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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That clay boil is a mud circle that suggests a welling-up or heaving of the central core.?

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Your search for quality (Keyword) returned 208 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 208
Caves of Vakuta, Trobriand Islands, Papua, 1969, Ollier C. D. , Holdsworth D. K

In a previous paper (1968a) we described caves of Kiriwina, the largest of the Trobriand Islands, a group of coral islands situated 100 miles off the north-east coast of Papua. This paper records caves of Vakuta, a smaller island south of Kiriwina. Vakuta is shaped like a boomerang (Figure 1) and is separated from the southern tip of Kiriwina by Kasilamaka Passage, about half a mile wide. The area of Vakuta Island is approximately 11 square miles. The island contains three villages, the most important being Vakuta Village which has a Methodist (now United Church) Mission. A track links Vakuta Village to Kasilamaka Passage which can be crossed by native canoe; the track continues on Kiriwina to Losuia, 40 miles north. Vakuta Island has a population of about 500. The Vakutans are of the same mixed Melanesian-Polynesian stock as the people of Kiriwina. Woodcarving is not practised to the same extent as in Kiriwina and the quality is generally low. However, some canoes have particularly well decorated prows. The influence of the Mission is very evident in the dress of the Vakutans and in the village, old cast-off clothing, often quite dirty, is the rule. In the fields the women wear grass and fibre skirts though the men were not seen to wear a pubic leaf as usual in Kiriwina, but shorts. Papuan Airlines operate a weekly flight between Port Moresby and Losuia, the Administration Centre, using Skyvan aircraft. Weekend tourist charter flights in DC-3 aircraft arrive frequently, but irregularly, from Port Moresby and occasionally from Lae and Rabual. The authors visited Vakuta Island in December, 1968. Guides were recruited locally and we were fortunate to be assisted by Mr. Gilbert Heers, the only European resident of the island, who speaks fluent Kiriwini which made communication with our guides relatively easy. With his help, we were able to obtain accounts of the legends and traditions associated with the caves on the island. We have also had valuable discussions about Vakuta and the customs and legends of the Trobriand Islands with Mr. Lepani Watson, M.H.A., who was born on Vakuta, and Mr. John Kasaipwalova, a Trobriand Islander now studying at the University of Queensland. We are most grateful for the assistance of these people. Although the most accurate map of the Trobriands is an Admiralty chart, the authors used an old U.S. Army map which was based on a pre-war Government survey. The caves were roughly surveyed using 100 ft tape, prismatic compass and abney level. The village rest-house became the social centre of the village during our stay. We had no difficulty in finding food. A surprising variety of foods such as yams, sweet potato, eggs, pineapples, soursop, tomatoes and fresh coconut appeared and payment was accepted eagerly in stick tobacco and newspaper. Payment in cash was rarely appreciated, though it will become more useful now that a trade store has been established by the Village Co-operative. To avoid repetitive explanations of features in the accounts of individual caves, various general topics will be discussed first.


Caves of Kitava and Tuma, Trobriand Islands, 1971, Ollier C. D. , Holdsworth D. K. , Heers G.

The Trobriand group of coral islands is situated a hundred miles off the north-east coast of Papua and north of the D 'Entr'ecasteaux Islands. In previous papers we have described caves on Kiriwina (the main island), Vakuta and Kitava (see References). We now describe caves of Kaileuna and Tuma (see Figures l and 2). In August 1970, we spent one week of intensive search for caves on these two islands, making our headquarters in the copra store in the village of Kadawaga. Kaileuna island is six miles long and almost four miles wide, and supports a population of 1,079 (1969 Census). It is separated from the large island of Kiriwina by a channel two miles wide between Mamamada Point and Boll Point, though the main village of Kadawaga on the west coast of Kaileuna is 18 miles from Losuia and 14 miles from Kaibola. The island is generally swampy in the centre with a rim of uplifted coral around the edge. We were assured that the correct name of the island is Laileula, but since Kaileuna is used on all previous maps it is retained here. However, we prefer Kadawaga to the Kudawaga or Kaduwaga that appear on some maps. The inhabitants are of mixed Melanesian-Polynesian Stock, who are almost totally self-supporting, being in the main farmers and fishermen. The yam (taitu) constitutes the staple crop and the harvest is still gathered in with ceremonies unchanged for centuries. There is great competition among families for the quantity and quality of the crop, which is displayed firstly in garden arbours (kalimonio), later in the village outside the houses; traditionally styled yam huts (bwaima) are then constructed to display the harvest until the next season. The transfer of yams from the garden to the village is occasion for a long procession of gatherers to parade through the village blowing conch shells and chanting traditional airs (sawili) to attract the attention of villagers to the harvesting party, After storage of the harvest, a period of dancing and feasting (milamala) continues for a month or more, Traditional clothing is the rule, Women and girls wear fibre skirts (doba), most of the men, especially the older ones, wear a pubic leaf (vivia) made from the sepal of the betel nut palm flower (Areca catechu Linn.). Tuma, the northernmost of the main islands in the Trobriand group, is six miles long and less than a mile wide. It is a low ridge of coral with swamps in the centre and along much of the western side. The island has been uninhabited since 1963 when the last few residents abandoned it and moved to Kiriwina, but it is still visited from time to time by other islanders who collect copra and fish. Tuma is believed by all Trobriand Islanders to be inhabited now by the spirits of the dead. It is also generally believed that Tuma is the original home of the TrobIiand ancestors; these ancestors are also said to have emerged at Labai Cave on Kiriwina Island, and from many other places of emergence or 'bwala". Lack of consistency in the legends does not appear to concern the Trobrianders very much. The cave maps in this paper are sketches based mainly on estimated dimensions, with a few actual measurements and compass bearings. Bwabwatu was surveyed more accurately, using a 100 ft steel reinforced tape and prismatic compass throughout.


Hydrogeologic Constraints on Yucatan's Development, 1974, Doehring Do, Butler Jh,
The Republic of Mexico has an ambitious and effective national water program. The Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos (SRH), whose director has cabinet rank in the federal government, is one of the most professionally distinguished government agencies of its kind in the Americas. Resources for the Future, Inc., has been assisting the World Bank with a water planning study which the Bank is undertaking jointly with the Mexican government. The study is intended to provide guidelines for the development of government policies and projects designed to bring about the most efficient use of Mexico's water resources. However, to date, their study has not been directed toward the growing problems of the northern Yucataan Peninsula which are discussed here.LeGrand (13) suggested that man has inherited a harsh environment in carbonate terranes. In the case of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, the physical environment creates a set of hydrogeologic constraints to future economic and social development. Planning for intermediate and long-range land use on the peninsula must be related directly to the limited and fragile groundwater source. Continued contamination will make future aquifer management a difficult challenge for federal, state, and territorial agencies. We conclude that any strategy for long-range land use in the study area should include establishment of a regional aquifermonitoring network for long-term measurements of key hydrogeologic parameters, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, water table elevations, and water quality. Information from this network would flow into a central facility for storage, interpretation, and analysis. At present the SRH is collecting some of these data. Expansion of the existing program to provide sound information for regional planning will greatly benefit present as well as future generations. If such a program is implemented, it will represent a model for regional planning in other tropical and subtropical karstic terrains

Potential Gas Accumulation in Caves in Bowling Green, Including Relationship to Water Quality, 1976, Elliott, L. P.

The ecology of Metazoa in a settling basin of the Berlin Water Works and its importance in the process of purification of percolated surface water., 1976, Ritterbusch Barbara
Based upon the hypothesis that the Metazoa (nematoda and rotifera) in the interstitial stratum of a slow sand filter are of importance in the process of purification of surface water, a filter was built to check the substrate characteristics of different grain sizes compared with the natural soil. It was found that the granulometric composition of sands as found in the settling basins did have the best comparative screening properties. This was demonstrated by chemical analyses of NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4, KMnO4-consumption and O2-saturation. Only the NO3-graph is shown here. The importance of Metazoa in the process of filtering water was studied by inoculating metazoic microorganisms into the most efficient filter. Chemical analyses of the water did not reveal a significant change of water quality over that from a non-inoculated filter. Because of this result the Metazoa do not appear to act as an important component in the water purification by sand filtration.

Towards An Air Quality Standard For Tourist Caves : Studies of Carbon Dioxide Enriched Atmospheres In Gaden - Coral Cave, Wellington Caves, N.S.W., 1981, Osborne, R. Armstrong L.

Carbon dioxide enriched atmospheres are not uncommon in Australian caves and have posed a safety problem for cavers. Carbon dioxide enrichment of a tourist cave's atmosphere is a management problem which can only be approached when standards for air quality are applied. In Gaden - Coral Cave two types of carbon dioxide enrichment are recognised; enrichment by human respiration and enrichment from an external source. Standards for air quality in mines and submersible vehicles are applicable to tourist caves. A maximum allowable concentration of 0.5% carbon dioxide is recommended as the safe, but not the most desirable, air quality standard for tourist caves.


Hydrogeology of the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer, Saudi Arabia, with reference to fossil gradients, 1982, Bakiewicz W, Milne Dm, Noori M,
Much of North Africa and the Arabian peninsula, lying in the Saharan climate zone, are underlain by huge tabular sandstone and carbonate aquifers, ranging in age from Cambrian to Tertiary. These are often saturated with water of reasonable quality and form very valuable resources in an area often desperately short of water. The Palaeocene Umm Er Radhuma carbonate aquifer is one such formation which has been the subject of intensive recent investigation. The formation contains groundwater of a reasonable quality, has adequate transmission and storage characteristics and hence considerable potential for future development. The origin of the water in such aquifers is the subject of continuing controversy. It is not disputed that the water is moving under the influence of regional groundwater gradients but origins of these gradients are the subject of considerable argument. On the one hand, there are those who hold that the presently observed gradients are fossil remnants of conditions created by a much wetter climatic regime prevalent some thousands of years ago. Against this are those who maintain that the gradients, at least in part, reflect a present day system with groundwater discharge in approximate dynamic equilibrium with recharge. This paper examines the hydrogeology of a typical Middle Eastern formation of the disputed kind, the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and, with the aid of analytical and numerical models, attempts to resolve the problem of the origin of the observed groundwater gradients and to discover the extent to which the past must influence present day plans for future development

Hydrogeological conditions in the Middle East, 1982, Burdon Dj,
The geology of Middle East is summarized under the subheadings: Precambrian basement, epicontinental sediments, geosynclinal and shelf deposits, Tertiary volcanics and Quaternary cover. The main tectonic episodes including epeirogenic movements, rifting and the Tertiary orogeny, are reviewed. The imposition of hydrometeorolocal and climatic conditions upon the regional geology provides the setting for the hydrogeological discussion. Five factors which influence infiltration to aquifers under conditions of low precipitation and high potential evaportranspiration are discussed. The predominance of fossil groundwater is the most striking hydrogeological phenomenon occurring on a regional scale in the Middle East. Its mode of formation during the pluvials is outlined and the isotopic evidence is reviewed. The main physical and chemical characteristics of fossil ground-waters are described. It is conservatively estimated that some 65 000 km3 of good- to medium-quality groundwater are stored in the great artesian basins of the Near East. These fossil ground-waters are a non-renewable natural resource. Current annual abstraction is, as yet, a small percentage of the total reserves but economic factors rather than the volume of reserves will determine the ultimate extent of their exploitation. The renewable groundwater resources of the Middle East tend, by comparison, to be of local rather than regional significance. Some originate outside the Middle East, coming in as surface flows in the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates and infiltrating into the sediments in and adjacent to the flood plains. Other renewable resources accumulate within the region where high precipitation and mountainous relief are associated. Such areas include the Djebel Akhdar of Cyrenacia, the Tertiary fold mountains from the Taurus through the Zagros to the Oman ranges, and the volcanic and basement highlands of Yemen, Asir and Ethiopa. Locally, in areas of lower precipitation, lenses of recent fresh groundwater float on regional more saline groundwater. In some areas subsurface flows towards and through wadi systems are also of importance

Karst et littoral du Bec de Caux (Seine-Maritime), 1983, Rodet, J.
KARST AND COAST OF BEC DE CAUX, (SEINE-MARITIME, FRANCE) - The Pays de Caux seaside takes a preferential place in the importance of karstic features in the chalk of Normandy, because of the section of the sea cliffs. This exceptional frame allows three main observations. The first one is the investigation of springs, which places flooded paleo-karst in a prominent position. Those karstic phases, under the seal evel, have their counterpart above it. Study of development and the distribution of the passages in the Cap Fagnet underground pattern, shows these different karstic bases, and their relations, giving a true underground delta of active springs. The second aspect concerns the relations between dry caves and coastal-line carvings. It appears a typology, showing the influence of karstification in the morphology of caps. The third point is about quality of entrance infillings, as paleogeographic witness, and contributor in valuation of the shoreline evolution, in Etretat area, especially during the Flandrian transgression.

Karstologie urbaine et rurale applique le problme de la Fontaine de Nmes (Gard), 1986, Fabre G. , Radais J.
Urban and rural applied karstology. The problem of the Fontaine de Nmes (Gard) - This paper deals with integrated researches about a karstic aquifer situated in an urban-rural zone. The main purpose is to ameliorate the water quality of the spring of Nmes (Gard, Southeast of France), which as a very important place in the town life.

Aspects of the Musical History of Jenolan Caves, 1986, Targett, Warren

The acoustic quality of caves has always led people to use them for the performance of sacred or secular music. The earliest record of music at Jenolan is that of J. C. Millard, who wrote that his party "camped in the largest cave, sang a few hymns... and early next morning arose and sang the doxology" (Millard, 1858). However music must have been performed there prior to that since the Bathurst Free Press reported in 1856 that a dancing platform had been erected in the Grand Arch. Trickett (1905) however gave the date of installation of the dance floor as 1869. This was in regular use until the end of the century (Harvard, 1936) when the improved amenities of the guest house rendered it redundant. A poster of 1898 gives evidence of 'Smoke Concerts' held in the Grand Arch, with local employees providing the entertainment. The Cathedral Cave was reputedly consecrated as a place of worship in the 1880s by Bishop Barry, Anglican Primate of the colony. Since then it has been used by various denominations for divine services. This cave was also sometimes used for live broadcasts of 'Radio Sunday School' on radio station 2GB in the 1930s and 1940s. Performers included Albert Boyd, a popular light baritone, and the Lithgow Brass Band. From about 1910 until the end of the 1940s musical performances were common at Caves House, with resident musicians employed on a permanent basis to play light music during meals and after dinner to provide dance music in the Ballroom. Many entertainments were organised which were attended by both staff and guests. This came to an end in the 1950s, and for 20 years live music became a rarity at Jenolan. Inspection parties visiting the Cathedral Cave had commonly been invited to sing, but in the 1950s this tradition was dropped, and instead a remote controlled record player was installed in the cavern. The recordings played were generally of a religious character. This equipment, in a state of disrepair, was finally removed in 1979. In the late 1960s the Smoke Concerts in the Grand Arch were revived, but were abandoned in 1974 after disruption by hooligan elements. However social concerts and dances continued in Caves House. In 1983 the regular engagement of musicians began again, and live music shows are now a regular feature on Saturday nights. Occasional concerts are once more taking place in the Grand Arch. Religious services and Masonic ceremonies have taken place in the caverns. Music is once again part of the Jenolan experience.


Observations on the Buchan Karst During High Flow Conditions, 1987, Finlayson Brian, Ellaway Mark

In late July 1984 heavy rain at Buchan in East Gippsland produced widespread flooding and activated the dry valley network and vadose cave system on the Buchan limestones. The heavy rainfall was caused by the movement southwards along the New South Wales coast of a low pressure centre which originated in southeast Queensland. Intensity - frequency - duration analysis of the rainfall event indicates that while the 24 hour fall on the day the flooding occurred had a recurrence interval of only 1.75 years, the 96 hour and the 120 hour duration had recurrence intervals of 3.8 and 8.0 years respectively. The flood peak in the Buchan River had a recurrence interval of 4.3 years. These analyses indicate that the dry valleys and vadose cave systems are hydrologically active quite frequently under present climatic conditions. Water quality observations were made on surface streams and springs in the Buchan area during the flood and the results are compared with similar data collected under low flow conditions.


Caves of Lukwi - Western Province, Papua New Guinea, 1989, James Julia M. , Bonwick Mark, Nieuwendyk Peter, Martin David J. , Pawih Bernard , Slade Martin B. , Smith Graeme B.

In this paper the caves of Lukwi valley in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea are introduced. The caves were explored in January, May, and June 1985 at the request of Ok Tedi Mining Limited. Seventy seven karst features are described and are located on the surface map of the Lukwi valley. Surveys of the major caves are presented. Descriptions of the caves include geological, geomorphological, hydrological and biological observations. The quality of the Lukwi caves is assessed relative to other known caves in Papua New Guinea.


Qualit physico chimique et bactriologique des sources du domaine de Plat (Haute-Savoie), 1990, Buissonvodinh, J.
PHYSICO CHEMISTRY AND BACTERIOLOGY OF THE DOMAIN OF PLATE SPRINGS (HAUTE SAVOIE, FRANCE) - On the high alpine karst of Plat (Haute-Savoie), eight springs on four catchments have been submitted to physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. The skiing resort of Flaine is situated on one of the catchments, the others are not very frequented (mountain pasture, cattle). These springs have a good physico-chemical quality but only one is drinkable. Pathological germs contained in human and animal excrements contaminate the others. This phenomenon is amplified by the ground and earth leaching due to rainstorms. On the other hand, the skiing resort of Flaine could be responsible of a chronic pollution of the Salles spring. All traditional frequentation of this area makes the water unusable and undrinkable, and all additional development on the karst could only aggravate this situation and compromise the use of water.

Karst features of a glaciated dolomite peninsula, Door County, Wisconsin, 1990, Johnson Scot B. , Stieglitz Ronald D. ,
A geologic investigation of the northern part of Door Peninsula, Wisconsin for a state funded water quality project revealed that karstification of the Silurian aquifer is more extensive than previously believed. Sinkholes and small insurgent features, solution modified crevices, pavements, caves and springs were inventories and mapped. These features are generally smaller and less densely developed than those in most limestone terranes; however, they are important to the geomorphology and water quality of the peninsula.Continental glaciation has strongly influenced both the distribution and the present surface morphology of the karst features. Ice scour has formed a stepped bedrock topography, contributed to pavement formation and may have removed some preglacial features. Deposition has plugged and masked features in places. In addition, subglacial water circulation, and ice loading and unloading may have influenced karst development

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