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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That rout, to is the action of predicting and directing of flood waves through a channel system [16].?

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Your search for pollution (Keyword) returned 143 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 143
The role of tributary mixing in chemical variations at a karst spring, Milandre, Switzerland, , Perrin J. , Jeannin P. Y. , Cornaton F. ,
SummarySolute concentration variations during flood events were investigated in a karst aquifer of the Swiss Jura. Observations were made at the spring, and at the three main subterraneous tributaries feeding the spring. A simple transient flow and transport numerical model was able to reproduce chemographs and hydrographs observed at the spring, as a result of a mixing of the concentration and discharge of the respective tributaries. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model showed that it is possible to produce chemical variations at the spring even if all tributaries have constant (but different for each of them) solute concentrations. This process is called tributary mixing. The good match between observed and modelled curves indicate that, in the phreatic zone, tributary mixing is probably an important process that shapes spring chemographs. Chemical reactions and other mixing components (e.g. from low permeability volumes) have a limited influence.Dissolution-related (calcium, bicarbonate, specific conductance) and pollution-related parameters (nitrate, chloride, potassium) displayed slightly different behaviours: during moderate flood events, the former showed limited variations compared to the latter. During large flood events, both presented chemographs with significant changes. No significant event water participates in moderate flood events and tributary mixing will be the major process shaping chemographs. Variations are greater for parameters with higher spatial variability (e.g. pollution-related). Whereas for large flood events, the contribution of event water becomes significant and influences the chemographs of all the parameters. As a result, spring water vulnerability to an accidental pollution is low during moderate flood events and under base flow conditions. It strongly increases during large flood events, because event water contributes to the spring discharge

A preliminary study on the effects of organic pollution of banners Corner Cave, Virginia., 1966, Holsinger John R.
Four pools were observed in Banners Corner Cave, Russell County, Virginia, over a 28 month period from November, 1961, to February, 1964. Three of these pools were visibly polluted with sewage which had seeped into the cave from septic tanks located on the hill above. All four of these pools, at one time or another during the study, contained large populations of planarians, Phagocata subterranea Hyman and isopods, Asellus recurvatus Steeves. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses of the pool waters indicated that oxygen tension is a low as 2.8 mg./l. in one pool and that coliforms and other forms of bacteria (probably saprophytic) are abundant in the contaminated waters of the cave. Microscopic examination of the pool waters revealed a rich and varied microfauna, especially protozoans and rotifers. In addition, the polluted pools contained large amounts of colloidal materials which are believed to be rich in organic content. The influx and accumulation of sewage rich in organic matter is believed to be the basic trophic input in the contaminated pools. It is suggested that this material serves as an important food source for saprophytic bacteria as well as for much of the aquatic fauna, including both micro- and macroforms. Precise trophic relationships between the larger aquatic organisms have not been worked out but several significant feeding responses have been observed.

Ecology, systematics and distribution of two sympatric in North-Germany living Bathynella species (Crustacea, Syncarida)., 1968, Husmann Siegfried
The sympatric occurrence of two bathynellids previously considered races of Bathynella natans; natans and stammeri; is evaluated as a natural ecological-genetic experiment. Since no hybrids appear in mixed populations, these forms are proven to be full species: Bathynella natans Vejdovsky and Bathynella stammeri (Jakobi). Besides the form of the mandibles, which until now was the only taxonomically useful diagnostic character in the genus Bathynella, 7 additional, suitably applicable morphological characters have been found (Table 3). The Bathynella biotope investigated is assigned to the "eustygopsammal" subterranean life province (Husmann 1966), which is associated with the "Parastenocaris-Bathynella" biocoenosis (Husmann 1962). This particular biocoenosis is evidently resistant to organic pollution of ground water. The sympatric existence of Bathynella natans and B.stammeri can be explained by consideration of the geo-limnological developmental history of the interstitial zone of the North German low plain. Sands and gravels were widely deposited in the North German Basin by northward-retreating glaciers, creating microcavernous living space and passages for the interstitial fauna. This microfauna could find passages in layers of sand under and along the northward-flowing streams. Primitive Ice-Age streams (,,Urstromtler" of Keilhack) formed east-to-west cross-connections between the south-north distributional corridors. The great geographical expansion of the tributary river courses which reached the north German plain before, during, and after the Ice Age suggests that ground water habitats were temporarily separated and later rejoined by orogenic movements of the earth's surface. Such an orogenically caused, geomorphological isolation lasting for a sufficiently long geological period could have led to the result that species, originating in isolation from the same phylogenetic stock, subsequently were brought together again in the same biotope. This is particularly true for bathynellids, which as archaic types (Lebensformtypen) of the ancient, extreme "mesopsammal" biotope (Remane) are quite likely to have become sympatric in such a manner.

Ecology, systematics and distribution of two sympatric in North-Germany living Bathynella species (Crustacea, Syncarida)., 1968, Husmann Siegfried
The sympatric occurrence of two bathynellids previously considered races of Bathynella natans; natans and stammeri; is evaluated as a natural ecological-genetic experiment. Since no hybrids appear in mixed populations, these forms are proven to be full species: Bathynella natans Vejdovsky and Bathynella stammeri (Jakobi). Besides the form of the mandibles, which until now was the only taxonomically useful diagnostic character in the genus Bathynella, 7 additional, suitably applicable morphological characters have been found (Table 3). The Bathynella biotope investigated is assigned to the "eustygopsammal" subterranean life province (Husmann 1966), which is associated with the "Parastenocaris-Bathynella" biocoenosis (Husmann 1962). This particular biocoenosis is evidently resistant to organic pollution of ground water. The sympatric existence of Bathynella natans and B.stammeri can be explained by consideration of the geo-limnological developmental history of the interstitial zone of the North German low plain. Sands and gravels were widely deposited in the North German Basin by northward-retreating glaciers, creating microcavernous living space and passages for the interstitial fauna. This microfauna could find passages in layers of sand under and along the northward-flowing streams. Primitive Ice-Age streams (,,Urstromtler" of Keilhack) formed east-to-west cross-connections between the south-north distributional corridors. The great geographical expansion of the tributary river courses which reached the north German plain before, during, and after the Ice Age suggests that ground water habitats were temporarily separated and later rejoined by orogenic movements of the earth's surface. Such an orogenically caused, geomorphological isolation lasting for a sufficiently long geological period could have led to the result that species, originating in isolation from the same phylogenetic stock, subsequently were brought together again in the same biotope. This is particularly true for bathynellids, which as archaic types (Lebensformtypen) of the ancient, extreme "mesopsammal" biotope (Remane) are quite likely to have become sympatric in such a manner.

The distribution of the fauna in the interstitial habitats of the riverine sediments of the Danube and the Piesting (Austria)., 1976, Danielopol Dan L.
The interstitial fauna living in the riverine sediments of the Danube and Piesting have been investigated in Lower Austria. The nematodes, oligochaetes and cyclopoids are the most abundant groups (they represent up to 80% of the total fauna). The harpacticoids, the insect larvae, the isopods, the amphipods, the cladocera and the limnohalacarids are poorly represented (generally under 20% of the total fauna). The absence of hydrachnellids is striking. The vertical distribution of the interstitial fauna shows for several groups i.e. limnohalacarids, ostracods, isopods, harpacticoids, that the epigean species are quantitatively better represented in the upper sediment layers instead of the hypogean species which are more abundant in the deeper layers. At one of the sites where samples were taken down to 3 m, most of the interstitial fauna was concentrated in the upper 1.50 m. The occurrence of limnohalacarids in the wells from the Danube Valley and the Piesting area shows that the repartition of this group is not restricted to the rhitrostygal zone. The distribution of the interstitial fauna in connection with the pollution of the river is discussed. High pollution inside the interstitial habitat eliminates the hypogean fauna and the epigeans disappear mainly in those areas with marked chemical reducing conditions.

The dynamics of population in the Isopod Proasellus slavus ssp.n. and the larvae of Chironomids in the hyporheic water of the river Drava with regard to pollution., 1976, Lattingerpenko Romana, Mestrov Milan, Tavcar Vlatka
If we sum up the data and observations derived from our researches on the Drava river, we conclude after consideration of surface water fauna and after comparison of chemical parameters that it influences the hyporheic water of a rough gravel-sandy alluvium more than 2 m deep, while in the compact sandy substratum it has less influence. The next conclusion is that the horizontal and vertical distribution of Proasellus slavus ssp.n. in the alluvium of the Drava river, depends upon the granulation of substratum, with reference so the largeness of interstices; that the populations vary in density and structure according to the nature of water which irrigates these alluviums; and finally upon the quantity of detritus which this water contains. Concerning the influence of the sewage waters the effect of a sudden action of very polluted water is not known but it is certain that the increasing of decaying material to the alfa-meso saprobial level of the river water does not threaten either the existence or the development of the populations of Proasellus slavus ssp.n.

An introduction to Japanese groundwater animals with reference to their ecology and hygienic significance., 1976, Matsumoto Koichi
1) Nearly two hundred species of troglobites are known from the groundwaters of Japan. Most of these troglobiontic species, sixteen of seventy-seven genera, and what is more, four of fortyseven families are endemic to Japan. Uchidastygacaridae, Nipponacaridae, and Kantacaridae are endemic acaridan families of Japan. The coleopterous family, Phreatodytidae, is alto endemic to Japan. 2) Though studies on Protozoa, Turbellaria, Annelida, Aschelminthes, and Ostracoda, etc. remain sparse, the interstitial fauna is actively investigated recently and many specimens of Bathynellacea, Ingolfiella, Bogidiella, Microcerberus, Pseudovermis (Opisthobranchia), and Nerillidae, etc. have been collected from freshwater and marine environments. 3) None of the troglobites is known to be directly detrimental to human health and most of them have been collected from well-waters which are regarded as chemically clean in many cases, but they have also been obtained occasionally from bacteriologically contaminated well-waters. 4) Ecological and taxonomic knowledge, of even the limited amount which we possess at present, has enabled us to utilize various animals which occur in well-waters as biological indicators of well-water pollution and to have some insight as to the origin of the pollution.

Groundwater pollution by sewage, creamery waste heavy metals in the Horse Cave area, Kentucky, 1983, Quinlan J. F.

Karstologie urbaine et rurale applique le problme de la Fontaine de Nmes (Gard), 1986, Fabre G. , Radais J.
Urban and rural applied karstology. The problem of the Fontaine de Nmes (Gard) - This paper deals with integrated researches about a karstic aquifer situated in an urban-rural zone. The main purpose is to ameliorate the water quality of the spring of Nmes (Gard, Southeast of France), which as a very important place in the town life.

The behavior of hydrophobic, organic micropollutants in different Karst water systems, 1987, Simmleit N. , Herrmann R. ,

Qualit physico chimique et bactriologique des sources du domaine de Plat (Haute-Savoie), 1990, Buissonvodinh, J.
PHYSICO CHEMISTRY AND BACTERIOLOGY OF THE DOMAIN OF PLATE SPRINGS (HAUTE SAVOIE, FRANCE) - On the high alpine karst of Plat (Haute-Savoie), eight springs on four catchments have been submitted to physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. The skiing resort of Flaine is situated on one of the catchments, the others are not very frequented (mountain pasture, cattle). These springs have a good physico-chemical quality but only one is drinkable. Pathological germs contained in human and animal excrements contaminate the others. This phenomenon is amplified by the ground and earth leaching due to rainstorms. On the other hand, the skiing resort of Flaine could be responsible of a chronic pollution of the Salles spring. All traditional frequentation of this area makes the water unusable and undrinkable, and all additional development on the karst could only aggravate this situation and compromise the use of water.

Threat of Triassic water quality deterioration as a results of planned closing of ores mines in the Olkusz region. [in Polish], 1993, Niewdana, Jzef

Nouveaux traages sur le massif de la Pierre Saint-Martin (Pyrnes-Atlantiques), 1994, Douat M. , Salomon J. N.
In 1982 and 1992 cavers observed the contamination of the B3 and Couey-Lotge underground rivers emerging at the Issaux springs This contamination was thought to be caused by the PSM water purificatlon station which discharges effluents into a fracture. The ARSIP and the LGPA laboratories were asked by the DDA (Pyrenees-Atlantiques administration) to carry out an hydrogeological study to prove the origin of this contamination and determine the limit of the Issaux catchment in the Guillers area in order to find a new site for a modern water purification station. Three uranine tracings were made (Water purification station - B3 underground river - BG. 106 shaft). The first two tracings emerged at the Issaux springs and the third tracing came out at the Bentia spring (Sainte-Engrace). These tracings confirm the hypothesis on the surficial basin limits between Issaux and Saint Vincent.

SURFACE OZONE EXPOSURES MEASURED IN FINLAND, 1994, Laurila T. , Lattila H. ,
The occurrence of ozone concentrations and exposure indices related to the adverse effects of ozone upon vegetation are reported for four Finnish background stations. In Finland, ozone concentrations are often near the background tropospheric values of cn. 30 ppb. Very high concentrations are not observed. The maximum 1-h average in this data set was 79 ppb. The exposure parameter, which accumulates growing season 1-h average concentrations above a 40 ppb base-line in daylight hours, gave clearly different exposure sums for the stations. These values varied between 4000 and 8500 ppb-h in the southern archipelago, 3000-6500 ppb-h in the southern coastal region, 2000-4000 ppb-h in central parts of the country, and 400-1000 ppb-h in the northern parts of the country. The date of the start of the vegetative season is important in high northern latitudes, because the spring maximum of ozone concentrations is relatively intense compared to the summer maximum. In northern Scandinavia, ozone exposures are particularly sensitive to the date of the start of the growing season. The long daylight period in northern Scandinavia is less important in this respect, since during the growing season ozone concentrations are usually below 40 ppb during the morning and evening hours. A good correlation was found between growing season average concentrations of the sum of gaseous HNO3 and particulate NO3-, and on ozone exposure index which accumulates concentrations above a 40 ppb base-line, confirming the anthropogenic origin of the elevated ozone exposures

POLLUTION OF LIMESTONE AQUIFER DUE TO URBAN WASTE-DISPOSAL AROUND RAIPUR, MADHYA-PRADESH, INDIA, 1994, Bodhankar N, Chatterjee B,
During the rainy season deterioration in the quality of water, supplied through dug wells and tube wells, near an abandoned limestone quarry was reported. The abandoned quarry is now being used as an urban waste disposal site. The problem was further complicated by hospitalization of several inhabitants who were using this water for domestic purposes. Looking into the consequences, chemical analysis of water from the quarry, dug wells and tube wells was carried out. The water was found to be contaminated. The transportation of pollutants from the quarry to the groundwater system was facilitated by karst features. Furthermore, four major sources domestic waste disposal, water conservation structures, landfills, and water wells contributing to pollution were identified. This case study is an attempt to provide an understanding of how the karst features facilitate groundwater contamination. It will help us answer a few questions such as why karst hydrogeology deserves special attention in urban expansion and what protective measures should be planned in view of rapid urbanization

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