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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That water stage is the height of the water level [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for pressure (Keyword) returned 202 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 202
Corrosion by mixing of waters., 1964, Bogli Alfred
Karst caves are prior to all due to corrosion. According to the well-known formula a CO2 supply is always needed. This type of dissolution explains only the corrosion in free circulation and, under reserve, the one in pressure conducts in the vadose zone. All corrosion in the phreatic domain is excluded, except for some rare cases in the upper levels. The corrosion by mixing of waters of different content in bicarbonates is effective in the entire karst, from the lowermost to the uppermost parts. Also the corrosion due to the lowering of temperature and by mixing of waters at different temperature has to be take into account. Excpet for some exceptional cases (e.g. thermal waters), this effect is very reduced.

On subterranean confluences., 1965, Bleahu Marcian
The development of a subterranean drainage system depends on the way in which subterranean confluences between different rivers can be formed. Different from surface, in which confluences are determined by processes related to the surface runoff of water, in subterranean karst confluences have a random pattern and are related to certain circumstances independent of the underground flow. These conditions are: pre-existence of circulation ways and the way they are distributed in space. At these the peculiar processes of subterranean karst flow determined by the flow under pressure, the only one that can explain the systematic appearance of confluences, have to be added. In function of these parameters a morphogenetic classification of subterranean confluences is given.

An analytical study of air circulation in caves, 1968, Cigna Arrigo A.
The different types of air circulation in caves are classified according to the origin of the circulation, as either static or dynamic. In a cave static causes are: (a) differences between inside and outside air density owing to: (i) air temperature; (ii) relative humidity; (iii) chemical composition; (b) atmospheric pressure variation. Dynamic causes are: (a) moving fluids: (i) inside the cave; (ii) outside the cave. Whenever possible the above mentioned phenomena have been considered from a mathematical point of view in order to obtain equations relating the different quantities involved.

An analytical study of air circulation in caves, 1968, Cigna Arrigo A.
The different types of air circulation in caves are classified according to the origin of the circulation, as either static or dynamic. In a cave static causes are: (a) differences between inside and outside air density owing to: (i) air temperature; (ii) relative humidity; (iii) chemical composition; (b) atmospheric pressure variation. Dynamic causes are: (a) moving fluids: (i) inside the cave; (ii) outside the cave. Whenever possible the above mentioned phenomena have been considered from a mathematical point of view in order to obtain equations relating the different quantities involved.

Lake Level Fluctuations In Cocklebiddy Cave, Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia, 1971, Lowry, David C.

Changes in air pressure in Cocklebiddy Cave, Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia, cause the lake level to fluctuate by several centimetres. The relationship suggests that the explored part of Cocklebiddy Cave is part of a much larger system.


Ecological and evolutive aspects of the communities of temperate and tropical caves: observations on the biological cycles of some species of Ptomaphagus (Coleoptera Catopidae)., 1973, Sbordoni Marina Cobolli, Sbordoni Valerio
Differences between tropical and temperate cave communities are an important topic in the actual biospeleological thinking. Among the most striking differences is the paucity of terrestrial troglobites in tropical caves. This fact may depend on the higher energy input into tropical caves which lessens the selection pressures for energy-economizing troglobite adaptations. Consequently evolutionary rates would be slowed in tropical caves and, in a date group, troglobites would appear later in such caves than in temperate ones with lower energy input. In order to investigate this point the authors studied the degree of adaptation to the cave environment in two species of Mexican Ptomaphagus which, being phylogenetically related, probably descend from the same epigean ancestor. Among these species the first one, P. troglomexicanus Peck, lives in a typical temperate cave (i.e. cold, high altitude cave, with scarce food supply) in the Sierra de Guatemala (Tamaulipas), the other one, P. spelaeus (Bilimek), populates tropical caves (i.e. warm, lowland cave, with rich food supply) in the State of Guerrero. In addition a comparison is made with P. pius Seidlitz, an epigean species from southern Europe. The results show a striking difference between P. troglomexicanus on a side and the other two species. Differences chiefly concern morphological features such as relative antenna length, structural complexity (i.e. the number of sensilla) of the antenna chemioreceptor organs in the 70, 90, 100 segments, degree of reduction of eye, wing and pigmentation and physiological ones such as the length of the life cycle. The possible causes of these differences are discussed. According to the authors these differences appear due to the different selection pressures acting in the two types of caves. In addition a comparison between the "tropical cave" species, P. spelaeus, with the epigean one, P. pius, does not point out the differences that one could expect by the diverse ecology of these species. These observations support the idea that evolutionary rates in cavernicoles are strongly affected by the ecology of the cave, mainly depending on the degree of energy input, and are poorly consistent with the hypothesis that mutations affecting degenerative processes are selectively neutral.

Ecological and evolutive aspects of the communities of temperate and tropical caves: observations on the biological cycles of some species of Ptomaphagus (Coleoptera Catopidae)., 1973, Sbordoni Marina Cobolli, Sbordoni Valerio
Differences between tropical and temperate cave communities are an important topic in the actual biospeleological thinking. Among the most striking differences is the paucity of terrestrial troglobites in tropical caves. This fact may depend on the higher energy input into tropical caves which lessens the selection pressures for energy-economizing troglobite adaptations. Consequently evolutionary rates would be slowed in tropical caves and, in a date group, troglobites would appear later in such caves than in temperate ones with lower energy input. In order to investigate this point the authors studied the degree of adaptation to the cave environment in two species of Mexican Ptomaphagus which, being phylogenetically related, probably descend from the same epigean ancestor. Among these species the first one, P. troglomexicanus Peck, lives in a typical temperate cave (i.e. cold, high altitude cave, with scarce food supply) in the Sierra de Guatemala (Tamaulipas), the other one, P. spelaeus (Bilimek), populates tropical caves (i.e. warm, lowland cave, with rich food supply) in the State of Guerrero. In addition a comparison is made with P. pius Seidlitz, an epigean species from southern Europe. The results show a striking difference between P. troglomexicanus on a side and the other two species. Differences chiefly concern morphological features such as relative antenna length, structural complexity (i.e. the number of sensilla) of the antenna chemioreceptor organs in the 70, 90, 100 segments, degree of reduction of eye, wing and pigmentation and physiological ones such as the length of the life cycle. The possible causes of these differences are discussed. According to the authors these differences appear due to the different selection pressures acting in the two types of caves. In addition a comparison between the "tropical cave" species, P. spelaeus, with the epigean one, P. pius, does not point out the differences that one could expect by the diverse ecology of these species. These observations support the idea that evolutionary rates in cavernicoles are strongly affected by the ecology of the cave, mainly depending on the degree of energy input, and are poorly consistent with the hypothesis that mutations affecting degenerative processes are selectively neutral.

Karst Geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, PhD Thesis, 1976, Cowell, Daryl William

This is the first detailed examination of the karst geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula. It attempts to review all aspects including pavement phenomena and formation (microkarst features), surface and subsurface karst hydrology (meso to macro scale) and water chemistry. The latter is based on over 250 samples collected in 1973 and 1974.
The dolomite pavement is the best example of its kind that has been described in the literature. It covers much of the northern and eastern parts of the peninsula and can be differentiated into three types based on karren assemblages. Two of these are a product of lithology and the third reflects local environmental controls. The Amabel Formation produces characteristic karren such as rundkarren, hohlkarren, meanderkarren, clint and grike, kamentizas and rillenkarren on glacially abraded biohermal structures. The Guelph Formation develops into a very irregular, often cavernous surface with clint and grike and pitkarren as the only common recognizable karren. The third assemblage is characterized by pitkarren and is found only in the Lake Huron littoral zone. Biological factors are believed to have played a major role in the formation of the pavement. Vegetation supplies humic acids which help boost the solution process and helps to maintain a wet surface. This tends to prolong solution and permit the development of karren with rounded lips and bottoms.
Three types of drainage other than normal surface runoff are found on the Bruce. These are partial underground capture of surface streams, complete underground capture (fluvio-karst), and wholly vertical drainage without stream action (holokarst). Holokarst covers most of the northern and eastern edge of the peninsula along the top of the escarpment. Inland it is replaced by fluvial drainage, some of which has been, or is in the process of being captured. Four perennial streams and one lake disappear into sinkholes. These range from very simple channel capture and resurgence, as shown by a creek east of Wiarton, to more mature and complex cave development of the St. Edmunds cave near Tobermory. Partial underground capture represents the first stage of karst drainage. This was found to occur in one major river well inland of the fluvio-karst and probably occurs in other streams as well. This chapter also examines the possible future karst development of the Bruce and other karst feature such as isolated sinks and sea caves.
The water chemistry presented in Chapter 5 represents the most complete data set from southern Ontario. It is examined on a seasonal basis as well as grouped into classes representing water types (streams, Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, inland lakes, swamps, diffuse springs and conduit springs). The spring analyses are also fitted into climatic models of limestone solution based on data from other regions of North America. It was found that solution rates in southern Ontario are very substantial. Total hardness ranges from 150 to 250 ppm (expressed as CaCO3) in most lakes and streams and up to 326 ppm in springs. These rates compare with more southerly latitudes. The theoretical equilibrium partial pressure of CO2 was found to be the most significant chemical variable for comparing solution on different kinds of carbonates and between glaciated and non-glaciated regions. Expect for diffuse flow springs and Lake Huron, the Bruce data do not separate easily into water types using either graphical or statistical (i.e. Linear Discriminant Analysis) analyses. This is partly because of the seasonality of the data and because of the intimate contact all waters have with bedrock.


Flow of fossil groundwater, 1977, Bourdon Dj,
The great groundwater basins of North Africa and Arabia extend over an area of some 6.5 million square kilometres. Gradients on the isopiezometric surfaces of their confined ground-waters are generally interpreted as indicating present-day flow of groundwater. Can such flow occur in basins where most or all of the groundwater is fossil and where effective infiltration and recharge may have ceased some 10 000 years ago? Assuming that there is indeed no current recharge in these arid and sem-arid regions, the paper identifies seven groups totalling 12 possible mechanisms which can contribute in varying degrees to maintaining flow of groundwater long after effective recharge has ceased. These are: (i) Residual heads; (ii) Tilting of basin; (iii) Compaction effects, in terms of sediment loading, basalt loading and water loading/unloading; (iv) Thermal drive; (v) Gas drive; (vi) Lowering of discharge level, by tectonic displacement, by pressure bursts and by collapse of cover; and (vii) Evaporation in the discharge zone, such as lowering of lake levels and evaporation from sabkhas. Nine additional mechanisms were considered but rejected. Combinations of these mechanisms can produce heads inducing flow of fossil groundwater, but appear to be insufficient to account for present hydraulic regimes without some current surface recharge. The findings have direct application to studies leading to the development, use and management of these major water resources of the arid zones of the Sahara and Arabia

A Chemical Investigation of some Groundwater of the Northern Limestone at Jenolan Caves, 1977, James Julia M. , Handel M. L.

A brief description of the geology and drainage of the Northern limestone at Jenolan Caves is introduced. Approaches to karst geochemistry are given. The reasons are given for the choice of complete chemical analyses followed by calculations of the thermochemical parameters (saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite, SIc and SId, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide PCO2) for the Jenolan groundwaters. The methods of chemical analysis and thermochemical calculations are reported. The results of the groundwater survey are presented both as the raw chemical data and the derived thermochemical data. The raw data give more useful information than the calculated parameters. The results obtained by this survey are consistent with observations and the previous knowledge of the underground drainage of the Northern limestone. The water chemistry reflected the rock type and the residence time of the water in bedrock and gravels. It is concluded that the Jenolan underground River and Central River have different types of source and that Central River is not a braid of the Jenolan Underground River.


A simplified method of calculating Saturation Index and Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide for Karst Waters, 1978, Christopher N. S. J.

Alpha Radiation Levels in Two Caves Related to External Air Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure, 1980, Ahlstrand, Gary M.

Mendip - Pressures on its Caves and Karst, 1982, Stanton W. I.

Cavern Development in the Dimensions of Length and Breadth. PhD Thesis, 1982, Ewers, Ralph Owen

Three conceptual models are proposed for the integration of the large systems of conduits responsible for groundwater flow in soluble rocks. These models are supported by laboratory experiments with scaled solution models, flow-field analogues, and evidence from existing caves.
The three models reflect different boundary conditions imposed by geologic structure and stratigraphy. They have three characteristics in common. First, the smaller elements of the larger systems propagate separately from points of groundwater input toward points of discharge as distributary networks. Second, the integration of the smaller networks proceeds headward from the resurgence, in a stepwise fashion. Third, the result of the integration process in each case is a tributary system with many inputs discharging through a single discharge point.
The potential for growth of each of the smaller networks, within a common pressure field, is related to its distance from the discharge boundary and the distribution of other inputs. The first input to establish a low-resistance link to the discharge boundary will effect a localized depression within the potential field, thus attracting the flow and redirecting the growth of nearby networks until they eventually link with it. As additional orders of links develop, the system takes on a tributary pattern.
The first model applies to steeply dipping rocks. Inputs occur where bedding planes are truncated by erosion, and discharge takes place to the strike. Conduits in this case evolve as a roughly rectangular grid of strike and dip oriented elements. Dip elements are the initial form, with subsequent integration along the strike. The type example is the Holloch in Switzerland.
The second model applies to flat-lying rocks. Inputs occur over a broad area, and discharge takes place along a linear boundary. Conduits in this case evolve in a trellised array with elements normal to the discharge boundary predating those parallel to it. These latter conduits integrate the flow. The type example is the Mammoth Cave Region, Kentucky.
The third model applies to simple systems which occur beneath an impermeable cap rock. Inputs occur where erosion has breached the capping beds. The type example is Cave Creek, Kentucky.


Granite Caves in Girraween National Park, South-East Queensland, 1982, Finlayson, Brian

Four caves and two underground streams in granite occur within the Girraween National Park. Only two of these sites have previously been reported. They mainly occur on the margins of major joints in the granite where streams descend into troughs along the joints. The caves are themselves formed in minor joints. In some cases streams have worked their way down from the surface along a joint but at three of the sites streams flow through horizontal joints in the granite which have not been opened from the surface. For these sites it is not clear how the initial passage was opened up underground. The two possible mechanisms suggested here are solution and joint opening following pressure release. The cave morphology clearly indicates that once the path flow is open, abrasion becomes the major process. Flowstone terraces, 'cave coral', and cemented gravels are found in the caves. The speleothems and the cement are amorphous silica (Opal A). Caves in granite may be more common than was previously thought.


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