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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That classical karst is originally the region called kras in slovenia, which gave its name to the karst landscape. used in this sense about 95% of the classical karst lies in slovenia, with the remaining 5% extending to italy. a slightly different area was covered by descriptions of early investigations or karst phenomena, when the name classical karst was applied to a region between ljubljana, gorizia and rijeka, mainly in slovenia with some parts in italy and croatia [9].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for regional scale (Keyword) returned 48 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 48
Hydrogeological conditions in the Middle East, 1982, Burdon Dj,
The geology of Middle East is summarized under the subheadings: Precambrian basement, epicontinental sediments, geosynclinal and shelf deposits, Tertiary volcanics and Quaternary cover. The main tectonic episodes including epeirogenic movements, rifting and the Tertiary orogeny, are reviewed. The imposition of hydrometeorolocal and climatic conditions upon the regional geology provides the setting for the hydrogeological discussion. Five factors which influence infiltration to aquifers under conditions of low precipitation and high potential evaportranspiration are discussed. The predominance of fossil groundwater is the most striking hydrogeological phenomenon occurring on a regional scale in the Middle East. Its mode of formation during the pluvials is outlined and the isotopic evidence is reviewed. The main physical and chemical characteristics of fossil ground-waters are described. It is conservatively estimated that some 65 000 km3 of good- to medium-quality groundwater are stored in the great artesian basins of the Near East. These fossil ground-waters are a non-renewable natural resource. Current annual abstraction is, as yet, a small percentage of the total reserves but economic factors rather than the volume of reserves will determine the ultimate extent of their exploitation. The renewable groundwater resources of the Middle East tend, by comparison, to be of local rather than regional significance. Some originate outside the Middle East, coming in as surface flows in the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates and infiltrating into the sediments in and adjacent to the flood plains. Other renewable resources accumulate within the region where high precipitation and mountainous relief are associated. Such areas include the Djebel Akhdar of Cyrenacia, the Tertiary fold mountains from the Taurus through the Zagros to the Oman ranges, and the volcanic and basement highlands of Yemen, Asir and Ethiopa. Locally, in areas of lower precipitation, lenses of recent fresh groundwater float on regional more saline groundwater. In some areas subsurface flows towards and through wadi systems are also of importance

Chemical hydrogeology in natural and contaminated environments, 1989, Back W, Baedecker Mj,
Chemical hydrogeology, including organic and inorganic aspects, has contributed to an increased understanding of groundwater flow systems, geologic processes, and stressed environments. Most of the basic principles of inorganic-chemical hydrogeology were first established by investigations of organic-free, regional-scale systems for which simplifying assumptions could be made. The problems of groundwater contamination are causing a shift of emphasis to microscale systems that are dominated by organic-chemical reactions and that are providing an impetus for the study of naturally occurring and manmade organic material. Along with the decrease in scale, physical and chemical heterogeneity become major controls.Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how application of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Phenomena associated with the mixing zone generated by encroaching sea water include an increase in heterogeneity of permeability, diagenesis of minerals, and formation of geomorphic features, such as caves, lagoons, and bays. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity and consequences of organic reactions in determining the distributions and concentrations cf. constituents are provided by several studies, including infiltration of sewage effluent and migration of creosote in coastal plain aquifers. These studies show that heterogeneity and the dominance of organically controlled reactions greatly increase the complexity of investigations

Regional scale transport in a karst aquifer, 1. Component separation of spring flow hydrographs, 1989, Dreiss S. J.

Modeling of regional groundwater flow in fractured rock aquifers, PhD Thesis, 1990, Kraemer, S. R.

The regional movement of shallow groundwater in the fractured rock aquifer is examined through a conceptual-deterministic modeling approach. The computer program FRACNET represents the fracture zones as straight laminar flow conductors in connection to regional constant head boundaries within an impermeable rock matrix. Regional scale fracture zones are projected onto the horizontal plane, invoking the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption for flow. The steady state flow solution for the two dimensional case is achieved by requiring nodal flow balances using a Gauss-Seidel iteration. Computer experiments based on statistically generated fracture networks demonstrate the emergence of preferred flow paths due to connectivity of fractures to sources or sinks of water, even in networks of uniformly distributed fractures of constant length and aperture. The implication is that discrete flow, often associated with the local scale, may maintain itself even at a regional scale. The distribution of uniform areal recharge is computed using the Analytic Element Method, and then coupled to the network flow solver to complete the regional water balance. The areal recharge weakens the development of preferential flow pathways. The possible replacement of a discrete fracture network by an equivalent porous medium is also investigated. A Mohr's circle analysis is presented to characterize the tensor relationship between the discharge vector and the piezometric gradient vector, even at scales below the representative elementary volume (REV). A consistent permeability tensor is sought in order to establish the REV scale and justify replacement of the discrete fracture network by an equivalent porous medium. Finally, hydrological factors influencing the chemical dissolution and initiation of conduits in carbonate (karst) terrain are examined. Based on hydrological considerations, and given the appropriate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions, the preferred flow paths are expected to develop with time into caves.


Contribution of correlation and spectral analyses to the regional study of a large karst aquifer (Charente, France), 1998, Larocque M. , Mangin A. , Razack M. , Banton O. ,
The purpose of the study is to demonstrate that correlation and spectral analyses can contribute to the regional study of a large karst aquifer. An example is presented for the La Rochefoucauld karst aquifer (Charente, France). Different types of spatially distributed time series provide valuable spatio-temporal information for the karat aquifer. The available time series consist of the spring flow rates, the flow rates at different locations in sinking streams, the piezometric levels, the electrical conductivity and temperature of the water, the atmospheric pressure and the precipitation The analysis of the flow rates at the springs shows that the aquifer empties very slowly and has a large storage capacity. Hydrodynamic links were established between three of the four rivers flowing on the aquifer and the springs. The results also demonstrate the important spatial heterogeneity of the aquifer and indicate that the most rapid flow occurs in the northern part of the aquifer. Hourly piezometric and electrical conductivity time series indicate that the transmissivity of the aquifer varies when some conductive channels become desaturated during the low water period. The delays between the distributed recharge and the piezometric level, between the localized river input and the how rates at the springs and between the electrical conductivities in rivers and the main spring provide information on the travel times in the aquifer, The observation of earth tides and barometric effects indicate that this apparently unconfined aquifer has a confined behaviour. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Regional groundwater flow model construction and wellfield site selection in a karst area, Lake City, Florida, 1999, Dufresne Dp, Drake Cw,
The city of Lake City is in the process of expanding their water supply facilities by 45 420 m(3) day(-1) (12 MGD) to meet future demands. One portion of wellfield site selection addressed here includes analysis of ambient groundwater quality and its potential for contamination. This study also addresses the potential impacts of groundwater withdrawals to existing legal users, wetlands, surface waters and spring flows. A regional groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) was constructed using existing hydrogeologic data from state and federal agencies in order to simulate the existing hydrologic conditions of this karst area and to predict withdrawal impacts. The model was calibrated by matching potentiometric surface maps and spring flows to within reasonable ranges. Drawdowns in the Floridan and surficial aquifers predicted by the model show minimal impacts to existing legal users and only a 5% reduction in the flow at Ichetucknee Springs ca 21 km (13 miles) away. Due to the karstic nature of the Floridan aquifer here, the equivalent-porous-medium flow model constructed would not be appropriate for contaminant transport modeling. The groundwater flow model is, however, appropriate to represent hydraulic heads and recharge/discharge relationships on a regional scale. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

The role of western Mediterranea tectonic evolution in the geometry of a karstic domain in the Betic Cordilleras (Sierra Gorda, Spain): importance of a tardy extensional regime, 1999, Pistre S. , Lopezchicano M. , Pulidobosch A. , Drogue C. ,
Located in the central part of the Betic Cordilleras, the large carbonate Sierra Gorda Massif provides an example of a west-Mediterranean karstic aquifer. In spite of a complex polyphased tectonic history, the fracturing presents, from aerial views and at outcrop scale a quite organised geometry. Four fracture directions are found over the massif: N000-010, N050-070, N090-100 and N140-170. The statistical and geostatistical approach allows the characteristics (lengths, orientations) and the spatial structure for each fracture set to be determined. The N000-010 and N140-170 sets are grouped in packers whereas the two other sets are grouped in bands. The microtectonic study describes the evolution of the massif in the geodynamic context of this part of Mediterranea, distinguishing three recent stages of brittle tectonic activity in the gu massif: a WNW-ESE Middle Miocene compression, then a NNW-SSE to NW-SE compression with a poorly wrenching regime, and finally a probably pre-Quaternary N-S radial distension. This last stage is essential for the karstification of the massif and groundwater circulation. From the combined analysis of fracture network geometry and palaeostresses a multiple porosity model in agreement with hydrological observations made inside the massif can be proposed: in particular, the hectometric N090-100 land N050-070) fractures which are essential for the network connectivity, and have a major drainage role at aquifer scale, while the N000-010 and N140-170 ones have a more local drainage role. This extensive tardy regime, which is for the first time described separately from the internal zones of the Cordilleras, must be considered as a significant phenomenon on a regional scale, and henceforth integrated in future geodynamic schemes of this part of Mediterranea. (C) Elsevier, Paris

A geomorphological strategy for conducting environmental impact assessments in karst areas, 1999, Veni G. ,
In their efforts to protect regional groundwater supplies, governmental agencies are increasingly requiring studies of karst areas and their features. In areas where tracer tests or geophysics are not required, funded, or otherwise feasible, geomorphological methods remain as the primary tool for assessing karst. This study proposes a geomorphologically-based environmental impact assessment strategy for karst areas. While it is supported with results from a study of the karstic Edwards Aquifer recharge zone on the Camp Bullis Military Training Installation, TX, USA, it is based on the study of several karst areas and is generalized to accommodate and be fine-tuned for regional variations. Biological and other resource issues can also be assessed with this strategy. The assessment identifies environmentally sensitive features and areas, as is often required to meet regulatory directives. In karst areas with relatively small features, excavation is a key tool for accurate assessment. Although the results of this study will help to better manage karst areas, proper management must be done on a regional scale. The highly permeable nature of karst precludes adequate management solely on a feature-by-feature basis. Studies on the relationship of water quality to impervious cover show adverse environmental impacts significantly increase when impervious cover exceeds 15% of a surface watershed. The Camp Bullis study finds similar impacts in its groundwater drainage basin, supporting the argument of 15% impervious cover as a regionally effective means of also protecting karst aquifers when coupled with protection of critical areas identified by field surveys.

Linear systems analysis in a karst aquifer, 1999, Long A. J. , Derickson R. G. ,
A linear systems analysis applied to ground-water flow is presented as an alternative modeling technique to traditional discretized ground-water models (i.e. finite-difference and finite-element), which require elaborate parameters and boundary conditions. Linear systems analysis has been used extensively for surface-water modeling and to 3 lesser extent for groundwater applications. We present a method for the analysis of an aquifer's response in hydraulic head to recharge that comprises two major components. The first component is to predict the drop in hydraulic head over time if recharge is eliminated. By fitting logarithmic curves to selected short-term hydraulic head recession periods, a long-term recession or 'base head' can be established. The estimation of base head is necessary for the second component of the method, which is the derivation of an impulse response function or transfer function. The transfer function H-as derived by deconvolution of two time series data sets - estimated recharge and the measured response in hydraulic head. An aquifer's response to recharge can be characterized and modeled by using the transfer function. which also establishes the time to peak response. the response time distribution, and the total memory length of the system. The method requires fitting smooth curves to the oscillatory transfer function derived by deconvolution in the Fourier transform domain. The smooth curve is considered to be the physically valid transfer function. In this analysis, curve fitting was more effective than other smoothing techniques commonly used. We applied the method to the karstic Madison aquifer and found that thr time to peak response is less than one month, the system's total memory is about six years, and a logarithmic curve best fits the system response. This method has potential to be useful as 3 predictive tool in aquifer management. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Transient-state history matching of a karst aquifer ground water flow model, 2000, Larocque M. , Banton O. , Razack M. ,
Ground water flow modeling in a karst aquifer presents many difficulties. In particular, the hydrodynamic properties and the now behavior can vary over time. History matching of transient-state conditions is required to test the accuracy of the model under varying hydrodynamic conditions. The objective of this study was to illustrate how transient-state conditions can be used to history match a ground water flow model of a large aquifer, the La Rochefoucauld karst (Charente, France). The model used a porous medium equivalent and was based on a steady-state calibration of hydraulic conductivities. The history match consisted of studying the simulated heads and spring flow rates to test the capacity of the model to reproduce different aspects of the aquifer behavior, The simulated heads and flow rates were analyzed as new data using correlation and spectral analyses to compare the temporal structures of the measured and simulated time series. The analyses provided information on the storage capacity of the aquifer, the input-output delays, the degree of correlation between input and output, and the length of the impulse response of the aquifer, These data were used to study the impact of the hypotheses underlying the model (hydraulic conductivities, storage coefficient, representation of rivers, use of a porous medium equivalent). The results show that the model adequately simulates the overall behavior of the studied aquifer, The model can be used under variable hydrodynamic conditions to simulate ground water flow on a regional scale. This case study illustrates how a complete history match of a simplified representation of reality can lead to an adequate mathematical tool

Simulated effect of vadose infiltration on water levels in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, 2000, Contractor Dn, Jenson Jw,
Regional-scale hydrology of the fresh water lens in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer has been simulated in the past using a finite element, sharp interface computer model, SWIG2D. Systematic differences exist between observed and computed water levels. Computed seasonal peak water levels are higher, and the computed seasonal lows are lower than the respective observed levels. It is hypothesized that vadose storage must store a substantial amount of water during the wet season and release it gradually into the lens during the dry season. Flow through the vadose zone was simulated with a one-dimensional finite element, unsaturated flow program UNSATID, in which the van Genuchten model is used to characterize unsaturated diffuse flow through the matrix of the vadose zone. An additional parameter (SINK) was added to the van Genuchten set to account for rapid infiltration down open pathways (fractures) associated with the closed depressions of the karst terrain. A global-optimization technique (Shuffled Complex Evolution or SCE-UA Method) was used to obtain the parameters that minimized the difference between simulated and observed water levels. Simulations incorporating the van Genuchten model were accomplished by combining the two programs, UNSATID and SWIG2D, into a single program. The sum-of-squared-errors (SSE) between computed and observed water levels in four observation wells was minimized using SCE-UA, reducing the arithmetically averaged SSE of the four wells by 30% compared with the SSE obtained when the vadose zone was not modeled. These results suggest that vadose storage is significant. On the other hand, the fact that the best fit obtained with an optimum parameter set was able to reduce the SSE by no more than 30% suggests that additional phenomena have yet to be accounted for to mon fully explain differences between simulated and observed well water levels. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Exchange of water between conduits and matrix in the Floridan aquifer, 2001, Martin J. B. , Dean R. W. ,
Flow through carbonate aquifers may be dominated by conduits where they are present, by intergranular or fracture porosity where conduits are missing, or may occur in conduits and matrix porosity where both are well developed. In the latter case, the exchange of water between conduits and matrix could have important implications for water management and hydrodynamic modeling. An extensive conduit system has been mapped by dye trace studies and cave diving exploration at the Santa Fe Sink/Rise system located in largely unaltered rocks of the Floridan aquifer of north-central Florida. In this area, the Santa Fe River flows underground at the River Sink and returns to the surface similar to 5 km to the south at a first magnitude spring called the River Rise. Limited data show that discharge is greater by 27-96% at the River Rise than at the Sink and that the downstream increase in discharge is inversely related to discharge of the river. Natural SO42- concentrations indicate that similar to 25% of the water discharging from the Rise originates from the Sink during low flow. Conversely, SO42- and other solute concentrations indicate that most of the water discharging from the Rise originates from the Sink during floods. Ar similar to 40% decrease in Na () and Cl (-) concentrations over a 5 1/2-month period at a down-gradient water supply well may reflect flow of dilute flood water from the conduits into and through the matrix at rates estimated to be between 9 and 65 m/day, Calcium concentrations remain constant through time at the well, although flood waters have similar to 90% lower Ca (2) concentrations than ground water, perhaps reflecting dissolution of the matrix rocks. This apparent exchange of water between matrix and conduits is important for regional ground water quality and dissolution reactions, (C) 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V

Geostatistical and geochemical analysis of surface water leakage into groundwater on a regional scale: a case study in the Liulin karst system, northwestern China., 2001, Wang Y. , Ma T. , Luo Z.

Geostatistical and geochemical analysis of surface water leakage into groundwater on a regional scale: a case study in the Liulin karst system, northwestern China, 2001, Wang Y. , Ma T. , Luo Z. ,
The Liulin karst system is typical of hydrogeological systems in northern China, with a group of springs as the dominant way of regional groundwater discharge. Surface water leakage into groundwater has been observed in six sections of the rivers in the study area. To extract hydrogeological information from hydrochemical data, 29 water samples were collected from the system. On a trilinear diagram, most of the groundwater samples are clustered around the surface waters, indicating the effect of leakage on their chemistry. R-mode factor analysis was made on seven variables (Na, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, and NO3) of the samples and three principal factors were obtained: the F-1 factor is composed of Ca, Mg and SO4, the F-2 of HCO3 and NO3, and the F-3 of Na and Cl. These factors are then used as regionalized variables in ordinary Kriging for unbiased estimates of the spatial variations of their scores. Considering regional hydrogeological conditions, the hydrogeological implications of the spatial distribution of the factor scores as related to the effects of the surface leakage are discussed. To evaluate the geochemical processes, the geochemical modeling code NETPATH was employed. The modeling results: show that mixing commonly occurs in the system and dolomite dissolution is more important than calcite dissolution. Dedolomitization (calcite precipitation and dolomite dissolution driven by anhydrite dissolution) is locally important, in the western flank of the system where the surface water leakage has the least effect.

Derivation of effective hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer from discharge hydrograph analysis, 2001, Baedke Sj, Krothe Nc,
In well-developed karst terrains, three or more distinct portions of the karst continuum can be identified from hydrographs of springs issuing from the karat aquifer. Hydrographs from mio karat springs within the same drainage basin at the Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indiana, have been analyzed, and ratios of transmissivity and specific yield (T/S-y) have been established for the conduit and diffuse flow systems. These ratios have been compared with values of T derived from aquifer tests, so that independent values of S-y can be calculated for the diffuse system. Similarly, if the value of S-y is assumed to be 1.0 for a pure conduit, then independent values of T can be calculated for this end-member of the karst continuum. The values of T and S-y derived from this study are similar to values obtained from a dye trace of the conduit-dominated flow system and of values derived from aquifer tests of the diffuse flow system. Values of T for the conduit system of these springs may need to be established at a local scale, while the values for the diffuse flow system may be applicable at a regional scale. A hydrograph separation using isotopic data suggests that the intermediate-flow system represents a mix of water from the conduit and diffuse flow systems. If this portion of the hydrograph is a truly mixing phenomena, ratios of TIS cannot be determined from the hydrograph analysis presented herein. However. if instead, the intermediate-flow system represents water released from a third reservoir (such as small fractures), ratios of T/S, can be established for the intermediate-flow system

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