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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That sublacustrine spring is see spring, sublacustrine.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for poljes (Keyword) returned 54 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 54
The New Guinea Expedition, 1975 - Oksapin and Tekin Poljes, 1976, Everett P. S.

Water regime of flooded poljes,, 1976, Ristic D. M.

Geomorphology of the North Karst, South Nahanni River Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, PhD Thesis, 1976, Brook, George Albert,

First investigated on the ground in June 1972, the Nahanni karst of northern Canada is the most complex karst terrain yet reported from high latitudes. It is centered at 61°28' N, longitude 124°05' W and lies within the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Mean annual temperature is 24°F and mean total precipitation 22.3 inches. Principal karst forms are fracture-located karst streets and irregularly-shaped closed depression called karst platea which may be up to 600 feet in depth. Platea often contain karst towers which are residuals of wall recession. Vertical-walled pond dolines up to 120 feet deep are common in bare karst areas while subjacent karst collapse, subsidence and suffosion depressions occur on marginal shale- and drift-mantled surfaces. Three small poljes have been identified, two produced entirely by solution, the other a structural form. These are periodically inundated. There are several peripheral fluvial canyons up to 3,000 feet deep that are blocked by glacial drift and which presently drain underground. Similarity in the hydrogeological properties of Nahanni Formation limestones at a variety of scales has led to the development of morphologically-identical karst forms which range in size from inches up to hundreds of feet. Furthermore, many of these landforms are part of a developmental sequence that at one scale links vertical-walled dolines, karst streets, platea and poljes; and at another links solution pits, grikes and joint hollows on limestone pavements. The evidence suggests that poljes form by the coalescence of dolines and uvalas just as Cvijic suggested in 1918. In attempting to explain the almost "tropical" nature of the sub-arctic Nahanni karst landform assemblage, a number of facts are of importance.
(a) The Nahanni Formation limestones have been highly warped and intensively fractures during the past one million years. Open fractures have encouraged karstification by allowing easy movement of water underground. Warping has provided the relief necessary for the development of solutional forms with a distinct vertical component.
(b) The karst can not be considered relict because it was glaciated during the Pleistocene. In addition the hydrological activity in it today is comparable with that in many humid tropical karst areas.
(c) Solutional denudation rates governed by aspects of surficial and bedrock geology may in some localized areas be equivalent to rates in humid tropical carbonate regions.
(d) At present rates, the most highly developed forms could have been produced within the last 200,000 years and because there is evidence to indicate that the karst may not have been glaciated for up to 250,000 years, such a period has been available for solutional development.
Because the Nahanni region has not been glaciated for an extremely long period, it may be one of only a few high-latitude carbonate terrains that have had time to develop fully. Its very existence questions the validity of the concept that the intensity and direction of karst development is climate-controlled. In the Nahanni at least, the structural and lithological properties of the host limestone appear to have been of greater importance. The labyrinth karst type present in regions of humid-tropical to sub-arctic climate, is an outstanding example of a structurally-controlled karst landscape. It may well be that the same controls also influence the distributions of other karst types.


Un karst subalpin mditerranen : la rgion Audibergue-Mons (Alpes-Maritimes et Var), 1984, Julian M. , Nicod J.
THE KARSTIC AREA AUDIBERGUE-MONS (Prealps of Grasse, Maritime Alps and Var departments) - This area, very important for the karstic superficial features and the caves, is formed by the proximity of plateaus belonging to the structural system of Provence and the higher main subalpine unit of Audibergue. Three fields of sinkholes are especially characteristic: 1/ central Audibergue, controlled by shear fractures and under the influence of nival phenomena; 2/ Fort d'Esclapon, with more various forms and perhaps an older karstic evolution that explains the large inheritance of terra rossa; 3/ Biron that shows deep furrows and sinkholes. The study of the poljes, fluvio-karstic (Caille) or half-opened (Canaux), introduces the problem of the underground karstic hydrology. The dynamics of neotectonics and morphoclimatic systems, specially the old periglacial processes, is considered with reference to the main forms and deposits shown on the map.

Un haut plateau jurassien : le plateau des Molunes (Jura), 1984, Neyroud, M.
LARGE KARSTIC DEPRESSIONS AND ANTICLINAL STRUCTURES ON A HIGH JURASSIC TABLE-LAND: THE SOUTH OF THE PAYS MOLUNOIS (JURA, FRANCE) - On a high Jurassic table-land, the Pays molunois, close to the Monts Jura (Crt de la Neige, 1717m), large karstic depressions are studied in connection with anticline structures. Along a single anticline crest, a great diversity of forms is explained by the character of strike-slip faults (direct tectonic control), the glacial heritage (regional ice-cap), the tardiglacial evolution (peat-bogs or molunes), the lithological context (minor morphology) and at last unequal anthropic action. The morphogenesis of an original type of small anticlinal valleys, the closed anticline valleys-poljes is considered dating from geomorphologic evolution of the area and particular tectonic context.

Karst poljes in Dinarides,, 1984, Mijatovic B. F.

Les karsts du gypse dans la dpression de l'Ebre, 1985, Guttierez M. , Ibanez M. J. , Pena J. L. , Rodriguez J. , Soriano M. A.
A FEW EXAMPLES OF GYPSUM KARSTS IN THE EBRO DEPRESSION (SPAIN) - Three areas where dissolution processes in gypsum formations have taken place, are studied. They show different geologic arrangements, one of them being folded, another in a flat--lying strata, and the third one covered by a thick unit of alluvials of the Ebro river. The climatic conditions are similar for these areas. Several kinds of dolines morphology, uvalas and large depressions similar to poljes can be distinguished. It seems to be established in the origin of some of these landforms, an interrelation between the fluvial processes and the dissolution ones.

Originalit karstique de l'Atlas atlantique marocain, 1985, Weisrock, A.
THE ATLANTIC ATLAS (MOROCCO): A DISTINCTLY KARSTIC REGION - The Atlantic Atlas is a semiarid mountain, which owes to its proximity of the ocean a winter moisture above 1000 m, with watersheets and at times perennial flows. The main karstic landforms are however inherited of damper tertiary and quaternary periods. These forms were developed in relation to particular structural conditions, because the Atlantic Atlas uplifted during a tertiary orogenesis, which folded the sedimentary jurassic and cretaceous material of an atlantic basin (basin of the Haha). Among the most original results of this evolution, we can find curious tower-like lands-cape of dolomitic high-plateaus, numerous cylindrical pits (ouggar), lines of funnel-shaped dolines (ouddirh) and underground karstic river systems, the longest in North-Africa known to day. On the greater part of the Maha Plateau, remnants of an ancient karstification are masked by plio-moghrebian deposits. The latter are also full of dolines and poljes. In the same way, littoral karstic forms and calcareous deposits (calcrests and travertines) show the continuation of limestone dissolution.

Karst and Caves of the Nam Lang - Nam Khong Region, North Thailand, 1985, Dunkley, John

The Nam Lang - Nam Khong Karst Region, located in a thinly populated, remote part of Mae Hong Son Province, north-west Thailand, comprises about 1,000km2 of massive Permian limestone. Over much of the area is developed a characteristic polygonal karst dominated by over 3,000 depressions, with an assemblage of forms including dolines, uvalas, poljes, streamsinks, through caves, springs and blind valleys. Speleological exploration commenced only in 1983 and the major discovery is the Tham Nam Lang, the longest cave reported on the mainland of south-east Asia with nearly 7km of passages. Cave development is strongly influenced by regional strike and fault orientation and by base level incision into impermeable sediments underlying the limestone. The largest caves are formed where aggressive water collects on impervious rocks before entering the limestone. Elsewhere cave development is limited. Several caves are important archaeological sites, and a number have tourist potential.


Le karst pliocne de la rgion de Safi (Maroc atlantique), 1987, Weisrock A. , Lunski S.
POST-PLIOCENE KARST OF SAFI AREA (ATLANTIC MOROCCO) - The karst of Safi area is developed in bioclastic calcarenites of Plio-Moghrebian upon Mesozoic limestones, marls and gypsum. Dolines, uvalas and poljes are found along faults N170-N195, N040-N070, N080-N115, which are mainly " Mesetian " and " Atlasic " tectonic directions of Atlantic Morocco. Two points are developed upon this karst genesis: 1/ the relations between post-pliocene karstic landforms and paleokarst in limestones and gypsum; 2/ the recent karstic developments occur during the periods wetter than today (310 mm/y), for example Upper Pleistocene, as it is showed by dating of charcoal in dolines filling.

Contribution to geomorphological and hydrogeological study of karst in Mediterranean environment: the Aït Abdi plateau (central limestone High Atlas, Maroc),PhD thesis, 1995, Perritaz, L.

The Ait Abdi karstic plateau is located in the heart of the calcareous High Atlas (32°N/6°W). With an area of 160 km2, it is situated between 2,200 and 3,000 meters above sea level, i.e. 800 meters above the nearest valleys and canyons. It consists of a large series of massive Bajocian limestones which form a large brachysyncline, the axial plane of which dips gently to the NE. These limestones overlie a thick series of Toarcian-Aalenian detritic sediments forming the regional aquiclude and the top of the half captive Middle Liasic aquifer. The plateau is limited both in the N and S by strong changes in dip to the vertical of the sedimentary layers (ejective thrusted anticlines), and in the W and E by deep canyons created by major rivers. Therefore the plateau is a totally isolated calcareous compartment, from both a morphologic and a hydrogeologic point of view.
The climate of this region is Mediterranean with an altitude modification: maximum rainfall occurs in winter and in spring, snow cover is not durable but sometimes important, storms are common for dry season in summer. The precipitations comprise only 500 to 700 mm/year (subhumide zone) and the effective evapotranspiration is approximately 400 mm/year, including the losses due to sublimation. The snow coefficient is 60 %. This means that the recharge of the aquifer, occurring almost entirely during snow melting, is limited, but the large bare surfaces of the plateau with typical well developed karst forms (dolines, poljes, dry valleys, holes) improve the infiltration rate (40%). The specific discharge is only 8.1 L/s/km2.
The morphologic peculiarity of this nival karst consist of a succession of small parallel and asymmetric dry valleys forming some "waves". For that reason, the French geomorphologist Couvreur termed these climate controlled features "karst en vagues". The role of wind and snow in the genesis of these forms is predominant. The most of time structure controlled plateau's poljes are quasi inactive today. All kinds of high mountain karren landforms are present on the plateau and prove the great role of snow role in the microforms genesis.
An ancient speleological network with vertical shafts occluded lower down suggest of ancient more humid climatic conditions. U-Th dating indicates ages between 3,200 and 220,000 years, or outside the range of the method (more than 400,000 years). The lateral flow is conducted by an interstrata network, inactive and dry in the upper part, or active and phreatic at the base, near the regional aquiclude, attesting three karstification phases.
The water discharges as typically karstic hillfoot springs, most of the time oversaturated and forming tufas. Large doleritic vertical dykes cut the plateau and form major drainpipes. The physical-chemical and chemical signature of these spring waters is quite different of the signature of other springs of this area, which discharge whether from small local Toarcian-Aalenian aquifers or from the huge semi confined karstic Middle Liasic aquifer. The plateau springs hydrodynamic response is characteristic for an elevated karstic aquifer with rapid flow. The aquifer geometry does not allow important reserves, but the mean discharge from all perennial springs (about 1 m3/s) is a precious resource for the population of this far area of the Atlas Mountains.


Karst et mines en France et en Europe : gtes, grottes-mines et gotechnique, 1996, Nicod, J.
Many ores have been extracted in the karst areas since the proto-historic times. The ores have been trapped in the paleokarsts, according to various processes whose origin is still much debated. Certain metal-rich minerals have been excavated in caves or "mine-caves". Many polymetallic ores in paleokarstic deposits were in exploitation in SW Sardinia, Sierra of Carthagena, Montagne Noire, Peak District, and Upper Silesia... The mercury mines of Idrija (Slovenia) and the uranium deposits of Tyuya Muyun (Kirgizia) are of particular interest. Recent studies have clearly shown the historic importance of numerous pockets of pisolitic iron (Siderolithic, Bohnerz) in the European steel metallurgy, since the Celts and Romans and up to the middle of the 19th century. The siderite ores raise special problems. Most bauxite deposits were found in karstic pockets and paleo-poljes (mediterranean type of bauxites). The studies of the old mines give a better insight into paleokarsts. Both the ancient and modern mines have created artificial karsts, and raise many geotechnical and environmental problems.

Formation des rseaux karstiques et creusement des valles : lexemple du Larzac mridional, Hrault, France, 1997, Camus, Hubert
The Causses and mediterranean Garrigues present a long continental evolution from late Cretaceous. The karstic network analysis and the dynamic study give geomorphological indicators to reconstruct the paleogeography of this area when the geological indicators are not present. The paleoclimatic action and the tectonic movements make the actual landscape melting a lot of ages and genesis different elements. The endokarst preserves sedimentological and paleoclimatic witnesses and also hollowing shapes that traduce the successive steps of the paleogeographic evolution. The network's levels of the South Larzac are connected with the landscape karstic forms : poljes, canyons, peripheric valleys. The reef limestone of the Seranne and the dolomite of the Monts de St-Guilhem explain this good conservation of the endokarst and of the landscapes.

Karst and hydrogeology of Lebanon, 1997, Edgell Hs,
Karst is very well-developed in Lebanon in thick, exposed, fractured and folded Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene carbonates, as well as in localized, coastal Miocene limestones. This karstification not only results from the predominant calcareous lithology, but is also caused by the high, northerly trending ranges of he country, which cause abundant precipitation, as heavy rain and thick snow, to fall on Mt. Lebanon, Jabal Barouk, Jabal Niha, and Mt. Hermon. Lesser amounts fall on the Anti-Lebanon, Beqa'a Valley and the coastal hills of the country. Some 80% of precipitation occurs from November through February. The karst water emerges from five first-magnitude springs (Ain ez Zarqa (11 m(3)/sec), Ain Anjar (max. 10m(3)/sec), Nabaa Ouazzani (max. 6m(3)/sec), Nabaa Arbaain (mau. 3 m(3)/sec) and Nabaa Barouk (max. 3m(3)/sec), plus hundreds of second-and third-magnitude springs, and thousands of smaller springs. The large springs are all karstic and contribute to 13 perennial springs in the main Lebanese ranges, and 2 in the Anti-Lebanon. These include major rivers, such as the Nahr el Litani, Nahr el Assi (Orontes) and Nabr el Hasbani (upper Jordan River). More than two-thirds of the area of Lebanon (i.e. 6900 km(2)) is karstified and includes surface karst features, such as poljes, uvalas, dolines, blind valleys, natural bridges, and ponors, as well as smaller features, like karren and hoodoos. Subsurface karst features include many types of solutional shafts and galleries, grottoes, subsurface lakes and rivers and most types of speleothems. There are at least 15 aquifers in Lebanon, of which 14 are in karstified carbonate strata. The 1700m thick limestone/dolomite core of the ranges and over 2000m thickness of flanking, or overlying, Cretaceous limestones provide the majority of these aquifers, while significant aquifers are also found in thick Eocene limestones. High transmissivity values (T = or > 1.83 x 10(-1) m(2)) occur in these karstic aquifers, as is shown by the rapid decline in spring flow over the dry summer and autumn months, and their very quick recharge by winter and spring rains and heavy snow on the Lebanese ranges

Role of public awareness in groundwater protection, 1997, Ekmekci M, Gunay G,
Scarcity of water, particularly in towns situated along the Mediterranean coast where the main aquifers are in karstic carbonate rocks, necessitates more thoroughness in exploiting and protecting the groundwater resources. Geomorphological and hydrogeological studies have revealed large quantities of the input and throughput features, such as sinkholes, dolines, uvalas and poljes in the recharge areas of many karst aquifers in Turkey. Naturally, recharge areas are generally located at higher elevations and regions remote from the urbanized areas. These features lead the local authorities and persons to utilize the karst features for their own purposes. Dolines and ponors are commonly utilized as injection points for wastewater, while uvalas and poljes are used as solid waste disposal sites. When doing this, the people are unconscious of the connection of such sites with the wells or springs that provide water for their supply. A number of occurrences in Turkey have demonstrated that, no matter how perfect the efficiency of the technical work, protection of the water resources-is primarily related to the consciousness of the local authorities. They must either take proper measures to protect the resources or to educate the public in this issue. To achieve this aim, it is very important to involve the public administrative sector and the technical sector in preparing guidelines for integrated environmental evaluation of karst water resources. The main phase of a study should include locating appropriate sites for disposal of wastewater and various liquid and solid wastes that will satisfy requirements by the administrators as well as providing a water supply of good quality for the public. This paper discusses the issue of how to overcome the public awareness problem. Some examples demonstrate how the technical, achievements failed to be effective and applicable due to the lack of contribution on the part of the local authorities and the public. Some suggestions are made concerning a revision of the currently insufficient regulations

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