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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That exchange capacity is 1. the amount of exchangeable ions measured in moles of ion change per kilogram of solid material at a given ph. synonymous with ion exchange capacity [22]. 2. the total ionic charge of the adsorption complex active in the adsorption of ions [22]. see also cation-exchange capacity.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for quartz (Keyword) returned 141 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 141
Scintillites: A Variety of Quartz Speleothems, 1964, Deal, Dwight E.

Quartz and Man [Including the Manufacture of Artificial Quartz], 1965, Rabbetts R. W. T.

Quartzite Karst in Southeastern Venezuela, 1967, Haman Jon F. , Jefferson Gene L. , White William B.
Minor weathering forms on the Roraima Quartzite in the Carrao River Basin of Southeastern Venezuela have the appearance of the karren that form on limestone surfaces in karst terrains. Climatological and chemical evidence indicates that these forms were generated by a solutional mechanism and that this area thus exhibits a minor karst topography on quartzite.

Karstic Fills in the Clusette Tunnel (Jura of Neuchatel Switzerland)., 1975, Meia Jean, Pochon Michel
The piercing of a road tunnel in the flank of a limestone (Malm) anticline in the Neuchatel Jura uncovered karstic forms transformed for the most part, by decarbonated soils. Mineralogical analysis of these latter, through the use of X-ray diffraction, reveals a great analogy with the surface soils. At more than 200 meters depth, the same allochtone mineralogical suite of aeolian origin which constitutes the largest part of the soils of the High Jura Mountains in Switzerland, is found: an abundance of ferriferous chlorite, and of quartz, plagioclase and potassic feldspar. The various factors favouring this deep infiltration are discussed.

Chiropterite Deposits In Moorba Cave, Jurien Bay, Western Australia, 1975, Bridge P. J. , Hodge L. C. , Marsh N. L. , Thomas A. G.

An old guano pile deposited by Macroderma gigas has been examined chemically and mineralogically. Sixteen sectional analyses of a profile are presented and discussed. The main soluble components are P2O5, CaO and SO3 (present as brushite, ardealite, gypsum and collophane) with insoluble quartz. Taranakite occurs as a minor constituent.


An Unusual Sandstone Cave From Northern Australia, 1979, Jennings, J. N.

The finding in recent years of much longer and more elaborate caves in quartz sandstone in South America than were known previously prompted a search for caves other than weathering caves in Arnhem Land in 1978. Though in the main unveiling for social reasons, it did lead to recognition that Yulirienji Cave, St Vidgeon Station, Northern Territory, well known for its Aboriginal rock art, is an abandoned, short river cave in quartz sandstone modified by weathering.


Sea Caves of King Island, 1979, Goede Albert, Harmon Russell, Kiernan Kevin

Investigation of two King Island sea caves developed in quartzitic rocks shows them to contain a wealth of clastic and chemical sediments. Clastic sediments consist of wave-rounded cobbles, debris cones, and angular rock fragments produced by frost weathering and crystal wedging. Chemical deposits include a variety of calcium carbonate speleothems and also gypsum occurring as wall crusts and blisters. The latter appear to be a speleothem type of rare occurrence. Growth of gypsum is responsible for some crystal wedging of the bedrock. Three basal stalagmite samples have been dated by the Th/U method indicating Late Pleistocene as well as Holocene speleothem growth. The caves are believed to have formed by preferential wave erosion during the Last Interglacial in altered and fractured quartzites. The evidence for pre-Holocene evolution of sea caves and geos in the Tasman region is summarised. Tasmania and the Bass Strait Islands provide a particularly favourable environment for the preservation of relict landforms on rocky coasts because of Late Quaternary uplift. The potential of further studies of sea caves to test two recently advanced archaeological hypotheses is discussed.


Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Cave Sediments, 1981, Gillieson, David S.

The microstructure of the surfaces of quartz and grains can reveal their history prior to their deposition in a cave. The scanning electron microscope is the ideal tool for such studies. This paper presents examples of the sort of information obtainable from such a study, drawing examples from caves in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Norway.


Karst du Rawyl (Hautes Alpes calcaires de Suisse occidentale), matires dissoutes et en suspension emportes par les sources, 1984, Wildberger, A.
HIGH ALPINE KARST OF RAWYL (SOUTHWESTERN SWITZERLAND): DISSOLVED AND SUSPENDED MATERIALS IN THE WATER OF KARSTIC SPRINGS - The karst of the Rawyl area is located between 1200 and 3250m elevation, at an average height of 2500m. The mean annual rainfall is about 2m. The output of dissolved and suspended material was measured at various important springs, subjected to a glacial to nivo-glacial discharge pattern. The dissolution rate is around 0,06 to 0,075 mm/year of which 1 to 25% are suspended materials, the rest being transported under dissolved form. The flushed material does not correspond exactly with the lithology of the aquifer: for the dissolved material, Mg is in excess compared to the Mg in the carbonates (exchange of cations Ca-Mg); for the suspended material, the clay minerals clearly out-weight the quartz (selection by different sizes and forms).

Depositional history of the late Pleistocene limestones of the Kenya coast, 1984, Braithwaite Cjr,
The coastal limestones of Kenya extend approximately 180 km N-S from Malindi to the Tanzanian border. They are at least 20 m thick and may be subdivided into sedimentary units representing major periods of marine deposition punctuated by sub-aerial erosion. Their foundations are formed by thick fluvial and aeolian quartz sands but there is local evidence of marine deposition following these. In the main limestone unit, deposited about 240,000 years ago, initial high energy shallow-shelf deposition was replaced by quiet water sediments with scattered corals. Sea level stood about 8 m higher than at present. Quartzose sands were confined to western areas. A return to shallow water heralded a new phase of emergence and erosion, producing karst surfaces and sub-aerial sediments. These are overlain by herring-bone cross-bedded quartz-rich calcarenites which were the products of a tidally dominated shelf and, at Watamu and Wasini, pass upwards into aeolian dune deposits. However, these were also emersed and subject to karst erosion before deposition of a further widespread marine limestone. Within this, coral knolls are well developed. Much of the sediment accumulated in shallow water, but the ecological succession indicates that knolls were at times in deeper waters. These deposits formed about 125,000 years ago when sea level ultimately stood 15-20 m above its present position. More recently in the area sea level has again fallen. However, the descent was not continuous and pauses were marked by marine terrace formation and subsequent karst erosion with sub-aerial deposition. Brief reversals caused both terraces and sediments to be overlain by thin marine deposits. Sea level paused at its present position about 30,000 years ago when the present reef platform was probably defined. It continued to fall to a maximum of about-120 m before rising to its existing level 7000 years ago and beginning the current cycle of sediment accumulation

Les cavits d'Afrique du Sud, 1985, Martini, J.
Caves of South Africa - A general description of the caves of South Africa is given. This includes a brief account of caving techniques and aspects of research on the geology, hydrology, morphology and mineralogy of the caves. Although caves systems are well developed in the country, a surface karst morphology is often non existent. Throughout emphasis is placed on the variable nature of the caves resulting from differences in lithology, e.g. complex hyperphreatic mazes in Proterozoic dolomite, shallow phreatic tubes in late Precambrian limestone, phreatic caves in soft Miocene lime-stone, and unusual vadose caves in quartzite and diabase.

Pseudo-karst dans les roches grso-quartzitiques de la formation Roraima (Gran Sabana, Venezuela), 1985, Pouyllau M. , Seurin M.
QUARTZITE PLATEAUX OF THE RORAIMA FORMATION (GRAN SABANA - VENEZUELA) - The high sandstone-quartzite plateaux of the Roraima period situated in the Gran Sabana region of south-east Venezuela have some specific macro- and micro-geomorphological characteristics. On one hand, this Precambrian sedimentary cover includes some spectacular relief consisting of high structural plateaux affected by major anticlines, synclines, and monoclines, partly dismantled by erosion. On the other hand, and on a smaller scale, pseudo-karst have developed on the surface (karren) and at depth (caves, shafts). Several hypotheses are put forward in an attempt to explain the genesis of this pseudo-karst.

Les phnomnes karstiques des quartzites d'Afrique du Sud, 1987, Martini, J.
KARST FEATURES IN QUARTZITE OF SOUTH AFRICA - The author describes karst features developed in quartzite and also, but to a lesser extent, in weathered diabase and in wad. In quartzite, the karst is due to weathering along joints and bedding planes, producing softer areanaceous boundaries. Later, vadose caves form by piping in the weathered material, starting at a spring and progressing upstream. The karst features include dolines, swallow-holes, and caves, grouped in very localised systems. Over most of the quartzite plateaus, however, real karst features are absent and the drainage remains superficial. The only ubiquitous features, reminiscent of lapies, consist of pinnacles left after erosion of sand. As most of the time they are not associated to deep karst systems, the author proposes that they should not be considered as karst features. Other caves are developed in weathered diabase and dolomite (wad), sandwiched between resistant quartzite layers. They result from the erosion of these soft layers. The author is of the opinion that the term karst rather than pseudokarst should be used to describe this morphology developed in silica and silicate rocks. The reason is that not only the features produced compare well with the ones observed in " soluble rocks " (limestone, gypsum, etc.), but that the genetical process is very similar. It is suggested that the term pseudokarst should be used only in cases were the genesis is different.

Morphologie et volution des cavernes et formes superficielles dans les quartzites du Roraima, 1988, Galan C. , Lagarde J.
MORPHOGENESIS OF CAVES AND LANDFORMS IN THE PRECAMBRIAN QUARTZITE OF RORAIMA GROUP (VENEZUELA) - This paper describes caves and landforms developed in the Precambrian quartzite of the Roraima Group (1600-1800 My) in the Gran Sabana of Venezuela (cf. Pouyllau and Seurin, in Karstologia, 1985, n 5). High plateaus (Tepuys) are remnants of old erosional surfaces of Secondary-Tertiary age. The weathering of quartzite is produced in fissures by means of the dissolution of the intergranular siliceous cement. Depressions, fields of blocks and small towers, deep fissures characterise the edges of tepuys. Underground passages could be formed by dissolution, arenisation and piping from the fractures which dissect the tepuys. The part of hydrothermalism in speleogenesis is not proved.

LATE-STAGE DOLOMITIZATION OF THE LOWER ORDOVICIAN ELLENBURGER GROUP, WEST TEXAS, 1991, Kupecz J. A. , Land L. S. ,
Petrography of the Lower Ordovician Ellenburger Group, both in deeply-buried subsurface cores and in outcrops which have never been deeply buried, documents five generations of dolomite, three generations of microquartz chert, and one generation of megaquartz. Regional periods of karstification serve to subdivide the dolomite into 'early-stage', which predates pre-Middle Ordovician karstification, and 'late-stage', which postdates pre-Middle Ordovician karstification and predates pre-Permian karstification. Approximately 10% of the dolomite in the Ellenburger Group is 'late-stage'. The earliest generation of late-stage dolomite, Dolomite-L1, is interpreted as a precursor to regional Dolomite-L2. L1 has been replaced by L2 and has similar trace element, O, C, and Sr isotopic signatures, and similar cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron images. It is possible to differentiate L1 from L2 only where cross-cutting relationships with chert are observed. Replacement Dolomite-L2 is associated with the grainstone, subarkose, and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies, and with karst breccias. The distribution of L2 is related to porosity and permeability which focused the flow of reactive fluids within the Ellenburger. Fluid inclusion data from megaquartz, interpreted to be cogenetic with Dolomite-L2, yield a mean temperature of homogenization of 85 6-degrees-C. On the basis of temperature/delta-O-18-water plots, temperatures of dolomitization ranged from approximately 60 to 110-degrees-C. Given estimates of maximum burial of the Ellenburger Group, these temperatures cannot be due to burial alone and are interpreted to be the result of migration of hot fluids into the area. A contour map of delta-O-18 from replacement Dolomite-L2 suggests a regional trend consistent with derivation of fluids from the Ouachita Orogenic Belt. The timing and direction of fluid migration associated with the Ouachita Orogeny are consistent with the timing and distribution of late-stage dolomite. Post-dating Dolomite-L2 are two generations of dolomite cement (C1 and C2) that are most abundant in karst breccias and are also associated with fractures, subarkoses and grainstones. Sr-87/Sr-86 data from L2, C1, and C2 suggest rock-buffering relative to Sr within Dolomite-L2 (and a retention of a Lower Ordovician seawater signature), while cements C1 and C2 became increasingly radiogenic. It is hypothesized that reactive fluids were Pennsylvanian pore fluids derived from basinal siliciclastics. The precipitating fluid evolved relative to Sr-87/Sr-86 from an initial Pennsylvanian seawater signature to radiogenic values; this evolution is due to increasing temperature and a concomitant evolution in pore-water geochemistry in the dominantly siliciclastic Pennsylvanian section. A possible source of Mg for late-stage dolomite is interpreted to be from the dissolution of early-stage dolomite by reactive basinal fluids

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