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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That drain tile; french drain is a porous pipe used for collection of excess ground water [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for red cave (Keyword) returned 31 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 31
Abstract: Darwin and Diprotodon: The Wellington Cave Fossils and the Law of Succession IN: Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 104, 1980 for 1979:265-272, 1981, Dugan, Kathleen G.

The fossils from Wellington Caves, some of them 'giant', are well known to Australian speleologists, finds of importance for the study of Australian fauna from early discovered caves. What I think we did not appreciate was that the Wellington 'bones' have a place in the world history of science of significance also, the theme of this paper. Many of you will have watched the BBC-TV series on 'The Voyage of the Beagle'; much was made of the importance to Darwin in developing his theory of evolution of the fossils he found in southern South America. There fossils of giant relatives of sloths, llamas and armadillos helped to make clear to him the notion of the geological succession of life, a basic part of his theory along with the idea of natural selection to which the finches and the tortoises of the Galapagos Islands proved crucial. However it seems that Darwin was previously aware of the similar significance of the Wellington Caves bones for the law of succession from Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology which quotes William Clift's identifications of dasyures, wombats and kangaroos amongst them. The fact that these recently extinct animals were closely related to the distinctive modern marsupial fauna of Australia counted much against earlier conceptions such as Cuvier's catastrophic theory or Buckland's ideas of successive divine creations within a short time span. Watchers of the TV series will remember the devious role played by the palaeontologist, Sir Richard Owen, in organising public opposition to Darwin at the famous Oxford meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. This article relates the series of rearguard actions of Owen to maintain that there was a fossil elephant component in the ancient Australian fauna, damaging to Darwinism. But the growing evidence from Australia, not all of it from caves, of course, finally extinguished this red herring, started by that doctrinaire N.S.W. colonial, the Reverend John Dunmore Lang.


Cave diving explorations in the spring of Rjecina., 1999, Kuhta M.
The spring of Rjecina is one of the biggest springs in the area of Dinaric Karst. It is situated approximately 10 km in the North from the town of Rijeka. As a part of the last hydrogeological explorations cave diving team of SK from Zagreb performed the cave diving investigation of the water covered cave canals of the spring. The total length of the spring karstic system has been increased on 260 m with final reached point on depth of 50.5 m. Based on the results of cave diving exploration as well as on analysis of all the former investigations the major conclusions can be made. First of all, upper and lower inlet canals of the spring are hydraulically quite separated. Further, it can be supposed that in the background, they are in continuation of the separated retention areas. In the dry period both underground canals have no direct connection with the retention areas and the water present in the spring is only the rest of the last flowing out "captured" in the underground caves. It means that the possibilities of obtaining considerable quantities of the groundwater in the spring itself (in the dry period) by overpumping, i.e. by considerably lowering the water level in spring, are very small and the investigations should be directed towards another solutions. Although the mentioned conclusions are based on the data obtained at complete hydrogeological processing, it is important to stress the considerable contribution of the speleologic and cave diving investigations. It has been proved that these investigations are very important in karst areas. With undoubtedly important information concerning morphology of underground, which is the supposition for planning and performing the investigation works and other operations, speleologic and cave diving observations con contribute better understanding of the complex hydrogeological relations.

Why and how are caves "organized": does the past offer a key to the present, 1999, Lowe, David J.

Many caves within carbonate (and perhaps other) rock sequences display marked spatial organization, particularly a tendency to group within vertical clusters. Most past explanations of clustering involve "recent" effects and interactions. New ideas, based on study of "denuded" or "unroofed" caves, acknowledge but re-interpret features and relationships that were observed long ago and commonly dismissed as "atypical", "irrelevant" or "impossible". Some traditional explanations of vertical clustering must now be re-assessed. Assumptions that any stratigraphical (bedding plane) or joint/fault fissure in carbonate rock provides (or provided) a de facto route for fluid transfer, and hence a focus for void development, are not confirmed by observation. Primitive pre-cave, but potentially cavernous, carbonate masses are not inevitably active hydrologically; nor are they geologically homogeneous. New evidence, and re-evaluation of earlier observations, implies that dissolutional void "inception" is related to a minor subset of all stratigraphical partings, which dominate initially, imprinting incipient guidance for later cave development. Recognition of this fundamental role provides a possible key to understanding the organization of cave systems and necessitates acceptance of an expansion of speleogenetic timescales back to the time of diagenesis.


Contact caves in flysch formations - Friuli Region - northeast Italy, 2001, Mocchiutti, Andrea

Most of the discovered caves inside Bernadia mountains and Natisone Valley (northeast Italy) are positioned inside flysch formations at the limestone-marl contact. The longest contact cave in this area reach up to 7 kilometers, but several caves are more then one. The karstic flowpattern begins at the limestone marl contact, but rooms usually develop rapidly throughout a process called "erosion - dissolution" inside marl and sandstone beds, the limestone strata constitutes the compact and massive ceiling of the cave. Several examples are reported, with pictures and geological cross sections.


Karstology and the opening of caves during motorway construction in the karst region of Slovenia, 2002, Knez Martin, Slabe Tadej
The nature of karst makes constructing a roadway across karst areas a complex task, which is why karstologists take part in motorway construction across Slovenia's karst. Working with planners, karstologists select the best route on the basis of preliminary research. Then they carry out regular karstological monitoring of the construction, to study newly discovered karst phenomena, mostly caves, and also help builders overcome the challenges of karst in a way that will preserve nature as much as possible. During the recent construction of a section of motorway, more than three hundred caves were encountered within a sixty-kilometre stretch of road. Varied tectonic and lithostratigraphical conditions make it even more difficult to predict the cave locations in advance. Various types of cave reflect the development of the aquifer due to the lowering of the groundwater level and of the karst surface. All caves are explored, and the sediments and flowstone in them studied, in an attempt to preserve the most important ones. Caves are an important part of Slovenia's natural heritage, and research contributes new knowledge about the morphology and development of the karst region. Knowledge of unroofed caves and their traces on the karst surface provides a distinct advantage in planning new road sections. Expertise derived from recent experiences enables these features to be detected on the karst surface before the earth moving begins.

E?aniay iaua?a: Iiuo eiiieaeniue ea?noieiae?aneeo enneaaiaaiee, 2002, Dublyansky V. N. , Vakhrushev B. A. , Amelichev G. N. , Shutov Yu. I.
The book summarizes results of more than 40 years of studies of Krasnaya (Red) Cave, the longest cave in Crimea with underground river. In Russian

Anthron Society (Postojna 1889 - 1911), the beginning of organised speleology in Slovenia, 2002, Kranjc, Andrej

In the middle of the 19th century caving and speleological activities were well developed in Kranjska (Carniola) already. F. Kraus took an interest in our karst by 1878. In 1879 he founded "Verein für Höhlenkunde" and a year later "Karst Comité". Soon afterwards he wanted to set up a branch of "Verein" at Postojna. In Planina he had 50 future members already. In summer of 1889 some villagers of Veliki Otok near Postojna discovered the entrance to so-called Otoška jama, making a part of Postojnska jama system. The dispute about the ownership and how to share the income of Postojnska jama aroused. And soon afterwards in Postojna the club Anthron was founded - a reaction to this discovery. Anthron was an exclusive club with limited number of members who must live in Postojna - and majority were members of Postojnska jama Cave (Managing) Commission. The Anthron members discovered an important part of Postojnska jama system, explored caves nearby and helped the best known speleologists of that time such as Kraus, Martel, Perko and Putick. When Speleological club was set up in Ljubljana and Perko announced the foundation of Speleological Institute at Postojna, the club Anthron was dismissed. Thus the documents prove that continuous organised speleological activity started in Slovenia in 1889.


Erfolgreiches Forscherlager des Vereins fr Hhlenkunde in Obersteier im Bereich des Hochkasten., 2004, Seebacher, R.
In August 2003, the VHO (Upper Styria Caving Club) organized the first expedition in the area of the central plateau of the Totes Gebirge. Near the summit of Groer Hochkasten (2389 m), 10 members set up a camp for 9 days. The walk to the camp without luggage takes approximately 5-6 hours. So the whole equipment of the expedition was transported by helicopter. Many cave entrances were found and 25 caves and shafts were surveyed and documented. The total surveyed length was near 2600 m. Remarkable was the first proof of the existence of the Upper cave ruin level in the Totes Gebirge. The most important cave is the Grauer Riese that was surveyed to a total length of 1028 m and a depth of 348 m. Due to the many unexplored caves and open leads, the VHO plans another camp in the Hochkasten area for summer 2004. [Nachweis des "Oberen Hhlenruinenniveaus" fr das Tote Gebirge, Weiengrieshhle (1625/294), Nunatakerhhle (1625/287), Grauer Riese (1625/391)]

Rates of condensation corrosion in speleothems of semi-arid northeastern Brazil, 2004, Auler A. S. , Smart P. L.

Condensation corrosion is a little studied, but important dissolutional process that occurs within caves in many karst settings around the world (for a review see Dublyansky and Dublyansky, 2000). Condensation corrosion occurs when air equilibrates with the cave atmosphere, becomes acidic and dissolves the bedrock and speleothems. It is a later vadose process that apparently depends on air circulation patterns, number of entrances and general configuration (vertical range, presence of ponded water, passage shape, etc) of the cave. Both bedrock and speleothems can be affected by the process, resulting in weathered outer surfaces. Condensation corrosion in speleogenesis has been regarded as responsible for dissolutional modification during later stages of cave development of coastal (Tarhule-Lips and Ford, 1998) and hypogenic caves (Hill, 1987; Palmer and Palmer, 2000).
Condensation corrosion is a little studied, but important dissolutional process that occurs within caves in many karst settings around the world (for a review see Dublyansky and Dublyansky, 2000). Condensation corrosion occurs when air equilibrates with the cave atmosphere, becomes acidic and dissolves the bedrock and speleothems. It is a later vadose process that apparently depends on air circulation patterns, number of entrances and general configuration (vertical range, presence of ponded water, passage shape, etc) of the cave. Both bedrock and speleothems can be affected by the process, resulting in weathered outer surfaces. Condensation corrosion in speleogenesis has been regarded as responsible for dissolutional modification during later stages of cave development of coastal (Tarhule-Lips and Ford, 1998) and hypogenic caves (Hill, 1987; Palmer and Palmer, 2000).
The Campo Formoso Karst area of northeastern Brazil holds very extensive cave systems, such as Southern Hemisphere’s longest cave, the 97 km long Toca da Boa Vista. These caves show remarkable features of condensation corrosion such as cupolas, weathered cave walls yielding dolomitic sand, “air scallops” and corroded speleothems. Weathering rinds up to 5 cm thick occur in both dolomite bedrock and speleothem surfaces. Unlike the dolomite, speleothems usually do not disintegrate but change to a milky white opaque porous calcite that is in marked contrast with the fresh crystalline calcite. The area is presently under semi-arid climate and the cave atmosphere is characterised by high internal temperatures (2729 °C) and low relative humidity (mean of 73% for sites away from entrances).
Despite being such a widespread process, rates of condensation corrosion have so far been reported only from caves in the coastal area of the Caribbean (Tarhule-Lips and Ford, 1998). In this study, rates of condensation corrosion in speleothems were derived by determining thickness of weathering rind and age of last unaltered calcite. These rates represent minimum rates because speleothem growth ceased later than age obtained, and also condensation corrosion may not be continuous in time. Due to variable thickness of weathering layer (usually thicker at the top and thinner at sides of stalagmites), maximum and minimum thickness were obtained for each sample. Dating was performed through the alpha spectrometric U-series method in the first unaltered calcite layer beyond the weathering rim. 
The rates obtained vary over two orders of magnitude. They appear to be highly site specific, and are probably heavily dependent on the local atmospheric conditions, although more sampling is needed to confirm this relationship. The data shows that rates are dependent primarily on thickness measured, as range of ages is quite small. Tarhule-Lips and Ford (1998), in the very different littoral caves of the Caribbean, have estimated condensation corrosion rates based on experiments using gypsum tablets. Their reported mean value of 24 mm/ka, much higher than observed in the Campo Formoso caves, suggest that the process may be episodic in the area, not occurring during speleothem growth phases associated with wetter periods.
Although the rates reported by Tarhule-Lips and Ford (1998) indicate that condensation corrosion may actually enlarge cave passages in the normal (10 4 – 10 6 ka) time range of speleogenesis, in the Campo Formoso caves the process appears to play a minor speleogenetic role, being responsible for later modification of cave walls and speleothems.


Erfolgreiches Forscherlager des Vereins fr Hhlenkunde in Obersteier im Bereich des Hochkasten, 2004, Seebacher, R.
In August 2003, the VHO (Upper Styria Caving Club) organized the first expedition in the area of the central plateau of the Totes Gebirge. Near the summit of Groer Hochkasten (2389 m), 10 members set up a camp for 9 days. The walk to the camp without luggage takes approximately 5-6 hours. So the whole equipment of the expedition was transported by helicopter. Many cave entrances were found and 25 caves and shafts were surveyed and documented. The total surveyed length was near 2600 m. Remarkable was the first proof of the existence of the Upper cave ruin level in the Totes Gebirge. The most important cave is the Grauer Riese that was surveyed to a total length of 1028 m and a depth of 348 m. Due to the many unexplored caves and open leads, the VHO plans another camp in the Hochkasten area for summer 2004.

Der Naturzustand der sterreichischen Hhlen - Vollerhebung in den Testgebieten Hochtor, Brgeralpe und Anninger., 2005, Herrmann, E.
The first part of a study concerning the status of naturalness (virginity) of Austrian caves comprises overall statistics of three cave regions in Styria and Lower Austria differing in geomorphology and land use. Except in high alpine areas nearly no cave was kept free of human influence if not transformation. Regarding the different motives, the influence of tourism is widespread but never destructive to caves while extraction of raw materials especially in quarries damaged a considerable part of all registered caves. Other cave uses are only of historic interest (like housing, defence) or were never of great importance (like traffic). This paper demonstrates that each karst region shows the effects of its specific human stress on caves. Unfortunately those caves held most important as well as those with large entrances are at the same time most endangered regarding all important aspects: their morphological integrity, their ecological functionality and their aesthetic attractiveness. The rather uniform legislation of cave protection that we have at present is quite unsuitable to guard against the manifold threats caves are facing today. So there is an urgent need for much more diversified strategies and provisions to conserve at least a few remarkable caves in their originality.[Vollerhebung von 120 Hhlen zeigt erhebliche Differenzen im Ausma der menschlichen Einflussnahme auf den unterirdischen Naturraum; Auswertung nach Eingriffsursachen, Hufigkeit der Eingriffe, Eingriffscharakteristik und Regenerierbarkeit auch im Hinblick auf Lage und Erreichbarkeit der Eingnge]

Karst and caves of Ha Long Bay, Vietnam, 2005, Waltham, A.

Ha Long Bay is distinguished by the hundreds of small limestone islands that rise steeply or vertically from its shallow waters. Its dramatic and beautiful landscape is deservedly famous as one of the world’s outstanding natural sights, but it is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site of international geomorphological significance (Fig. 1). The bay lies on the northeastern coast of Vietnam, immediately east of the Red River delta . It is bounded on the north by the mainland hills either side of Ha Long City (also known as Hong Gai), to the south by the open waters of the Gulf of Tonkin, to the west by Cat Ba Island, and to the east by islands of sandstone (Fig. 2). Ha Long Bay has an area of about 1500 km2, and contains nearly 2000 limestone islands.
The caves described here were all visited during an assessment of the bay’s geomorphology with respect to its position as a World Heritage Site. Records of other caves in Ha Long Bay are sparse. A British team led by Howard Limbert mapped the Hang Hanh stream cave in the mainland limestone along the north shore of the bay; and a French team led by Marc Faverjon explored caves in the islands east of the bay, and also a few in Ha Long Bay itself.
Locality names are here translated into English, except for the cave names which are left in Vietnamese. The key terms are: dao = large island; hon = small island or rocky tower; hang = tunnel or passage cave; dong = chamber cave.


Caves in conglomerate: Case of Udin boršt, Slovenia, 2005, Gabrovš, Ek Franci

Speleologically, a "pie" of mainly carbonate conglomerate atop of a sequence of impermeable oligocene and mainly fed by autochtonic waters, represents a simple speleological settings. There are 14 registered caves in the area, mostly concentrated along the western rim of the terace. Four caves extend more than 200 m, the cave Arneževa luknja is the longest with 815 m. In the chapter I describe the general speleological settings in Udin boršt, characteristics of caves and factors important for their genesis.


Der Naturzustand der sterreichischen Hhlen - Vollerhebung in den Testgebieten Hochtor, Brgeralpe und Anninger, 2005, Herrmann, E.
The first part of a study concerning the status of naturalness (virginity) of Austrian caves comprises overall statistics of three cave regions in Styria and Lower Austria differing in geomorphology and land use. Except in high alpine areas nearly no cave was kept free of human influence if not transformation. Regarding the different motives, the influence of tourism is widespread but never destructive to caves while extraction of raw materials especially in quarries damaged a considerable part of all registered caves. Other cave uses are only of historic interest (like housing, defence) or were never of great importance (like traffic). This paper demonstrates that each karst region shows the effects of its specific human stress on caves. Unfortunately those caves held most important as well as those with large entrances are at the same time most endangered regarding all important aspects: their morphological integrity, their ecological functionality and their aesthetic attractiveness. The rather uniform legislation of cave protection that we have at present is quite unsuitable to guard against the manifold threats caves are facing today. So there is an urgent need for much more diversified strategies and provisions to conserve at least a few remarkable caves in their originality.

Long-term changes in the cave atmosphere air temperature as a result of periodic heliophysical processes, 2006, Stoeva Penka, Stoev Alexey, Kiskinova Nadya,
Climatic trends connected with short- and long-period variations of the solar activity occur as a reaction even in such conservative media as the air volumes of karst caves. The yearly mean air temperatures in the zone of constant temperatures of four show caves in Bulgaria were studied for a period of 36 years (1968-2003). The examination was made by everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave. The caves are situated at different altitudes and geographic latitude. Seasonal fluctuations of the yearly mean air temperature in the ZCT of the explored caves have been identified by Fourier analysis. The same analysis has been applied for the Sunspot number and Apmax indices, which are representatives of the solar and geomagnetic activity, for the same period of data available. Autocorrelograms have been used for examination of the seasonal patterns of the air temperatures in the ZCT in every cave and in Sunspot number and Apmax indices. Cross-spectrum analysis has been applied for retrieving the correlations between air ZCT temperatures in the caves and solar and geomagnetic activity. It has been found that the correlation between ZCT temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices. It has been found that is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity, i.e., coronal mass ejections (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes (Webb, D.F., 2002. CMEs and the solar cycle variation in their geoeffectiveness. In: Wilson, A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the SOHO 11 Symposium on From Solar Min to Max: Half a Solar Cycle with SOHO, 11-15 March 2002, Davos, Switzerland. ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 2002, ISBN 92-9092-818-2, pp. 409-419). This work can contribute to studying the mechanisms of atmospheric circulation changes and calibration of long-period climatic data read from cave speleothems and deposits

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