aspect is pointed out, just as karstic stream piracy.

Meander Cutoff Caves and Self Piracy: The Consequences of Meander Incision Into Soluble Rocks, 1990, Mylroie John E. , Mylroie Joan R.

Observations morphologiques sur le gosystme karstique du Rupt du Puits (Meuse, Lorraine), 1995, Jaillet S. , Gamez P.
The karst system of Rupt-du-Puits is situated east of the Paris basin (Barrois and Perthois), in the Portlandian limestones covered by sands and clays of Lower Cretaceous. It presents 21 km of surveyed passages in several networks (catchment = 13 km2). In this typical covered karst (cryptokarst), we observe two kinds of alimentation: rapid (swallow holes) and slow (wet soils). On the exokarst, the valleys move by retreat of swallow holes and karst stepping. In the endokarst, the variations of the base level determine several stages of stream piracy (elbows of capture). The karst morphology depends on climatic changes and the evolution of the drainage pattern during the Upper Pleistocene.

Nickpoint recession in karst terrains: An example from the Buchan karst, southeastern Australia, 1996, Fabel D, Henricksen D, Finlayson Bl, Webb Ja,
Nickpoint recession in the Buchan karst, southeastern Australia, has resulted in the formation of an underground meander cut-off system in the Murrindal River valley. Three nickpoints have been stranded in the surface channel abandoned by the subterranean piracy, and these can be correlated with river terraces and epiphreatic cave passages in the nearby Buchan River valley. The presence of palaeomagnetically reversed sediments in the youngest cave passage in the Buchan valley implies that the topographically lowest nickpoint in the Murrindal valley is more than 730 ka old, and the other nickpoints are probably several million years old. The nickpoints are occasionally active during floods, but the diversion of most surface flow underground has slowed down their retreat to the extent that they have been effectively stationary for several million years Underground nickpoint migration has been by both incision within major phreatic conduits and their abandonment for lower-level passages. The nickpoints are all present in the upstream part of the cave system, but have not migrated past the sink in the river channel, despite the long period of time available for this to happen. The sink is characterized by collapsed limestone blocks; these filter out the coarse bedload from the river channel. As a result, erosion within the cave passages is dominantly solutional and therefore slower than in the surface channel, where it is mostly mechanical. In addition, to transmit a drop in base level the cave system requires the removal of a larger volume of rock than for the surface migration of a nickpoint, because any roof collapse material in the subsurface system must be removed. These factors have slowed the migration of the base-level changes through the subsurface system, and may be a general feature in caves that have diffuse sinks as their main inputs

Interprtation morphomtrique et splo_gense : exemple de rseaux karstiques de Basse-Provence (directions de galeries, modle et maillage structural), 1997, Blanc Jeanjoseph, Monteau Raymond
Successive tectonic phases on limestone massifs are at the origin of a fracturation grid with several pattern dimensions, and linear or organized drain directions. Mechanical reactivations are observed from Oligocene until Plio-Quaternary on a former "pyreneo-provenale" structure (Eocene). Statistical analysis of gallery and fracture directions, cave levels and descent stages (overdeepening) show several erosional stages occurring after the formation of the Antevindobonian erosional surface. The active speleogenesis during Oligocene and Miocene was controlled by tectonics in connection with European rifting and mediterranean opening. In Messinian a short and significant lowering of mediterranean base level (and water table) made drastic erosion and created vertical pits. The horizontal cave level dug during the stabilization phase of Pliocene, now perched over underground rivers, shows a new overdeepening because of glacio-eustatic Quaternary oscillations. Compressive or distensive mechanical reactivations (Upper Miocene, Pliocene, Quaternary) modified the drainage and consequently the cave organization: self-piracy, confluence and diffluence. In the endokarst, the drainage inversion can be detected in late Upper continental Miocene and early Messinian (6,5 Ma), in correlation with the tilting and extension of the continental margin. Five caves in Provence are studied: Sabre, Petit Saint-Cassien, Rampins, Planesselve river, and Tete du Cade networks.

Les recoupements karstiques de mandres encaisss, 1997, Nicod, Jean
Three types of cut-off can be observed: 1) by natural bridge or short tunnel: Pont d'Arc type self-piracy (Ardeche, France) ; 2) by caves system or hydrogeological network, Lesse type (Ardenne, Belgium) ; 3) subaerial in karstic environment, the case of Vis in Navacelles (Herault, France). The main processes are debated: anteriority or/and coexistence of the underground drainage, impact of neotectonics, of the load and the screes and of the water chemistry changes.

La capture de la Moselle : nouvelles donnes chronologiques par datations U/Th sur splothmes, 2001, Losson Benot, Quinif Yves
The Moselle piracy is one of the most important changes of the hydrographic network in Lorraine (France). For a long time, this phenomenon has been presumed to be relatively recent (at the end of the Middle Pleistocene) because of the well preserved fluvial morphologies and deposits. With new relations between the above ground and subterranean parameters in the piracy area, the capture has been dated from 300 ka by the U/Th method on speleothem. This evaluation reveals an earlier time for the phenomenon, and is more precise than those proposed up to now. The latter were derived from the North-european glacial chronology and one thermoluminescence date obtained in the downstream valley of Meuse. In fact, the improvements in absolute datings, through different methods and U/Th in particular, lead geomorphologists to abandon the simple relation between the glacial-interglacial periods and the accumulation-erosion processes in rivers.

On the origin of the hydrographic net and on some karst phenomena in the Idrija region, 2002, Mlakar, Ivan

Geological structure on the Pliocene paleosurface level in the nowadays 1000 m altitude were reconstructed. The lithological and tectonical circumstances in that time played a decisive role in hydrographic net origin and also on Kanomljica, Nikova, Idrijca and Belca rivers piracy. Landscape south and NW from Idrija fulfil all conditions to become classical region for initial karstification stadium examination, for that reason to this problems great attention have been paid. Particularly system of cross alpine faults and fissures played significant role on karst phenomena origin. With potholes theory the origin of Wild Lake have been explained and pointed out, that some dolinas at least have been projected already in period when Cretaceous limestones were covered by worse waterpermeable rocks. Anticline structures proved as the best indicator for karst rooms presence. On article end the results of 60 complete silicate analyses of nearly all Idrija' s rocks in table shape are presented.

Two phase development of the upper Cerkniščica basin, 2002, Š, Uš, Terš, Ič, Simona

The Cerkniščica catchement area covers about 46.8 km2, and most of the area is built of upper Triassic dolomite. So, the differences in the surface roughness are mostly not due to variable lithology, but to diffent degrees of tectonically injurred rock. Reconstruction of longitudinal profiles of the main river and of its tributaries revealed that there do not exist multiple terraces, as believed before. Rather, the river formed only two distinct levels. The older one is about 10-40 m higher, a wide, well equilibrated valley. It was formed by the predecessor of the present Cerkniščica, at the time when the river sank in the area of Begunje and continued its way towards Logatec underground. The younger level is controlled by the inrush of the river into Cerkniško polje. Sudden lowering of the erosion base, by the end of Würm, provoked rapid incision into the earlier surface, and the formation of canyon-like entrenchment.

Apports des mthodes hydrologiques dans la comprhension des coulements en pays calcaire : exemple des bas plateaux jurassiques du haut bassin de la Marne (France), 2004, Lejeune Olivier, Devos Alain
Hydrological methods for the study of river flows in limestone areas: the Marne basin in the Jurassic low plateaux (NE France) - We investigated the geographical heterogeneity of river flows in limestone areas in the upper Marne valley (interfluves of Marne-Aube and Marne-Meuse) by using the low water profiles, the modelling of discharges and the study of physicochemical parameters. We studied five basin-slopes belonging to the Marne-basin (4500 km2) and the measures were realised between 2001 and 2003 at the time of low water periods. We used an instrument (perche intgration type Pire) in order to measure the stream flows of river water. We also measured temperature and electrical conductivity in order to identify the origin of the water. The measures allowed us to identify low water profiles of the river and we also can map the discharge in low water periods. The methods show the water flow inside a basin-slope and also hydrogeological connections to the adjacent basin-slopes. Thus, they revealed that the divergence or the concentration of discharges depends on the limits of the aquifers sections related to their morphological structure and on the differential incision of the valleys. We obtained a hydrogeological pattern of interfluves and we can distinguish between areas of water lost and areas with an increasing of water volume. We confirmed this process of water transfers, called the active stream piracy, which is often approved by hydrogeologic tracers. This active stream piracy revealed by these methods in warm or interglacial period, prepare future stream piracy of surface, collectively recognised in the beginning of cold phase.

The Moselle piracy: new chronological data from U/Th dating of speleothems, 2004, Losson B. , Quinif Y.

The Moselle piracy is one of the most important changes of the hydrographic network in Lorraine (France). For a long time, this phenomenon has been presumed to be relatively recent (at the end of the Middle Pleistocene) because of the well-preserved fluvial morphologies and deposits. With new relations between the surficial and subterranean data in the piracy area, the capture has been dated from 300ka using U/Th method on speleothem. This evaluation reveals an earlier time for the phenomenon, and is more precise than those proposed up to now. The latter were derived from the North-European glacial chronology and one thermoluminescence date obtained in the downstream valley of Meuse. In fact, the improvements in absolute dating, thanks to different methods and U/Th in particular, lead geomorphologists to abandon the simple relation between the glacial-interglacial periods and the accumulation-erosion processes in rivers.


New data fail to support the prevailing theory that meandering bedrock valleys inherit their sinuosity from ancient alluvial rivers. In the Ozarks, observations indicate that bedrock meanders emerge during incision as a result of erosion by emergent groundwater and surface flow. Crustal tilting pressurizes deep aquifers that feed a huge base flow to large springs. Because of their large size and persistence in time, these artesian conduits have the potential to create new base levels of erosion. Transverse speleogenesis causes groundwater flow lines and surface streams to converge toward the springs, thereby further increasing the rate of landscape lowering and creating bedrock meanders. Groundwater outflow accelerates stream piracy, creates asymmetric drainage patterns and cuts channels across structural upwarps. By contrast, the antecedent meander theory favors long-term drainage stability that cannot explain the incredible diversity of the freshwater fauna found in the Central Highlands. Widely disjunct species of highland fish that thrive only in clear, high-gradient streams indicate that the Ouachitas, the Ozarks and the Eastern Highlands were once a continuous upland connected by a “land bridge” in southern Illinois. This connection allowed ancestral species to become widespread enough to be affected by a vicariant event, usually attributed to onset of glaciation. However, a 400-km eastward shift in Gulf of Mexico sedimentation indicates this vicariant event may have occurred in the middle Pleistocene, when it is proposed that the Mississippi River dissected the Central Highlands, separating the Interior Highlands from the Eastern Highlands.

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