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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That stereogram is a block diagram or threedimensional diagram [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for representation (Keyword) returned 40 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 40
A Vertical Contour Method of Cave Representation, 1971, Steinke, Theodore R.

Le peuplement animal des karsts de France (lments de biogographie souterraine pour les invertbrs, premire partie : la faune aquatique), 1987, Ginet R. , Juberthie C.
THE BIOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS IN FRENCH KARSTS (FIRST PART: THE AQUATIC FAUNA) - This text analyses the bibliographic data in order to draw up a schematic representation of the biogeographical distribution of Invertebrate animals found in French karsts up to 1985. The animal population of these karsts is very varied, especially in the South of France. For many groups, there are obvious links with geological history and paleo-ecology. This text first lists the aquatic groups (from Porifera to Crustacea; the latter is the most varied and numerous in karstic water). It puts forward possible solutions to the problems posed by the ways followed by the ancestors of present-day groups, either of superficial fresh-water origin, or of marine origin during the Tertiary, and whose areas were later modified by the impact of Quaternary glaciations. For the terrestrial groups (cf. Karstologia n 11), subterranean penetration followed different pathways, among which the Superficial Hypogean Compartment (MSS = Milieu Souterrain Superficiel) plays an obvious role; this shows that many troglobites are not limited, in the underground environment, to just caves and the karst. The Arthropods, and among them the Insects, are of course the most varied and the best known. Their biogeographical distribution reflects the problems of speciation, ecology and endemism, which are discussed in the text.

Le peuplement animal des karsts de France (deuxime partie : lments de biogographie pour les Invertbrs terrestres), 1988, Ginet R. , Juberthie C.
THE BIOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS IN FRENCH KARSTS. SECOND PART THE TERRESTRIAL FAUNA - This text analyses the bibliographic data in order to draw up a schematic representation of the biogeographical distribution of Invertebrate animals found in french karsts up to 1985. The animal population of these karsts is very varied, especially in the south of France. For many groups, there are obvious links with geological history and paleo-ecology. This text first (cf. Karstologia n 10) lists the aquatic groups (from Porifera to Crustacea; the latter is the most varied and numerous in karstic water). It puts forward possible solutions to the problems posed by the ways followed by the ancestors of present-day groups, either of superficial freshwater origin, or of marine origin during the Tertiary, and whose areas were later modified by the impact of quaternary glaciations. This second part concerns the terrestrial groups, subterranean penetration followed different pathways, among which the Superficial Hypogean Compartment (MSS = Milieu Souterrain Superficiel) plays an obvious role; this shows that many troglobites are not limited in the underground environment, just to caves and karst. The Arthropods, and among them the Insects, are of course the most varied and the best known. Their bio-geographical distribution reflects the problems of speciation, ecology and endemism, which are discussed in the text.

Karsting around for bones: Aborigines and karst caves in South Eastern Australia, 1993, Spate, Andy

Whilst there appears to be a popular belief that Australian Aborigines viewed caves with some trepidation there is much anecdotal and physical evidence that karst caves were used for occupation, art and funery practices. This paper reviews the past and modern literature on Aboriginal use of karst caves on the Tablelands and immediate surrounds. About ten occupation and a lesser number of disposition sites are known as are hand stencils and abstract engraved art. More representational art has been reported in the past and skeletal material of accidental or unknown origin reported widely. Dated sites are few ranging from about 1500 years BP to as old as 23000 years BP.


Geochemistry and water dynamics: Application to short time-scale flood phenomena in a small Mediterranean catchment .1. Alkalis, alkali-earths and Sr isotopes, 1997, Benothman D, Luck Jm, Tournoud Mg,
We report major, trace elements and Sr isotope data for water samples taken regularly during a four-day-long September flood of a Mediterranean river, the Vene (Herault, S. France). The objective is to combine all these data into a dynamic model that describes the origin(s) and movements of waters and their loads. This river drains the runoff from a small, mainly carbonate, partly karstified watershed with Miocene and Jurassic lithologies. The watershed is also impacted by both agricultural and urban activities. Both the dissolved and the particulate loads were analyzed. Concentrations of the dissolved components show major remobilization of almost all elements during the first few hours of the flood (water treatment plants and aerosol scavenging), followed by a sharp concentration decrease. Some major species return to their previous summer values (Ca, HCO3) while others reach low 'background' levels (Na, K, Cl, SO4). Some trace elements (Rb, Sr, Cs) show similar behaviour but (Ba) appears somewhat unaffected. Trace element concentrations and ratios define two main periods (three in the suspended particulate matter). Ratios do not allow distinguishing between the three main sources for the dissolved load in the first period (Miocene, Jurassic, water treatment plants), but clearly show the Jurassic karst influence later on. The Sr-87/Sr-86 Of the suspended particulate matter is more variable and more radiogenic than in the dissolved phase. Variations in concentration ratios and Sr isotope composition in particulates indicate the large and variable contribution of Miocene silicates with some carbonate. However, there is a need for another component with [Rb]/[Sr] higher than bedrocks, internal or external to the watershed, possibly due to differential erosion. Dissolved Ca and Mg fluxes during the flood were calculated at 0.26 ton and 0.029 ton/km(2), respectively. Even though the carbonate nature of the watershed restricts variability in Sr isotope composition in the dissolved load, we distinguish several endmembers: seawater(approximate to marine rain), Miocene marls, Jurassic limestones, water treatment plants (and possibly another attributable to fertilizers). Combined with major and trace element variational Sr isotope fluctuations indicate time-varying proportions of different water endmembers at the outflow and suggest a general dynamic model. Based on PCA (principal component analysis), a 3D representation allows to visualize the geochemical evolution of the Vene waters. In particular, Sr isotopes clearly indicate that the inflow of karstic waters during the flood was not continuous but occurred as a series of marked oscillations between flowing waters with chemical signature of Miocene lithologies and increasing flushes of deeper waters that interacted with Jurassic lithologies. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

A parsimonious model for simulating flow in a karst aquifer, 1997, Barrett Me, Charbeneau Rj,
This paper describes the hydrologic system associated with the Barton Springs portion of the Edwards aquifer and presents a lumped parameter model capable of reproducing general historical trends for measured water levels and spring discharge. Recharge to the aquifer was calculated based on flow loss studies of the creeks crossing the recharge zone and on estimates of the rate of diffuse infiltration of rainfall. Flow measurements on each creek above and below the recharge zone were used to develop a relationship between how above the recharge zone and the rate of recharge. The five-cell groundwater model, each cell corresponding to one of the watersheds of the five main creeks crossing the recharge zone, was developed to support the management objectives of the City of Austin. The model differs from previous models in that the aquifer properties within cells are allowed to vary vertically. Each cell was treated as a tank with an apparent area and the water level of a single well in each cell was used to characterize the conditions in that cell. The simple representation of the hydrologic system produced results comparable to traditional groundwater models with fewer data requirements and calibration parameters. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Numerical simulation as a tool for checking the interpretation of karst spring hydrographs, 1997, Eisenlohr L, Kiraly L, Bouzelboudjen M, Rossier Y,
A schematic representation of karst aquifers may be that of a high hydraulic conductivity channel network with kilometre-wide intervals, surrounded by a low hydraulic conductivity fractured limestone volume and connected to a local discharge area, the karst spring, The behaviour of the karst spring (hydrographs, chemical or isotopic composition, etc.) represents the global response of the karst aquifer to input events. The available data an karst aquifer hydraulic parameters are limited, Global response is therefore more easily obtained and is commonly used to make inferences on the recharge and groundwater How processes, as well as on the hydraulic parameter fields. Direct verification of these interpretations is, obviously, very difficult. We have used an indirect method of verification, consisting of introducing well-defined theoretical karst structures into a finite element model and then analysing the simulated global response according to presently accepted interpretation schemes. As we know what we put into the numerical model, the validity of any interpretation may be checked. The first results indicate that some of the generally accepted interpretations are not necessarily true. In particular: (i) separation of simulated recession hydrographs into several components shows that different exponential components do not necessarily correspond to aquifer volumes with different hydraulic conductivities: (ii) non-exponential parts of recession hydrographs do not always give information about the infiltration process: and (iii) the recession coefficient of the baseflow (i.e. the last, nearly exponential part of the recession hydrograph) depends on the global configuration of the whole karst aquifer, not just on the hydraulic properties of the low hydraulic conductivity volumes. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Parameter identification in double-continuum models applied to karst aquifers., 1997, Mohrlok U. , Kienie J. , Teutsch G.
One modelling approach which proved successful in describing the groundwater flow within karst terraines is based on the double-continuum concept. This concept was first introduced by Teutsch (1988) and subsequently used by Teutsch & Sauter (1991), Sauter (1992), Lang (1995), Mohrlok (1996) and others to describe the ambivalent characteristics of karst aquifers. However, the approach has the drawback that the double-continuum model parameters can be determined only through model calibration (inverse approach), i.e. so far the model parameters cannot be related directly to physical field measurements. Therefore, in order to develop a better understanding of the physical significance of hydraulic parameters within double-continuum systems, a detailed numerical modeling study was conducted. For this purpose a number of synthetic but realistic karst aquifer network geometries were generated and analysed. The response of the karst network to recharge events was simulated using a detailed discrete fracture flow model with the resulting head and spring flow variographs being subsequently assumed as field measurements. This 'measured' data was then used for the calibration of a double-continuum model and the resulting parameters were compared to the original karst network geometry data. This comparison was used to develop mathematical/physical relationships between the discrete karst network geometry representing reality and the double-continuum parameter representation of it.

Modelling groundwater flow in a karst terrane using discrete and double-continuum approaches - importance of spatial and temporal distribution of recharge., 1997, Mohrlok U. , Sauter M.
Groundwater flow had been modelled in the karst catchment area 'Gallusquelle' (Swabian Alb, SW-Germany) using two different types of modelling approaches. The discrete and the double-continuum model differ in their respective representation of the conduit network and the formulation of the exchange flux of groundwater between fissured system and conduits. In the case of the discrete ipproach this exchange is determined by local hydraulic properties adjacent to the conduits. The double-continuum approach represents this exchange using a 'steady state', lumped parameter. As a result of this fundamental difference between the two approaches, the temporal distribution as well as the percentual allocation of groundwater recharge to conduits and fissured system plays a major role in (the respective model calibration

Determining karst transmissivities with inverse modeling and an equivalent porous media, 1999, Larocque M. , Banton O. , Ackerer P. , Razack M. ,
Flow simulation is difficult to implement in heterogeneous media such as karst aquifers, primarily because the structure of the rock is extremely complex and usually unknown. The aim of this study was to verify the possibility of using inverse modeling and an equivalent porous media to identify transmissivities in a slightly karstified aquifer, the La Rochefoucauld karst (Charente, France), Different simulation scenarios were tested: using two spatial discretizations with different finite-element cell sizes and using measured or interpolated heads. The inverse modeling was performed with the downscaling parameterization procedure, using a finite-element representation of bidimensional ground water flow. The inverse modeling converged satisfactorily with all scenarios: head residuals were small and spring flow rates and the river/aquifer exchanges were adequately stimulated. The scenario using small cells and measured heads generated a highly heterogeneous transmissivity field, indicating an overparameterization of the problem. The calibrated transmissivities and simulated heads of this scenario proved less reliable overall than those of the other scenarios. The use of interpolated heads generated more uniform transmissivities as a result of the head smoothing. A rotation of the initial parameter mesh showed that the scenarios using interpolated heads generate the most stable and reliable results. The scenarios with interpolated heads could therefore be used when head measurements are limited or are unevenly distributed over the aquifer. Overall, the calibrated transmissivities reproduced the entire range of transmissivities measured in the field using different methods. The results indicate that inverse modeling and an equivalent porous media can be used to determine transmissivities in a moderately karstified aquifer

Transient-state history matching of a karst aquifer ground water flow model, 2000, Larocque M. , Banton O. , Razack M. ,
Ground water flow modeling in a karst aquifer presents many difficulties. In particular, the hydrodynamic properties and the now behavior can vary over time. History matching of transient-state conditions is required to test the accuracy of the model under varying hydrodynamic conditions. The objective of this study was to illustrate how transient-state conditions can be used to history match a ground water flow model of a large aquifer, the La Rochefoucauld karst (Charente, France). The model used a porous medium equivalent and was based on a steady-state calibration of hydraulic conductivities. The history match consisted of studying the simulated heads and spring flow rates to test the capacity of the model to reproduce different aspects of the aquifer behavior, The simulated heads and flow rates were analyzed as new data using correlation and spectral analyses to compare the temporal structures of the measured and simulated time series. The analyses provided information on the storage capacity of the aquifer, the input-output delays, the degree of correlation between input and output, and the length of the impulse response of the aquifer, These data were used to study the impact of the hypotheses underlying the model (hydraulic conductivities, storage coefficient, representation of rivers, use of a porous medium equivalent). The results show that the model adequately simulates the overall behavior of the studied aquifer, The model can be used under variable hydrodynamic conditions to simulate ground water flow on a regional scale. This case study illustrates how a complete history match of a simplified representation of reality can lead to an adequate mathematical tool

Introduction of wavelet analyses to rainfall/runoffs relationship for a karstic basin: The case of Licq-Atherey karstic system (France), 2001, Labat D. , Ababou R. , Mangin A. ,
Karstic systems are highly heterogeneous geological formations characterized by a multiscale temporal and spatial hydrologic behavior with more or less localized temporal and spatial structures. Classical correlation and spectral analyses cannot take into account these properties. Therefore, it is proposed to introduce a new kind of transformation: the wavelet transform. Here we focus particularly on the use of wavelets to study temporal behavior of local precipitation and watershed runoffs from a part of the karstic system. In the first part of the paper, a brief mathematical overview of the continuous Morlet wavelet transform and of the multiresolution analysis is presented. An analogy with spectral analyses allows the introduction of concepts such as wavelet spectrum and cross-spectrum. In the second part, classical methods (spectral and correlation analyses) and wavelet transforms are applied and compared for daily rainfall rates and runoffs measured on a French karstic watershed (Pyrenees) over a period of 30 years. Different characteristic time scales of the rainfall and runoff processes are determined, These time scales are typically on the order of a few days for floods, but they also include significant half-year and one-year components and multi-annual components. The multiresolution cross-analysis also provides a new interpretation of the impulse response of the system. To conclude, wavelet transforms provide a valuable amount of information, which may be now taken into account in both temporal and spatially distributed karst modeling of precipitation and runoff

Meaning and representation of boundaries in karst type maps, 2001, Angsü, Sser Stephan

The paper deals with boundaries in general and specifically with boundaries in large scale karst type maps. On the basis of a differentiation into dependent and independent variables a methodological attempt is presented, allowing to integrate information about the boundary type and the boundary accuracy. This additional information should help karst researchers answering genetic questions.


Identification de formes karstiques de surface sur une reprsentation cartographique du Gran Sasso dItalia du XVIe sicle (Abruzzes, Italie centrale), 2002, Burri, Ezio
Identification of surface karst features on a XVIth century Gran Sasso dItalia map (Abruzzes, Central Italy) - In August 1573, Francesco De Marchi climbed for the first time the Corno Grande, the highest Gran Sasso peak, which is the highest limestone massif of the Apennins. From this exploration, he let a detailed description that was published after his death in 1599. A map, where some karst features are clearly mentioned and particularly some small karst lakes illustrated this description. Some other karst features, such as the large Campo Imperatore polje are described. In the same time of this climb he also explored Grotta a Male, one of the main caves of the area and gave a scientific description of it.

The vegetation of the high mountains of Crete - a revision and multivariate analysis, 2002, Bergmeier E,
The vegetation at elevations above 1,400 m in the south Aegean island of Crete (Greece) is studied and revised. By means of phytosociological classification (assisted by TWINSPAN) and ordination (Detrended correspondence analysis, DCA), the plant communities and abiotic (environmental, geographical) factors governing the variance in vegetation are described and discussed. The analyses are based on 492 sample plots from the three major mountain ranges of Crete. All published data available, as well as own unpublished releves are included. Since the plots differ much with respect to species number and plot size, and to combine different subsets and different data properties, various data sets are used for DCA ordination. Data on environmental variables are used supplementarily. Ordination results suggest the following factors to be of major effect on the variance in vegetation: Rock type, soil type, altitude, geographical situation, degree of substrate fixation, and inclination. The representation of local and regional endemics in the vegetation increases with altitude and along the habitat type series: phrygana and woodland - fixed slopes - dolines - screes. A synoptic table of 26 columns (vegetation types and subtypes) is presented. The vegetation consists of the tragacanth formation of fixed slopes (8 columns), swards and scrub of doline grounds (9), scree vegetation (4), and rupicolous chasmophytic vegetation (2). Phrygana (2) and woodland vegetation (1) are marginal. A hierarchical conspectus of the syntaxa is provided which includes the following nomenclaturally relevant new or validated names of various ranks (in alphabetic order): Alysso sphaciotici-Valantion apricae, Arenario fragillimae-Silenetum antri-jovis, Arenarion creticae, Astragalion cretici, Berberido creticae-Astragaletum cretici, Cicero incisi-Silenetum variegatae, Colchico cretensis-Cirsion morinifolii, Fumano paphlagonicae-Helianthemetum hymettii, Gypsophilo nanae-Arenarietum creticae, Hyperico kelleri-Anchusetum cespitosae, Lomelosio sphacioticae-Centranthetum sieberi, Paronychio macrosepalae-Juniperetum oxycedri, Saturejo spinosae-Scutella-rietalia hirtae, Sideritido syriacae-Verbascetum spinosi, Verbascion spinosi

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